Publications by authors named "Byung Jo Chae"

23 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Hot-melt extruded copper sulfate affects the growth performance, meat quality, and copper bioavailability of broiler chickens.

Anim Biosci 2021 Jun 24. Epub 2021 Jun 24.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to evaluate the effects of the supplementation of diets of broiler chickens with hot-melt extruded CuSO4 (HME-Cu) on their growth performance, nutrient digestibility, gut microbiota, small intestinal morphology, meat quality, and copper (Cu) bioavailability.

Methods: A total of 225 broilers (Ross 308), one-day old and initial weight 39.14 g, were weighed and distributed between 15 cages (15 birds per cage) in a completely randomized experimental design with 3 treatments (diets) and 5 replicates per treatment. Cages were allotted to three treatments including control (without supplemental Cu), IN-Cu (16 mg/kg of CuSO4), and HME-Cu (16 mg/kg of HME processed CuSO4).

Results: The HME-Cu treatment tended to increase the overall body weight gain (BWG) (p<0.10). The apparent digestibility of Cu was increased by supplementation of HME-Cu at phase 2 (p<0.05). The Escherichia coli (E. coli) count in cecum tended to decrease with the supplementation with Cu (p<0.10). In addition, the HME-Cu treatment had a higher pH of breast meat than the control and IN-Cu treatments (p<0.05). Significant increases in the cooking loss (CL), water-holding capacity (WHC), and lightness in the breast were observed in the HME-Cu treatment compared to the control (p<0.05). The Cu content of excreta increased with the Cu supplementation (p<0.05). The concentration of excreta Cu in broilers was decreased in the HME-Cu compared to the IN-Cu in phase 2 (p<0.05). The Cu concentration in the liver was increased with the HME-Cu supplementation, compared with the control diets (p<0.05).

Conclusion: This study showed that HME-Cu supplementation at the requirement level (16 mg/kg diets) in broiler diets did not affect the growth performance and the physiological function of Cu in broilers. However, supplementation of Cu in HME form improved the meat quality and the bioavailability of Cu.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ab.21.0030DOI Listing
June 2021

Effects of Lactobacillus salivarius isolated from feces of fast-growing pigs on intestinal microbiota and morphology of suckling piglets.

Sci Rep 2021 03 24;11(1):6757. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Department of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Science, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 24341, Republic of Korea.

The study determined the effects of Lactobacillus salivarius (LS) administered early in the life of suckling piglets on their growth performance, gut morphology, and gut microbiota. Thirty litters of 3-day-old crossbreed piglets were randomly assigned to one of the three treatments, and treatments were commenced on day 3 after birth. During the whole period of the experiment, the piglets were kept with their mothers and left to suckle ad libitum while being supplemented with a milk formula with or without the bacterial probiotic supplemented. The control group (CON) was not treated with probiotics, the HLS group was treated with LS144 (HLS) screened from feces of fast-growing pigs with high body mass index (BMI) while the NLS group was supplemented with LS160 (NLS) screened from feces obtained from pigs of normal BMI. At the weaning time, a higher abundance of Actinobacteria, Lentisphaerae, and Elusimicrobia phyla were observed in NLS piglets, whereas the abundance of Fibrobacteres phylum was significantly reduced in NLS and HLS piglets compared with the CON. A greater abundance of Lactobacillus was detected in the HLS treatment compared with the CON. The abundance of Bacteroides and Fibrobacter was higher in the CON piglets compared with the HLS and NLS piglets. Compared with the CON group, the oral administration of LS significantly increased the number of Lactobacillus and villus height in the duodenum, jejunum, and ileum. Moreover, the villus height of the duodenum was significantly improved in the HLS treatment compared with the NLS treatment. Based on the findings in the neonatal piglet model, we suggest that oral supplementation of LS, particularly LS isolated from high BMI pigs, could be beneficial by improving the intestinal villus height.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-85630-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7990948PMC
March 2021

Effects of free feeding time system and energy level to improve the reproductive performance of lactating sows during summer.

