Publications by authors named "Butsaya Thaisomboonsuk"

47 Publications

Dengue pre-vaccination screening test evaluation for the use of dengue vaccine in an endemic area.

PLoS One 2021 10;16(9):e0257182. Epub 2021 Sep 10.

Excellence Center for Critical Care Nephrology, King Chulalongkorn Memorial Hospital, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The dengue vaccine (Dengvaxia) is only recommended for individuals with prior dengue infection (PDI). This study aimed to perform a serosurvey to inform decision-making for vaccine introduction and identify appropriate target populations. We also evaluated the performance of the serological tests using plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) as a reference test in identifying PDI to determine suitability for pre-vaccination screening.

Methods: We enrolled 115 healthy individuals between 10 and 22 years of age living in the Ratchaburi province of Thailand. The serum samples were tested by PRNT to measure the prevalence and concentration of serotype-specific neutralizing antibodies. The performance of the IgG rapid diagnostic test (RDT, SD Bioline, Korea) and IgG enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA, EUROIMMUN, Germany) in identifying PDI were evaluated by using PRNT as a reference method.

Results: Ninety-four (81.7%) individuals neutralized one or more dengue serotypes at a titer threshold greater than or equal to 10. Multitypic profiles were observed in 70.4% of the samples which increased to 91.9% in subjects aged 19-22. Among monotypic samples, the highest proportion was reactive against DENV-1 followed by DENV-2, DENV-3, and DENV-4. The highest anti-dengue antibody titers were recorded against DENV-1 and increased with age to a geometric mean NT50 titer (GMT) of 188.6 in the 19-22 age group. While both RDT and ELISA exhibited 100% specificity, RDT demonstrated low sensitivity (35%) with ELISA displaying much greater sensitivity (87%).

Conclusions: Almost 80% of adolescents and youth in Ratchaburi province had already been exposed to one or more of the dengue virus serotypes. The dengue IgG RDT displayed low sensitivity and is likely not be suitable for dengue pre-vaccination screening. These results support the use of IgG ELISA test for dengue vaccination in endemic areas.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0257182PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8432984PMC
September 2021

Standardization and Evaluation of an Anti-ZIKV IgM ELISA Assay for the Serological Diagnosis of Zika Virus Infection.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2021 Aug 2. Epub 2021 Aug 2.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand.

Here, we describe the development of the in-house anti-Zika virus (ZIKV) IgM antibody capture ELISA (in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA) for the detection and diagnosis of acute ZIKV infections. We compared the in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA assay performance against two commercial kits, Euroimmun ZIKV IgM and InBios 2.0 ZIKV IgM ELISA. We tested the assays' ability to detect anti-ZIKV IgM using a well-defined serum sample panel. This panel included 80 ZIKV negative samples (20 negative, 20 found to be primary dengue virus [DENV][ infections, 20 secondary DENV infections, and 20 Japanese encephalitis virus [JEV] infections) and 67 ZIKV reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction-positive acute serum samples. The OD values were calculated to US Energy Information Administration units by comparing them to weak positive controls. The results demonstrated the high sensitivity (88.06%) and specificity (90.00%) of our in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA and its 89.12% overall percentage agreement. The kappa values were deemed to be within excellent range and comparable to the InBios ZIKV IgM ELISA. Some cross-reactivity was observed among secondary DENV and JEV samples, and to a much lower extent, among primary DENV samples. These data indicate that our in-house ZIKV IgM ELISA is a reliable assay for the detection of anti-ZIKV IgM antibodies in serum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.21-0163DOI Listing
August 2021

Correlation between reported dengue illness history and seropositivity in rural Thailand.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2021 Jun 15;15(6):e0009459. Epub 2021 Jun 15.

State University of New York Upstate Medical University, Syracuse, New York, United States of America.

