Publications by authors named "C Alvarez-Escola"

85 Publications

Late Recovery of Parathyroid Function after Total Thyroidectomy: A Case-Control Study.

Horm Metab Res 2021 Sep 13. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Endocrinology, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

The clinical characteristics of patients with postoperative hypoparathyroidism who recover parathyroid function more than 12 months after surgery have not been studied. We aimed to evaluate whether the intensity of replacement therapy with calcium and calcitriol is related to the late recovery of parathyroid function. We compared the demographic, surgical, pathological, and analytical features of two groups of patients: cases, i. e., late recovery patients (those who recover parathyroid function>1 year after thyroidectomy, n=40), and controls, i. e., patients with permanent hypoparathyroidism (n=260). Replacement therapy with calcium and calcitriol was evaluated at discharge of surgery, 3-6 months, 12 months, and last visit. No significant differences were found in clinical, surgical, pathological, or analytical characteristics between cases and controls. The proportion of cases who required treatment with calcium plus calcitriol at 12 months was significantly lower than that found in controls (p<0.001). Furthermore, daily calcium and calcitriol doses in controls were significantly higher than those in cases at 3-6 months (p=0.014 and p=0.004, respectively) and at 12 months (p<0.001 and p=0.043, respectively). In several models of logistic regression analysis therapy with calcium and calcitriol at 12 months was negatively related to late recovery of parathyroid function. Although delayed recuperation of parathyroid function after total thyroidectomy is uncommon (13%), follow-up beyond 12 months is necessary in patients with postoperative hypoparathyroidism, especially in those whose needs of treatment with Ca and calcitriol are reducing over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1608-1373DOI Listing
September 2021

An Unusual Case of Hypopituitarism as an Adverse Effect of Vandetanib and Remission of Breast Metastases in a Patient with Medullary Thyroid Cancer.

Oncol Res Treat 2021 Aug 18:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 18.

Department of Endocrinology and Nutrition, La Paz University Hospital, Madrid, Spain.

Introduction: Tyrosine kinase inhibitors have been a breakthrough in the treatment of advanced medullary thyroid cancer (MTC), and they can prolong progression-free survival (PFS).

Case Presentation: A patient with MTC and metastatic spread to the lymph nodes, lungs, bones, breast, and cerebellum started treatment with vandetanib. During treatment, she developed secondary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism. After 9 years of vandetanib therapy, the disease has not progressed and the patient maintains a complete response of the breast metastases and a partial response of the other metastatic lesions.

Conclusion: To our knowledge, this is the first reported case of secondary adrenal insufficiency and hypogonadotropic hypogonadism related to therapy with vandetanib. Moreover, the prolonged PFS and the complete disappearance of some of the metastatic lesions in this patient are truly unusual.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000518673DOI Listing
August 2021

Risk factors for intraoperative complications in pheochromocytomas.

Endocr Relat Cancer 2021 Sep 8;28(11):695-703. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Department of Urology, IRYCIS, Hospital Universitario Ramón y Cajal, Madrid, Spain.

We aimed to identify presurgical and surgical risk factors for intraoperative complications in patients with pheochromocytomas. A retrospective study of patients with pheochromocytomas who underwent surgery in ten Spanish hospitals between 2011 and 2021 was performed. One hundred and sixty-two surgeries performed in 159 patients were included. The mean age was 51.6 ± 16.4 years old and 52.8% were women. Median tumour size was 40 mm (range 10-110). Laparoscopic adrenalectomy was performed in 148 patients and open adrenalectomy in 14 patients. Presurgical alpha- and beta-blockade was performed in 95.1% and 51.9% of the surgeries, respectively. 33.3% of the patients (n = 54) had one or more intraoperative complications. The most common complication was the hypertensive crisis in 21.0%, followed by prolonged hypotension in 20.0%, and hemodynamic instability in 10.5%. Patients pre-treated with doxazosin required intraoperative hypotensive treatment more commonly than patients pre-treated with other antihypertensive drugs (51.1% vs 26.5%, P = 0.002). Intraoperative complications were more common in patients with higher levels of urine metanephrine (OR = 1.01 for each 100 μg/24 h, P = 0.026) and normetanephrine (OR = 1.00 for each 100 μg/24 h, P = 0.025), larger tumours (OR = 1.4 for each 10 mm, P < 0.001), presurgical blood pressure > 130/80 mmHg (OR = 2.25, P = 0.027), pre-treated with doxazosin (OR = 2.20, P = 0.023) and who had not received perioperative hydrocortisone (OR = 3.95, P = 0.008). In conclusion, intraoperative complications in pheochromocytoma surgery are common and can be potentially life-threatening. Higher metanephrine and normetanephrine levels, larger tumour size, insufficient blood pressure control before surgery, pre-treatment with doxazosin, and the lack of treatment with perioperative hydrocortisone are associated with higher risk of intraoperative complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/ERC-21-0230DOI Listing
September 2021