J Anim Sci Technol 2020 May 31;62(3):356-364. Epub 2020 May 31.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

The reproductive performance of lactating sows was investigated by using different feeding methods including conventional feeding (CF, 3 times/d) or free feeding (FF), and different dietary energy level including low energy (LE: 3,300) or high energy (HE: 3,400 kcal/kg) during the hot season. A total of twenty-eight crossbred (Yorkshire × Landrace) sows were distributed into four treatments as a 2 × 2 factorial arrangement. Sows in the FF group showed lower body weight and backfat loss ( < 0.05) compared with the CF group. Backfat loss during lactation was lower ( < 0.05) in sows fed HE diet than in that fed LE diet. There were no significant differences in litter survival rate and weaning to estrus interval, but the litter weight at weaning was improved ( < 0.05) in FF and HE sows. Hence, it is concluded that using the free-feeding system or increased dietary energy density leads to improved sow performance during hot ambient temperature.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5187/jast.2020.62.3.356DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7288228PMC
May 2020

Hot melt extruded-based nano zinc as an alternative to the pharmacological dose of ZnO in weanling piglets.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2020 Jun 21;33(6):992-1001. Epub 2019 Oct 21.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: This study was conducted to investigate the effects of hot-melt extruded ZnO nano-particles (HME-ZnO) as an alternative for P-ZnO on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, Zn bioavailability, intestinal microbiota, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

Methods: A total of 450 piglets (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc) were randomly allotted to five treatments based on initial body weight and sex. The experimental diets were fed in a meal form as phase 1 from d 0 to 14 and phase 2 from d 15 to 28. Treatments were the control diet without ZnO supplementation, the diet containing 2,500 ppm Zn as ZnO, and three diets containing 500, 1,000, or 2,500 ppm Zn as HME-ZnO.

Results: The overall result showed a higher (p<0.01) average daily gain in weanling pigs fed ZnO-supplemented diets in comparison to the control diet. There was a decrease (p<0.01) in fecal score in the ZnO-supplemented diets. Dietary supplementation of ZnO improved (p<0.05) crude protein digestibility. The weanling pigs fed the P-ZnO diet had a lower (p<0.01) Zn digestibility in the feces than HME-ZnO supplemented treatments. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO had greater (p<0.05) Lactobacillus spp. populations and lower Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) populations in the ileum. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with increasing concentrations of HME-ZnO linearly decreased Clostridium spp. (p<0.05) and Coliforms (p<0.01) in the ileum. Lower (p<0.05) Clostridium spp. and Coliforms counts in the colon were observed in pigs fed with ZnO-supplemented diets. Weanling pigs fed diets supplemented with ZnO showed a greater (p<0.01) villus height in the duodenum.

Conclusion: Dietary supplementation of HME-ZnO and P-ZnO showed a potential to improve the digestibility of protein, intestinal Coliform and Clostridium, villus height in duodenum and ileum. Moreover, HME-ZnO showed a higher Zn digestibility compared with P-ZnO.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.19.0140DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206387PMC
June 2020

Comparative standardized ileal amino acid digestibility and metabolizable energy contents of main feed ingredients for growing pigs when adding dietary β-mannanase.

Anim Nutr 2019 Dec 29;5(4):359-365. Epub 2019 Jul 29.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, South Korea.

The present study was conducted to test whether the dietary supplementation of β-mannanase affects amino acids (AA) digestibility, metabolizable energy (ME) contents of corn, wheat, soybean meal, distillers dried grains with solubles, and palm kernel meal (PKM), nutrient digestibility, and growth performance of pigs. In Exp. 1, 22 cannulated pigs were used for 10 dietary treatments including 5 feed ingredients and 2 β-mannanase concentrations (0 and 0.5 g/kg of the diet) in 6 periods in an incomplete Latin square design to determine the AA and energy digestibility. In Exp. 2, 200 growing pigs were randomly allotted to 4 treatments with 2 nutrient levels (high and low) and 2 concentrations of β-mannanase (2 × 2 factorial arrangement) in 2 phases (phase 1, d 0 to 21; and phase 2, d 22 to 42). In Exp. 1, β-mannanase increased the mean standardized ileal digestibility (SID) of AA in all feed ingredients. The amount of digestible energy was increased ( < 0.05) in β-mannanase-treated PKM. Pigs fed β-mannanase showed a greater ( < 0.05) digestibility of gross energy (GE). The feed-to-gain (F:G) ratio was improved ( < 0.01) in pigs fed high-nutrient diets. Pigs fed β-mannanase in the diets had greater ( < 0.05) average daily gain and F:G. In phase 2, the concentration of fecal ammonia was decreased ( < 0.05) in pigs fed β-mannanase. Considering the 2 experiments, it can be concluded that β-mannanase increases the SID of AA, which has to be considered in balancing the rations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aninu.2019.07.001DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6920393PMC
December 2019

Evaluation of high nutrient diets and additional dextrose on reproductive performance and litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows.