In the latest World Health Organization (WHO) recommendation for Dengvaxia implementation, either serological testing or a person's history of prior dengue illness may be used as supporting evidence to identify dengue virus (DENV)-immune individuals eligible for vaccination, in areas with limited capacity for laboratory confirmation. This analysis aimed to estimate the concordance between self-reported dengue illness histories and seropositivity in a prospective cohort study for dengue virus infection in Kamphaeng Phet province, a dengue-endemic area in northern Thailand. The study enrolled 2,076 subjects from 516 multigenerational families, with a median age of 30.6 years (range 0-90 years). Individual and family member dengue illness histories were obtained by questionnaire. Seropositivity was defined based on hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assays. Overall seropositivity for DENV was 86.5% among those aged 9-45 years, which increased with age. 18.5% of participants reported a history of dengue illness prior to enrollment; 30.1% reported a previous DENV infection in the family, and 40.1% reported DENV infection in either themselves or a family member. Relative to seropositivity by HAI in the vaccine candidate group, the sensitivity and specificity of individual prior dengue illness history were 18.5% and 81.6%, respectively; sensitivity and specificity of reported dengue illness in a family member were 29.8% and 68.0%, and of either the individual or a family member were 40.1% and 60.5%. Notably, 13.4% of individuals reporting prior dengue illness were seronegative. Given the high occurrence of asymptomatic and mild DENV infection, self-reported dengue illness history is poorly sensitive for prior exposure and may misclassify individuals as 'exposed' when they were not. This analysis highlights that a simple, highly sensitive, and highly specific test for determining serostatus prior to Dengvaxia vaccination is urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0009459DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8232416PMC
June 2021

Precision Tracing of Household Dengue Spread Using Inter- and Intra-Host Viral Variation Data, Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand.

Emerg Infect Dis 2021 06;27(6):1637-1644

Dengue control approaches are best informed by granular spatial epidemiology of these viruses, yet reconstruction of inter- and intra-household transmissions is limited when analyzing case count, serologic, or genomic consensus sequence data. To determine viral spread on a finer spatial scale, we extended phylogenomic discrete trait analyses to reconstructions of house-to-house transmissions within a prospective cluster study in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand. For additional resolution and transmission confirmation, we mapped dengue intra-host single nucleotide variants on the taxa of these time-scaled phylogenies. This approach confirmed 19 household transmissions and revealed that dengue disperses an average of 70 m per day between households in these communities. We describe an evolutionary biology framework for the resolution of dengue transmissions that cannot be differentiated based on epidemiologic and consensus genome data alone. This framework can be used as a public health tool to inform control approaches and enable precise tracing of dengue transmissions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3201/eid2706.204323DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8153871PMC
June 2021

Reconstructing unseen transmission events to infer dengue dynamics from viral sequences.

Nat Commun 2021 03 22;12(1):1810. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

For most pathogens, transmission is driven by interactions between the behaviours of infectious individuals, the behaviours of the wider population, the local environment, and immunity. Phylogeographic approaches are currently unable to disentangle the relative effects of these competing factors. We develop a spatiotemporally structured phylogenetic framework that addresses these limitations by considering individual transmission events, reconstructed across spatial scales. We apply it to geocoded dengue virus sequences from Thailand (N = 726 over 18 years). We find infected individuals spend 96% of their time in their home community compared to 76% for the susceptible population (mainly children) and 42% for adults. Dynamic pockets of local immunity make transmission more likely in places with high heterotypic immunity and less likely where high homotypic immunity exists. Age-dependent mixing of individuals and vector distributions are not important in determining spread. This approach provides previously unknown insights into one of the most complex disease systems known and will be applicable to other pathogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-021-21888-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7985522PMC
March 2021

Comparative Analyses of Historical Trends in Confirmed Dengue Illnesses Detected at Public Hospitals in Bangkok and Northern Thailand, 2002-2018.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 Dec 14. Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS), Bangkok, Thailand.

Dengue is a re-emerging global public health problem, the most common arbovirus causing human disease in the world, and a major cause of hospitalization in endemic countries causing significant economic burden. Data were analyzed from passive surveillance of hospital-attended dengue cases from 2002 to 2018 at Phramongkutklao Hospital (PMKH) located in Bangkok, Thailand, and Kamphaeng Phet Provincial Hospital (KPPH) located in the lower northern region of Thailand. At PMKH, serotype 1 proved to be the most common strain of the virus, whereas at KPPH, serotypes 1, 2, and 3 were the most common strains from 2006 to 2008, 2009 to 2012, and 2013 to 2015, respectively. The 11-17 years age-group made up the largest proportion of patients impacted by dengue illnesses during the study period at both sites. At KPPH, dengue virus (DENV)-3 was responsible for most cases of dengue fever (DF), whereas it was DENV-1 at PMKH. In cases where dengue hemorrhagic fever was the clinical diagnosis, DENV-2 was the predominant serotype at KPPH, whereas at PMKH, it was DENV-1. The overall disease prevalence remained consistent across the two study sites with DF being the predominant clinical diagnosis as the result of an acute secondary dengue infection, representing 40.7% of overall cases at KPPH and 56.8% at PMKH. The differences seen between these sites could be a result of climate change increasing the length of dengue season and shifts in migration patterns of these populations from rural to urban areas and vice versa.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.20-0396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7941814PMC
December 2020

Complete Coding Sequences of 22 East/Central/South African Genotype Chikungunya Virus Isolates from Thailand (2018 to 2019).