Surgical outcomes in the pheochromocytoma surgery. Results from the PHEO-RISK STUDY.

Endocrine 2021 Aug 9. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Department of Endocrinology & Nutrition, Hospital Universitario de Albacete, Albacete, Spain.

Purpose: To identify presurgical and surgical risk factors for postsurgical complications in the pheochromocytoma surgery.

Methods: A retrospective study of pheochromocytomas submitted to surgery in ten Spanish hospitals between 2011 and 2021. Postoperative complications were classified according to Clavien-Dindo scale.

Results: One hundred and sixty-two surgeries (159 patients) were included. Preoperative antihypertensive blockade was performed in 95.1% of the patients, being doxazosin in monotherapy (43.8%) the most frequent regimen. Patients pre-treated with doxazosin required intraoperative hypotensive treatment more frequently (49.4% vs 25.0%, P = 0.003) than patients treated with phenoxybenzamine, but no differences in the rate of intraoperative and postsurgical complications were observed. However, patients treated with phenoxybenzamine had a longer hospital stay (12.2 ± 11.16 vs 6.2 ± 6.82, P < 0.001) than those treated with doxazosin. Hypertension resolution was observed in 78.7% and biochemical cure in 96.6% of the patients. Thirty-one patients (19.1%) had postsurgical complications. Prolonged hypotension was the most common, in 9.9% (n = 16), followed by hypoglycaemia in six patients and acute renal failure in four patients. 13.0% of complications had a score ≥3 in the Clavien-Dindo scale. Postsurgical complications were more common in patients with diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, higher plasma glucose levels, higher urinary free metanephrine and norepinephrine, and with pheochromocytomas larger than 5 cm.

Conclusion: Preoperative medical treatment and postsurgical monitoring of pheochromocytoma should be especially careful in patients with diabetes, cerebrovascular disease, higher levels of plasma glucose and urine free metanephrine and norepinephrine, and with pheochromocytomas >5 cm, due to the higher risk of postsurgical complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12020-021-02843-6DOI Listing
August 2021

Multidisciplinary practice guidelines for the diagnosis, genetic counseling and treatment of pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas.

Clin Transl Oncol 2021 Oct 6;23(10):1995-2019. Epub 2021 May 6.

Endocrinology and Nutrition Department, Hospital Clinic Barcelona, University of Barcelona, IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Pheochromocytomas and paragangliomas (PPGLs) are rare neuroendocrine tumors that arise from chromaffin cells of the adrenal medulla and the sympathetic/parasympathetic neural ganglia, respectively. The heterogeneity in its etiology makes PPGL diagnosis and treatment very complex. The aim of this article was to provide practical clinical guidelines for the diagnosis and treatment of PPGLs from a multidisciplinary perspective, with the involvement of the Spanish Societies of Endocrinology and Nutrition (SEEN), Medical Oncology (SEOM), Medical Radiology (SERAM), Nuclear Medicine and Molecular Imaging (SEMNIM), Otorhinolaryngology (SEORL), Pathology (SEAP), Radiation Oncology (SEOR), Surgery (AEC) and the Spanish National Cancer Research Center (CNIO). We will review the following topics: epidemiology; anatomy, pathology and molecular pathways; clinical presentation; hereditary predisposition syndromes and genetic counseling and testing; diagnostic procedures, including biochemical testing and imaging studies; treatment including catecholamine blockade, surgery, radiotherapy and radiometabolic therapy, systemic therapy, local ablative therapy and supportive care. Finally, we will provide follow-up recommendations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12094-021-02622-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8390422PMC
October 2021
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