Anim Sci J 2019 Sep 7;90(9):1212-1219. Epub 2019 Jul 7.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University 24341, Chuncheon, Republic of Korea.

This study investigated the litter performance of lactating sows fed nutrient-dense diets with or without dextrose at farrowing to weaning, during the summer with an average room temperature of 28.4°C. A total of 60 (13 first parity, 13 second parity, 19 third parity, and 15 forth parity) cross-bred sows were assigned to three treatments. The three treatments were: standard diet (ST), high nutrient diet (HN; ST + 3% higher energy and 18.0% protein), and high nutrient diet plus dextrose (HND; 3% higher energy, 18.0% protein, and 5% dextrose). BW loss was reduced in the HND sows compared with the ST sows during lactation. The HN and HND sows had a higher piglet and litter weight at weaning. Also, the HND sows had the highest post-prandial insulin levels at weaning and the shortest weaning-to-service interval (WSI). Serum LH was higher in the HND sows than the ST sows. The milk fat level was higher in the HND sows compared with the ST sows, but similar to the HN sows. In conclusion, these results suggest that it is possible to increase the blood insulin response by supplementing dextrose to a high nutrient diet, thus, improving WSI interval and litter growth during heat stress.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/asj.13214DOI Listing
September 2019

Development of iron(II) sulfate nanoparticles produced by hot-melt extrusion and their therapeutic potentials for colon cancer.

Int J Pharm 2019 Mar 18;558:388-395. Epub 2019 Jan 18.

College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Particle size reduction of FeSO (iron(II) sulfate, IS) from micron to nano size was achieved by a combination of hot-melt extrusion (HME) processing and the input of Span 80, Tween 80, and poly(ethylene glycol) (PEG) 6000. Conveying, kneading, and extruding steps of the HME process and a decrease in the surface tension by surfactants were introduced to produce FeSO nanoparticles (NPs) in an aqueous environment. The FeSO-based NPs (ISNPs) in the dispersion were composed of FeSO, Span 80, Tween 80, and PEG 6000 and displayed a hydrodynamic size of 350-400 nm (5-50 mg/mL ISNPs concentration range) and a spherical shape. Considering the feeding ratio of FeSO (20%, w/w) used for preparing the ISNPs, FeSO appears to be wrapped by Span 80, Tween 80, and PEG 6000 according to the results of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) analysis. ISNPs exhibited different thermodynamic properties from those of FeSO itself. In colon adenocarcinoma (Caco-2) cells, the ISNPs group exhibited enhanced antiproliferation and apoptosis potentials compared to the FeSO group (p < 0.05). Histological staining data of a dissected intestine after oral administration of ISNPs suggest the absence of severe intestinal toxicities compared to the control (no treatment) group. All of these results imply the feasibility of the use of the developed ISNPs for the treatment of colon cancers with oral administration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.01.018DOI Listing
March 2019

Preparation of cupric sulfate-based self-emulsifiable nanocomposites and their application to the photothermal therapy of colon adenocarcinoma.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2018 09 7;503(4):2471-2477. Epub 2018 Jul 7.

College of Pharmacy, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, Gangwon, 24341, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

Nanocomposites (NCs) of cupric sulfate monohydrate (CuSO) were fabricated by hot-melt extrusion (HME) system equipped with twin screws. Micron-sized bulk powder of CuSO was dispersed in the mixture of surfactants (Span 80 and Tween 80) and hydrophilic polymer (polyethylene glycol (PEG) 6000) by HME process. Reduction of surface tension by surfactants and homogeneous dispersion in hydrophilic polymer along with HME technique were introduced to prepare CuSO NCs. Dispersion of CuSO NCs exhibited approximately 204 nm hydrodynamic size, unimodal size distribution, and positive zeta potential values. Encapsulation of CuSO in CuSO NCs and the physicochemical interactions between CuSO and pharmaceutical excipients were investigated by solid-state studies. Of note, CuSO NCs group exhibited higher antiproliferation efficacies, compared with bulk CuSO, in Caco-2 (human adenocarcinoma) cells at 75 and 100 μg/mL CuSO concentrations (p < 0.05). Also, near-infrared laser irradiation to CuSO NCs group elevated the antiproliferation efficacies, compared with non-irradiation group, in Caco-2 cells. After intravenous injection in mice, CuSO NCs did not show severe in vivo toxicities. Developed CuSO NCs can be one of promising candidates of photothermal therapeutic agents for colon cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2018.07.002DOI Listing
September 2018

Tracing of the fecal microbiota of commercial pigs at five growth stages from birth to shipment.