Microbiol Resour Announc 2020 Oct 15;9(42). Epub 2020 Oct 15.

Department of Virology, U.S. Army Medical Directorate-Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

The coding-complete genome sequences of 22 chikungunya virus strains collected from the 2018-2019 outbreak in Thailand are reported. All sequences belong to the East/Central/South African (ECSA) genotype and contain two mutations, E1:K211E and E2:V264A, which were previously shown to be associated with increased viral infectivity, dissemination, and transmission in .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/MRA.00438-20DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561681PMC
October 2020

Virological and Immunological Outcomes in Rhesus Monkeys after Exposure to Dengue Virus-Infected Mosquitoes.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2020 07 14;103(1):112-119. Epub 2020 May 14.

Institute for Vector-Borne Diseases, Monash University, Melbourne, Australia.

This study describes the natural history of dengue virus (DENV) infection in rhesus monkeys exposed to the bites of DENV-infected mosquitoes. Dengue virus-infected mosquitoes were generated by either intrathoracic inoculation or by oral feeding on viremic blood meals. Each of the six rhesus monkeys that were fed upon by intrathoracically infected mosquitoes developed non-structural protein 1 (NS1) antigenemia and an IgM response; viremia was detected in 4/6 individuals. No virological or immunological evidence of DENV infection was detected in the three monkeys exposed to mosquitoes that had been orally infected with DENV. These results demonstrate the utility of mosquito-borne challenge of rhesus monkeys with DENV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.19-0633DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7356439PMC
July 2020

Reconstruction of antibody dynamics and infection histories to evaluate dengue risk.

Nature 2018 05 23;557(7707):719-723. Epub 2018 May 23.

Mathematical Modelling of Infectious Diseases Unit, Institut Pasteur, Paris, France.

As with many pathogens, most dengue infections are subclinical and therefore unobserved . Coupled with limited understanding of the dynamic behaviour of potential serological markers of infection, this observational problem has wide-ranging implications, including hampering our understanding of individual- and population-level correlates of infection and disease risk and how these change over time, between assay interpretations and with cohort design. Here we develop a framework that simultaneously characterizes antibody dynamics and identifies subclinical infections via Bayesian augmentation from detailed cohort data (3,451 individuals with blood draws every 91 days, 143,548 haemagglutination inhibition assay titre measurements). We identify 1,149 infections (95% confidence interval, 1,135-1,163) that were not detected by active surveillance and estimate that 65% of infections are subclinical. After infection, individuals develop a stable set point antibody load after one year that places them within or outside a risk window. Individuals with pre-existing titres of ≤1:40 develop haemorrhagic fever 7.4 (95% confidence interval, 2.5-8.2) times more often than naive individuals compared to 0.0 times for individuals with titres >1:40 (95% confidence interval: 0.0-1.3). Plaque reduction neutralization test titres ≤1:100 were similarly associated with severe disease. Across the population, variability in the size of epidemics results in large-scale temporal changes in infection and disease risk that correlate poorly with age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-018-0157-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6064976PMC
May 2018

Retrospective use of next-generation sequencing reveals the presence of Enteroviruses in acute influenza-like illness respiratory samples collected in South/South-East Asia during 2010-2013.

J Clin Virol 2017 09 14;94:91-99. Epub 2017 Jul 14.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315/6, Rajavithi Road, Rajathewi, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Background: Emerging and re-emerging respiratory pathogens represent an increasing threat to public health. Etiological determination during outbreaks generally relies on clinical information, occasionally accompanied by traditional laboratory molecular or serological testing. Often, this limited testing leads to inconclusive findings. The Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences (AFRIMS) collected 12,865 nasopharyngeal specimens from acute influenza-like illness (ILI) patients in five countries in South/South East Asia during 2010-2013. Three hundred and twenty-four samples which were found to be negative for influenza virus after screening with real-time RT-PCR and cell-based culture techniques demonstrated the potential for viral infection with evident cytopathic effect (CPE) in several cell lines.

Objective: To assess whether whole genome next-generation sequencing (WG-NGS) together with conventional molecular assays can be used to reveal the etiology of influenza negative, but CPE positive specimens.

Study Design: The supernatant of these CPE positive cell cultures were grouped in 32 pools containing 2-26 supernatants per pool. Three WG-NGS runs were performed on these supernatant pools. Sequence reads were used to identify positive pools containing viral pathogens. Individual samples in the positive pools were confirmed by qRT-PCR, RT-PCR, PCR and Sanger sequencing from the CPE culture and original clinical specimens.

