Publications by authors named "C Arianne Buchan"

40 Publications

Metal-on-Metal Disease in High-Motion Wrist Arthroplasty.

Hand (N Y) 2021 Jun 6:15589447211003178. Epub 2021 Jun 6.

Gold Coast University Hospital, Southport, QLD, Australia.

Metal-on-metal disease (MOMD) is a rare condition following arthroplasty and has predominantly been reported following hip and knee replacement. Isolated case reports exist with respect to MOMD following total wrist arthroplasty-however, the literature remains limited. Here, we present the history and radiographic and histopathologic features of such a case, and summarize the literature and provide management recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/15589447211003178DOI Listing
June 2021

Physical-mental multimorbidity in children and youth: a scoping review.

BMJ Open 2021 05 20;11(5):e043124. Epub 2021 May 20.

School of Public Health and Health Systems, University of Waterloo, Waterloo, Ontario, Canada

Objective: Efforts to describe the current state of research are needed to advance the field of physical-mental multimorbidity (ie, the co-occurrence of at least one physical illness and at least one mental disorder) among children and youth. Our objective was to systematically explore the breadth of physical-mental multimorbidity research in children and youth and to provide an overview of existing literature topics.

Design: Scoping review.

Methods: We conducted a systematic search of four key databases: PubMed, EMBASE, PsycINFO and Scopus as well as a thorough scan of relevant grey literature. We included studies of any research design, published in English, referring to physical-mental multimorbidity among children and youth aged ≤18 years. Studies were screened for eligibility and data were extracted, charted and summarised narratively by research focus. Critical appraisal was employed using the modified Quality Index (QI).

Results: We included 431 studies and 2 sources of grey literature. Existing research emphasises the co-occurrence of anxiety, mood and attention disorders among children with epilepsy, asthma and allergy. Evidence consists of mostly small, observational studies that use cross-sectional data. The average QI score across applicable studies was 9.1 (SD=1.8).

Conclusions: There is a pressing need for more robust research within the field of child physical-mental multimorbidity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjopen-2020-043124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8141428PMC
May 2021

Early Warning of Infection in Patients Undergoing Hematopoietic Stem Cell Transplantation Using Heart Rate Variability and Serum Biomarkers.

Transplant Cell Ther 2021 May 5. Epub 2021 May 5.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Ottawa, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Ottawa Hospital Research Institute, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada; Departments of Critical Care Medicine and Surgery, The Ottawa Hospital, Ottawa, Ontario, Canada.

Early warning of infection is critical to reduce the risk of deterioration and mortality, especially in neutropenic patients following hematopoietic stem cell transplantation (HCT). Given that heart rate variability (HRV) is a sensitive and early marker for infection, and that serum inflammatory biomarkers can have high specificity for infection, we hypothesized their combination may be useful for accurate early warning of infection. In this study, we developed and evaluated a composite predictive model using continuous HRV with daily serum biomarker measurements to provide risk stratification of future deterioration in HCT recipients. A total of 116 ambulatory outpatients about to undergo HCT consented to collection of prospective demographic, clinical (daily vital signs), HRV (continuous electrocardiography [ECG] monitoring, laboratory [daily serum samples frozen at -80 °C]), and infection outcome variables (defined as the time of escalation of antibiotics), all from 24 hours pre-HCT to the onset of infection or 14 days post-HCT. Indications for antibiotic escalation were adjudicated as "true infection" or not by 2 blinded HCT clinicians. A composite time series of 8 HRV metrics was created for each patient, and the probability of deterioration within the next 72 hours was estimated using logistic regression modeling of composite HRV and serum biomarkers using a rule-based naïve Bayes model if the HRV-based probability exceeded a median threshold. Thirty-five patients (30%) withdrew within <24 hours owing to intolerability of ECG monitoring, leaving 81 patients, of whom 48 (59%) had antibiotic escalation adjudicated as true infection. The combined HRV and biomarker (TNF-α, IL-6, and IL-7) predictive model began increasing at ∼48 hours on average before the diagnosis of infection, could distinguish between high risk of impending infection (>90% incidence of subsequent infection within 72 hours), average risk (∼50%), and low risk (<10%), with an area under the receiver operating characteristic curve of 0.87. However, given that prophylactic predictive ECG monitoring and daily serum collection proved challenging for many patients, further refinement in measurement is necessary for further study.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtct.2021.04.023DOI Listing
May 2021

Carryover effects of long-distance avian migration are weaker than effects of breeding environment in a partially migratory bird.