Sci Rep 2018 04 16;8(1):6012. Epub 2018 Apr 16.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology and Research Institute of Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

The intestinal microbiota affect various physiological traits of host animals such as brain development, obesity, age, and the immune system. In the swine industry, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and growth stage is essential because growth stage is directly related to the feeding system of pigs, thus we studied the intestinal microbiota of 32 healthy pigs across five sows at 10, 21, 63, 93, and 147 d of ages. The intestinal microbiota were altered with growth of pigs and were separated into three distinct clusters. The relative abundance of several phyla and genera were significantly different between growth stages. We observed co-occurrence pattern of the intestinal microbiota at each growth stage. In addition, we predicted the functions of the intestinal microbiota and confirmed that several KEGG pathways were significantly different between growth stages. We also explored the relationship between the intestinal microbiota and innate factors such as the maternal effect and gender. When pigs were young, innate factors affected on construction of intestinal microbiota, however this tendency was disappeared with growth. Our findings broaden the understanding of microbial ecology, and the results will be used as a reference for investigating host-microbe interactions in the swine industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-24508-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5902624PMC
April 2018

Prohibition of antibiotic growth promoters has affected the genomic profiles of Lactobacillus salivarius inhabiting the swine intestine.

PLoS One 2017 23;12(10):e0186671. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, the feeding environment, including the composition of animal intestinal microbiota, has changed rapidly. We hypothesized that the microbial genomes have also been affected by this legal prohibition, and investigated an important member of the swine gut microbiota, Lactobacillus salivarius, with a pan-genomic approach. Here, we isolated 21 L. salivarius strains composed of 6 strains isolated before the AGP prohibition (SBPs) and 15 strains isolated after the AGP prohibition (SAPs) at an interval of a decade, and the draft genomes were generated de novo. Several genomic differences between SBPs and SAPs were identified, although the number and function of antibiotic resistance genes were not different. SBPs showed larger genome size and a higher number of orthologs, as well as lower genetic diversity, than SAPs. SBPs had genes associated with the utilization of L-rhamnose and D-tagatose for energy production. Because these sugars are also used in exopolysaccharide (EPS) synthesis, we tried to identify differences in biofilm formation-associated genes. The genes for the production of EPSs and extracellular proteins were different in terms of amino acid sequences. Indeed, SAPs formed dense biofilm and survived better than SBPs in the swine intestinal environment. These results suggest that SAPs have evolved and adapted to protect themselves from new selection pressure of the swine intestinal microenvironment by forming dense biofilms, adopting a distinct antibiotic resistance strategy. This finding is particularly important to understand the evolutionary changes in host-microbe interaction and provide detailed insight for the development of effective probiotics for livestock.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0186671PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5653324PMC
November 2017

Evaluation of high nutrient diets on litter performance of heat-stressed lactating sows.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Nov 18;30(11):1598-1604. Epub 2017 Sep 18.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: The present study investigated the litter performance of multiparous sows fed 3% and 6% densified diets at farrowing to weaning during summer with mean maximum room temperature of 30.5°C.

Methods: A total of 60 crossbred multiparous sows were allotted to one of three treatments based on body weight according to a completely randomized design. Three different nutrient levels based on NRC were applied as standard diet (ST; metabolizable energy, 3,300 kcal/kg), high nutrient level 1 (HE1; ST+3% higher energy and 16.59% protein) and high nutrient level 2 (HE2; ST+6% higher energy and 17.04% protein).

Results: There was no variation in the body weight change. However, backfat thickness change tended to reduce in HE1 in comparison to ST treatment. Dietary treatments had no effects on feed intake, daily energy intake and weaning-to-estrus interval in lactating sows. Litter size, litter weight at weaning and average daily gain of piglets were significantly greater in sows in HE1 compared with ST, however, no difference was observed between HE2 and ST. Increasing the nutrient levels had no effects on the blood urea nitrogen, glucose, triglyceride, and creatinine at post-farrowing and weaning time. The concentration of follicle stimulating hormone, cortisol and insulin were not affected by dietary treatments either in post-farrowing or weaning time. The concentration of blood luteinizing hormone of sows in ST treatment was numerically less than sows in HE2 treatment at weaning. Milk and colostrum compositions such as protein, fat and lactose were not affected by the treatments.