Results: WG-NGS was an effective way to expand pathogen identification in surveillance studies. This enabled the identification of a viral agent in 71.3% (231/324) of unidentified surveillance samples, including common respiratory pathogens (100/324; 30.9%): enterovirus (16/100; 16.0%), coxsackievirus (31/100; 31.0%), echovirus (22/100; 22.0%), human rhinovirus (3/100; 3%), enterovirus genus (2/100; 2.0%), influenza A (9/100; 9.0%), influenza B, (5/100; 5.0%), human parainfluenza (4/100; 4.0%), human adenovirus (3/100; 3.0%), human coronavirus (1/100; 1.0%), human metapneumovirus (2/100; 2.0%), and mumps virus (2/100; 2.0%), in addition to the non-respiratory pathogen herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) (172/324; 53.1%) and HSV-1 co-infection with respiratory viruses (41/324; 12.7%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2017.07.004DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7106496PMC
September 2017

Polytopic vaccination with a live-attenuated dengue vaccine enhances B-cell and T-cell activation, but not neutralizing antibodies.

Heliyon 2017 Mar 21;3(3):e00271. Epub 2017 Mar 21.

The United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, Fort Detrick, MD, USA.

Dengue, caused by dengue viruses (DENVs), is the most common arboviral disease of humans. Several dengue vaccine candidates are at different stages of clinical development and one has been licensed. Inoculation with live-attenuated DENV constructs is an approach that has been used by vaccine developers. Unfortunately, the simultaneous injection of all four attenuated DENV serotypes (DENV1-4) into a single injection site (monotopic vaccination) has been postulated to result in interference in the replication of some serotypes in favor of others, an important obstacle in obtaining a balanced immune response against all serotypes. Here, we demonstrate the virus replicative and immunostimulatory effects of polytopic monovalent dengue vaccination (PV) in which, each of the four components of the tetravalent vaccine is simultaneously delivered to four different sites versus the more traditional monotopic tetravalent vaccination (MV) in a non-human primate (NHP) model. With the exception of DENV-2, there was no significant difference in detectable viral RNA levels between PV and MV inoculation. Interestingly, longer periods of detection and higher viral RNA levels were seen in the lymph nodes of NHPs inoculated PV compared to MV. Induction of lymph node dendritic cell maturation and of blood T- and B-cell activation showed different kinetics in PV inoculated NHPs compared to MV. The MV inoculated group showed earlier maturation of dendritic cells and activation of B and T cells compared to PV inoculated NHPs. A similar kinetic difference was also observed in the cytokine response: MV induced earlier cytokine responses compared to PV. However, similar levels of DENV neutralizing antibodies were observed in PV and MV NHPs. These findings indicate that cellular immune response after vaccination may be affected by the location of inoculation. Design of vaccine delivery may need to take into account the effects of locations of vaccine delivery of multiples serotype live viral vaccine on the induction of immune response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2017.e00271DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5367862PMC
March 2017

Dengue diversity across spatial and temporal scales: Local structure and the effect of host population size.

Science 2017 03;355(6331):1302-1306

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins Bloomberg School of Public Health, Baltimore, MD 21205, USA.

A fundamental mystery for dengue and other infectious pathogens is how observed patterns of cases relate to actual chains of individual transmission events. These pathways are intimately tied to the mechanisms by which strains interact and compete across spatial scales. Phylogeographic methods have been used to characterize pathogen dispersal at global and regional scales but have yielded few insights into the local spatiotemporal structure of endemic transmission. Using geolocated genotype (800 cases) and serotype (17,291 cases) data, we show that in Bangkok, Thailand, 60% of dengue cases living <200 meters apart come from the same transmission chain, as opposed to 3% of cases separated by 1 to 5 kilometers. At distances <200 meters from a case (encompassing an average of 1300 people in Bangkok), the effective number of chains is 1.7. This number rises by a factor of 7 for each 10-fold increase in the population of the "enclosed" region. This trend is observed regardless of whether population density or area increases, though increases in density over 7000 people per square kilometer do not lead to additional chains. Within Thailand these chains quickly mix, and by the next dengue season viral lineages are no longer highly spatially structured within the country. In contrast, viral flow to neighboring countries is limited. These findings are consistent with local, density-dependent transmission and implicate densely populated communities as key sources of viral diversity, with home location the focal point of transmission. These findings have important implications for targeted vector control and active surveillance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/science.aaj9384DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5777672PMC
March 2017

No evidence for local adaptation of dengue viruses to mosquito vector populations in Thailand.