Sci Rep 2021 Jan 13;11(1):935. Epub 2021 Jan 13.

School of Environmental Sciences, University of East Anglia, Norwich, Norfolk, UK.

Migration may expose individuals to a wide range of increasing anthropogenic threats. In addition to direct mortality effects, this exposure may influence post-migratory reproductive fitness. Partial migration-where a population comprises migrants and residents-represents a powerful opportunity to explore carryover effects of migration. Studies of partial migration in birds typically examine short-distance systems; here we studied an unusual system where residents breed in mixed colonies alongside long-distance trans-Saharan migrants (lesser kestrels (Falco naumanni) in Spain). Combining geolocator data, stable isotope analysis and resighting data, we examined the effects of this stark difference in migratory strategy on body condition, breeding phenology and breeding success. We monitored four colonies in two regions of southern Spain for five consecutive years (2014-2018), yielding 1962 captures, determining migratory strategy for 141 adult bird-years. Despite a 3000-km difference in distance travelled, we find no effect of strategy on breeding parameters. We find weak evidence for a short-term negative carryover effect of migration on body condition, but this was only apparent in the breeding region with lower primary productivity. Our results indicate that carryover effects of even highly divergent migratory strategies may be minimal relative to effects of conditions experienced on breeding grounds.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-80341-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7807013PMC
January 2021

Does prehabilitation modify muscle mass in patients with rectal cancer undergoing neoadjuvant therapy? A subanalysis from the REx randomised controlled trial.

Tech Coloproctol 2020 09 20;24(9):959-964. Epub 2020 Jun 20.

Institute of Sport, Physical Education and Health Sciences, Moray House School of Education, Edinburgh, UK.

Background: Patients with rectal cancer who present with sarcopenia (low muscle mass) are at significantly greater risk of postoperative complications and reduction in disease-free survival. We performed a subanalysis of a randomised controlled study [the REx trial; www.isrctn.com ; 62859294] to assess the potential of prehabilitation to modify muscle mass in patients having neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (NACRT).

Methods: Patients scheduled for NACRT, then potentially curative surgery (August 2014-March 2016) had baseline physical assessment and psoas muscle mass measurement (total psoas index using computed tomography-based measurements). Participants were randomised to either the intervention (13-17-week telephone-guided graduated walking programme) or control group (standard care). Follow-up testing was performed 1-2 weeks before surgery.

Results: The 44 patients had a mean age of 66.8 years (SD 9.6) and were male (64%); white (98%); American Society of Anesthesiologists class 2 (66%); co-morbid (58%); overweight (72%) (body mass index ≥ 25 kg/m). At baseline, 14% were sarcopenic. At follow-up, 13 (65%) of patients in the prehabilitation group had increased muscle mass versus 7 (35%) that experienced a decrease. Conversely, 16 (67%) controls experienced a decrease in muscle mass and 8 (33%) showed an increase. An adjusted linear regression model estimated a mean treatment difference in Total Psoas Index of 40.2mm/m (95% CI - 3.4 to 83.7) between groups in change from baseline (p = 0.07).

Conclusions: Prehabilitation improved muscle mass in patients with rectal cancer who had NACRT. These results need to be explored in a larger trial to determine if the poorer short- and long-term patient outcomes associated with low muscle mass can be minimised by prehabilitation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10151-020-02262-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7429543PMC
September 2020