Conclusion: An energy level of 3,400 kcal/kg (14.23 MJ/kg) with 166 g/kg crude protein is suggested as the optimal level of dietary nutrients for heat stressed lactating sows with significant beneficial effects on litter size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.17.0398DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5666195PMC
November 2017

Evaluating the association between body weight and the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets via 16S rRNA sequencing.

Appl Microbiol Biotechnol 2017 Jul 18;101(14):5903-5911. Epub 2017 May 18.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Due to the ban on the use of antimicrobial growth promoters in livestock feeds, understanding the relationship between intestinal microbiota and the physiology of the host has become very important for improving livestock performance. In this study, we investigated the relationship between intestinal microbiota and body weights of weaned piglets. Lighter (n = 9) and heavier (n = 9) 9-week-old weaned piglets were selected from approximately one hundred individuals based on their body weights. Their fecal microbial communities were analyzed by sequencing the V4 region of the 16S rRNA gene. The microbial richness estimators of the heavier piglets were significantly higher than those of the lighter piglets. At the phylum level, the microbiota of the heavier group had significantly higher levels of Firmicutes and a higher Firmicutes-to-Bacteroidetes ratio than that of the lighter group. At the genus level, the levels of several genera, such as Anaerococcus and Lactococcus, were significantly different in the two groups. In particular, the lighter group had significantly higher levels of opportunistic pathogenic bacteria, such as Anaerotruncus and Bacteroides, compared with those of the heavier group. Moreover, the levels of bacteria expressing the components of several metabolic pathways were significantly different in the two groups. The microbiota of the heavier group had a significantly higher involvement in three KEGG pathways concerned with xenobiotic degradation than that of the lighter group. These results may provide insights into host-microbe interactions occurring in the piglet intestine and will be useful in establishing a strategy for improving growth performance in the swine industry.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00253-017-8304-7DOI Listing
July 2017

Pan-Genomic Approaches in Lactobacillus reuteri as a Porcine Probiotic: Investigation of Host Adaptation and Antipathogenic Activity.

Microb Ecol 2017 Oct 24;74(3):709-721. Epub 2017 Apr 24.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

After the introduction of a ban on the use of antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) for livestock, reuterin-producing Lactobacillus reuteri is getting attention as an alternative to AGPs. In this study, we investigated genetic features of L. reuteri associated with host specificity and antipathogenic effect. We isolated 104 L. reuteri strains from porcine feces, and 16 strains, composed of eight strains exhibiting the higher antipathogenic effect (group HS) and eight strains exhibiting the lower effect (group LS), were selected for genomic comparison. We generated draft genomes of the 16 isolates and investigated their pan-genome together with the 26 National Center for Biotechnology Information-registered genomes. L. reuteri genomes organized six clades with multi-locus sequence analysis, and the clade IV includes the 16 isolates. First, we identified six L. reuteri clade IV-specific genes including three hypothetical protein-coding genes. The three annotated genes encode transposases and cell surface proteins, indicating that these genes are the result of adaptation to the host gastrointestinal epithelia and that these host-specific traits were acquired by horizontal gene transfer. We also identified differences between groups HS and LS in the pdu-cbi-cob-hem gene cluster, which is essential for reuterin and cobalamin synthesis, and six genes specific to group HS are revealed. While the strains of group HS possessed all genes of this cluster, LS strains have lost many genes of the cluster. This study provides a deeper understanding of the relationship between probiotic properties and genomic features of L. reuteri.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00248-017-0977-zDOI Listing
October 2017

WITHDRAWN: Evaluating the association between body weight and the intestinal microbiota of weaned piglets via 16S rRNA sequencing.

Vet Microbiol 2016 11 15;196:55-62. Epub 2016 Oct 15.

Department of Agricultural Biotechnology, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea; Research Institute for Agriculture and Life Science, Seoul National University, Seoul, Republic of Korea. Electronic address:

This article has been removed: please see Elsevier Policy on Article Withdrawal (http://www.elsevier.com/locate/withdrawalpolicy). The publisher regrets that an error occurred due to a technical issue which led to the premature publication of this paper. This error bears no reflection on the article or its authors. The publisher apologizes to the authors and the readers for this unfortunate error.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetmic.2016.10.020DOI Listing
November 2016

Effects of as fucoidan-rich algae on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, intestinal morphology and caecal microflora in weanling pigs.

Asian-Australas J Anim Sci 2017 Jan 22;30(1):64-70. Epub 2016 Apr 22.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 24341, Korea.

Objective: In the present study, role of increasing levels of (seaweed) supplementation in diets was investigated on growth performance, coefficient of total tract apparent digestibility (CTTAD) of nutrients, serum immunoglobulins, cecal microflora and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

Methods: A total of 200 weaned pigs (Landrace×Yorkshire×Duroc; initial body weight 7.08±0.15 kg) were randomly allotted to 4 treatments on the basis of body weight. There were 5 replicate pens in each treatment including 10 pigs of each. Treatments were divided by dietary supplementation levels (0%, 0.05%, 0.1%, or 0.15%) in growing-finishing diets. There were 2 diet formulation phases throughout the experiment. The pigs were offered the diets for the entire period of experiment in meal form.

Results: The pigs fed with increasing dietary concentrations of had linear increase (p<0.05) in the overall average daily gain, however, there were no significant differences in gain to feed ratio, CTTAD of dry matter and crude protein at both phase I and phase II. Digestibility of gross energy was linearly improved (p<0.05) in phase II. At day 28, pigs fed had greater (linear, p<0.05) spp., fewer () spp. (linear, p<0.05) and a tendency to have fewer cecal spp. (p = 0.077). The total anaerobic bacteria were not affected with supplementation of in diets. Polynomial contrasts analysis revealed that villus height of the ileum exhibited a linear increase (p<0.05) in response with the increase in the level of dietary . However, villus height of duodenum and jejunum, crypt depth, villus height to crypt depth ratio of different segments of the intestine were not affected.

Conclusion: The results suggest that had beneficial effects on the growth performance, cecal microflora, and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5713/ajas.16.0102DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5205593PMC
January 2017

Erratum to: Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance in growing pigs fed different level of canola meal.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 30;57:43. Epub 2015 Nov 30.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 200-701 Republic of Korea.

[This corrects the article DOI: 10.1186/s40781-015-0055-3.].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0075-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4665855PMC
December 2015

Comparative ileal amino acid digestibility and growth performance in growing pigs fed different level of canola meal.

J Anim Sci Technol 2015 3;57:21. Epub 2015 Jun 3.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 200-701 Republic of Korea.

The digestibility of different vegetable protein sources were investigated and the effects of supplementing canola meal (CM) as partial inclusions were studied in growing pigs, to determine the performance parameters and its economic importance. In Exp. 1, four pigs (average initial BW = 15.4 ± 0.35 kg, 5 weeks of age) fitted with simple T-cannula at terminal ileum, were fed four diets following repeated 4 × 4 Latin square design having adoption period of 7 days. Diet 1 was Nitrogen free diet containing corn starch. Diets 2, 3, and 4 were the basal diet supplemented with soybean meal (SBM), rapeseed meal (RSM), and domestic CM respectively. The AID of crude protein was decrease in RSM in comparison to SBM supplementation. The AID of Dietary indispensable amino acids (DIAA) such as Lys, Meth, Pha, and dispensable amino acid Ala, Pro, Asp were decreased (P < 0.05) in RSM supplemented diets. The SID of DIAA does not differ but the SID of Asp was higher (P < 0.05) in RSM and CM diets while SID of Pro was lower (P < 0.05) in RSM in comparison to SBM supplemented diets. In Exp. 2, 192 growing pigs (average initial BW 24.76 ± 2.55 kg) were randomly allotted to four dietary treatments with increasing levels of CM i.e. 0, 3.75, 7.50, and 11.25 % respectively. Diets were fed in meal form for 35 days. Increasing CM levels in diets had no effects (P > 0.05) on growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients and energy. Total weight gain, total feed intake, and feed cost per kg weight gain were not affected by increasing levels of CM in diets but total feed cost (TFC) per pigs was linearly reduced (26.463 to 25.674; P < 0.05). Broadly, the AID, and SID of amino acid was reduced in RSM but was not effected in CM in comparison to SBM supplemented pigs. Moreover, increasing levels of CM in pigs diet had no effect on the ATTD and performance but TFC per pig was reduced. Thus CM inclusion of up to 11.25 % in diets can be used for reducing the production cost in growing pigs without any negative effect.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40781-015-0055-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540272PMC
August 2015

Effects of citrus pulp, fish by-product and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on growth performance, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.

J Anim Sci Technol 2014 28;56:10. Epub 2014 Jul 28.

Department of Animal Resources Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, 200-701 South Korea.

An experiment was conducted to investigate the effects of dietary supplementation with citrus pulp, fish by-product, and Bacillus subtilis fermentation biomass on the growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility (ATTD) of nutrients, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs. A total of 180 weaned piglets (Landrace × Yorkshire × Duroc) were randomly allotted to three treatments on the basis of body weight (BW). There were six replicate pens in each treatment with 10 piglets per pen. Dietary treatments were corn-soybean meal-based basal diet supplemented with 0 (control), 2.5, and 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass. The isocaloric and isoproteineous experimental diets were fed in mash form in two phases (d 0 ~ 14, phase I and d 15 ~ 28, phase II). Dietary treatments had significant linear effects on gain to feed ratio (G:F) in all periods, whereas significant linear effects on ATTD of dry matter (DM), gross energy (GE), and ash were only observed in phase I. Piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) G:F (phase I, phase II, and overall) as well as ATTD of DM, GE, and ash (phase I) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments also had significant linear effects on total anaerobic bacteria populations by d 14 and 28. In addition, piglets fed diet supplemented with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product and B. subtilis fermentation biomass showed greater (p < 0.05) fecal total anaerobic bacteria populations (d 14 and 28) than pigs fed control diet. Dietary treatments had no significant effects (linear or quadratic) on average daily gain (ADG), average dial feed intake (ADFI; phase I, phase II, and overall), or fecal populations of Bifidobacterium spp., Clostridium spp., and coliforms (d 14 and 28). These results indicate that dietary supplementation with 5.0% citrus pulp, fish by-product, and B. subtilis fermentation biomass has the potential to improve the feed efficiency, nutrient digestibility, and fecal microflora of weanling pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/2055-0391-56-10DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4540257PMC
August 2015

Effects of dietary supplementation with antimicrobial peptide-P5 on growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility, faecal and intestinal microflora and intestinal morphology of weanling pigs.

J Sci Food Agric 2013 Feb 20;93(3):587-92. Epub 2012 Aug 20.

College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon, South Korea.

Background: The increase in drug-resistant bacteria and the ban on antibiotic growth promoters worldwide make the search for novel means of preventing bacterial infection and promoting growth performance imperative. In this sense, antimicrobial peptides are thought to be ideal candidates owing to their antimicrobial properties, broad spectrum of activity and low propensity for development of bacterial resistance. The aim of the present study was to investigate the effect of dietary supplementation with antimicrobial peptide-P5 (AMP-P5) on weanling pig nutrition.

Results: A total of 240 weanling pigs were allotted to four treatments on the basis of initial body weight. There were four replicates in each treatment, with 15 pigs per replicate. Dietary treatments were negative control (NC, basal diet without antimicrobial), positive control (PC, basal diet + 1.5 g kg(-1) apramycin), basal diet with 40 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 (P5-40) and basal diet with 60 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 (P5-60). Pigs fed the PC or P5-60 diet showed improved (P < 0.05) overall growth performance, apparent total tract digestibility of dry matter, crude protein and gross energy and reduced (P < 0.05) faecal and intestinal coliforms compared with pigs fed the NC diet.

Conclusion: The results obtained in this study indicate that dietary supplementation with 60 mg kg(-1) AMP-P5 has the potential to improve the growth performance and apparent total tract digestibility of nutrients and reduce coliforms in weanling pigs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jsfa.5840DOI Listing
February 2013

Isolation and characterization of an extracellular antimicrobial protein from Aspergillus oryzae.

J Agric Food Chem 2008 Oct 20;56(20):9647-52. Epub 2008 Sep 20.

Research Center for Proteineous Materials (RCPM), Chosun University, Gwangju, 501-759, Korea.

A 17 kDa antimicrobial protein was isolated from growth medium containing the filamentous fungus Aspergillus oryzae by extracting the supernatants from the culture media, ion exchange chromatography on CM-sepharose, and C18 reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography. This antimicrobial protein, which we considered to be an extracellular antimicrobial protein from A. oryzae (exAP-AO17), possessed antimicrobial activity but lacked hemolytic activity. The exAP-AO17 protein strongly inhibited pathogenic microbial strains, including pathogenic fungi, Fusarium moniliform var. subglutinans and Colletotrichum coccodes, and showed antibacterial activity against bacteria, including E. coli O157 and Staphylococcus aureus. To confirm that the protein acts as a regulation factor for extracellular secretion, we examined growth under varying conditions of N sources, C sources, ions, ambient pH, and stress. Various culture conditions were found to induce characteristic changes in the expression of protein synthesis as analyzed by sodium dodecyl sulfate-polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. Highly basic polypeptides were regulated by suppressing the ambient pH under acidic conditions and strongly induced under alkaline conditions, thus confirming that pH regulation is physiologically relevant. The expression of exAP-AO17 was upregulated by heat shock upon growth in the presence of NaCl. Automated Edman degradation showed that the N-terminal sequence of exAP-AO17 was NH 2-GLPGPAGAVGFAGKDQNM-. ExAP-AO17 showed partial sequence homology with a collagen belonging to the animal source. These results suggest that exAP-AO17 is an excellent candidate as a lead compound for the development of novel oral or other types of anti-infective agents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf802373hDOI Listing
October 2008

Effects of dietary iron levels on growth performance, hematological status, liver mineral concentration, fecal microflora, and diarrhea incidence in weanling pigs.

Biol Trace Elem Res 2008 Dec 31;126 Suppl 1:S57-68. Epub 2008 Aug 31.

Department of Animal Resource Science, College of Animal Life Sciences, Kangwon National University, Chuncheon 200-701, Republic of Korea.

An experiment was conducted in weanling pigs (Landrace x Yorkshire x Duroc) to evaluate the effects of dietary iron levels on growth performance, hematological status, liver mineral concentration, fecal microflora, and diarrhea incidence. One hundred and forty-four piglets (initial BW 5.96 +/- 0.93 kg) were randomly allotted to one of the four dietary treatments on the basis of their body weights. The basal diets for each phase (phase 1: days 0 to 14; phase 2: days 15 to 28) were formulated to contain minimal Fe and then supplemented with gradient levels of Fe (0, 50, 100, and 250 mg/kg) from ferrous sulfate. Feces were collected on days 14 and 28 and used for the analysis of microbial count and trace minerals. Eight piglets from each treatment (two piglets per pen) were bled at 0, 7, 14, 21, and 28 days to determine their hematological and plasma Fe status. In addition, two piglets from each pen (eight piglets per treatment) were killed at days 14 and 28 to determine liver mineral concentrations. Pigs fed supplemental 250 ppm Fe showed lowest overall average daily gain (linear, p = 0.036). Diarrhea incidence was linearly increased (p < 0.001) with supplemental Fe level. On days 14, coliform population in normal feces was increased (p = 0.036) linearly with supplemental Fe level, and there were higher (p = 0.043) coliform population and lower (p < 0.001) Bifidobacterium spp. in the diarrhea feces. Supplemental Fe linearly (p < 0.05) improved the total red blood cells, hemoglobin, plasma, and liver (p = 0.109) Fe status of pigs and also increased (linear and quadratic, p < 0.001) the fecal excretion of Fe on days 14 and 28. It is concluded that increasing the dietary iron levels in piglets improved their hematological status and liver Fe content; however, higher dietary Fe levels might also be associated with the increased diarrhea incidence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12011-008-8209-5DOI Listing
December 2008

Influence of the N- and C-terminal regions of leu-lys rich antimicrobial peptide on antimicrobial activity.

Protein Pept Lett 2008 ;15(2):188-92

Research Center for Proteineous Materials, Chosun University, Gwangju 501-759, Korea.

P5 (KWKKLLKKPLLKKLLKKL-NH(2)) is an antibacterial 18-mer Leu-Lys rich peptide from CA (1-8)-MA (1-12) hybrid peptide (CA-MA). Here we show that decreasing the net hydrophobicity and charge of CA-MA by deleting Leu- or Lys- of the N- or C-terminal regions of P5 (P10 or P11). The antimicrobial activity of the peptides was measured by their growth inhibitory effect upon S. aureus, B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa, S. typhimurium, E. coli, T. beigelii and C. albicans. Antimicrobial activity required a full length C-terminus. Confocal microscopy showed that P11 was located in the plasma membrane. In this study, P11, K(3)K(4)L(5)L(6)-deleted peptide, acted independent on the ionic environment. Furthermore, P11 causes significant morphological alterations of the fungal surfaces as shown by scanning electron microscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2174/092986608783489544DOI Listing
May 2008
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