Evol Appl 2016 04 24;9(4):608-18. Epub 2016 Feb 24.

Insect-Virus Interactions Group Department of Genomes and Genetics Institut Pasteur Paris France; Unité de Recherche Associée Centre National de la Recherche Scientifique Paris France.

Despite their epidemiological importance, the evolutionary forces that shape the spatial structure of dengue virus genetic diversity are not fully understood. Fine-scale genetic structure of mosquito vector populations and evidence for genotype × genotype interactions between dengue viruses and their mosquito vectors are consistent with the hypothesis that the geographical distribution of dengue virus genetic diversity may reflect viral adaptation to local mosquito populations. To test this hypothesis, we measured vector competence in all sympatric and allopatric combinations of 14 low-passage dengue virus isolates and two wild-type populations of Aedes aegypti mosquitoes sampled in Bangkok and Kamphaeng Phet, two sites located about 300 km apart in Thailand. Despite significant genotype × genotype interactions, we found no evidence for superior vector competence in sympatric versus allopatric vector-virus combinations. Viral phylogenetic analysis revealed no geographical clustering of the 14 isolates, suggesting that high levels of viral migration (gene flow) in Thailand may counteract spatially heterogeneous natural selection. We conclude that it is unlikely that vector-mediated selection is a major driver of dengue virus adaptive evolution at the regional scale that we examined. Dengue virus local adaptation to mosquito vector populations could happen, however, in places or times that we did not test, or at a different geographical scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/eva.12360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831462PMC
April 2016

Human Sentinel Surveillance of Influenza and Other Respiratory Viral Pathogens in Border Areas of Western Cambodia.

PLoS One 2016 30;11(3):e0152529. Epub 2016 Mar 30.

Department of Immunology, US Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Little is known about circulation of influenza and other respiratory viruses in remote populations along the Thai-Cambodia border in western Cambodia. We screened 586 outpatients (median age 5, range 1-77) presenting with influenza-like-illness (ILI) at 4 sentinel sites in western Cambodia between May 2010 and December 2012. Real-time reverse transcriptase (rRT) PCR for influenza was performed on combined nasal and throat specimens followed by viral culture, antigenic analysis, antiviral susceptibility testing and full genome sequencing for phylogenetic analysis. ILI-specimens negative for influenza were cultured, followed by rRT-PCR for enterovirus and rhinovirus (EV/RV) and EV71. Influenza was found in 168 cases (29%) and occurred almost exclusively in the rainy season from June to November. Isolated influenza strains had close antigenic and phylogenetic relationships, matching vaccine and circulating strains found elsewhere in Cambodia. Influenza vaccination coverage was low (<20%). Western Cambodian H1N1(2009) isolate genomes were more closely related to 10 earlier Cambodia isolates (94.4% genome conservation) than to 13 Thai isolates (75.9% genome conservation), despite sharing the majority of the amino acid changes with the Thai references. Most genes showed signatures of purifying selection. Viral culture detected only adenovirus (5.7%) and parainfluenza virus (3.8%), while non-polio enteroviruses (10.3%) were detected among 164 culture-negative samples including coxsackievirus A4, A6, A8, A9, A12, B3, B4 and echovirus E6 and E9 using nested RT-PCR methods. A single specimen of EV71 was found. Despite proximity to Thailand, influenza epidemiology of these western Cambodian isolates followed patterns observed elsewhere in Cambodia, continuing to support current vaccine and treatment recommendations from the Cambodian National Influenza Center. Amino acid mutations at non-epitope sites, particularly hemagglutinin genes, require further investigation in light of an increasingly important role of permissive mutations in influenza virus evolution. Further research about the burden of adenovirus and non-polio enteroviruses as etiologic agents in acute respiratory infections in Cambodia is also needed.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0152529PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4814059PMC
August 2016

Forty Years of Dengue Surveillance at a Tertiary Pediatric Hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, 1973-2012.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2016 06 28;94(6):1342-7. Epub 2016 Mar 28.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand; Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland; Queen Sirikit National Institute of Child Health, Ministry of Public Health, Bangkok, Thailand; Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts

Long-term observational studies can provide valuable insights into overall dengue epidemiology. Here, we present analysis of dengue cases at a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand, during a 40-year period from 1973 to 2012. Data were analyzed from 25,715 hospitalized patients with laboratory-confirmed dengue virus (DENV) infection. Several long-term trends in dengue disease were identified including an increase in mean age of hospitalized cases from an average of 7-8 years, an increase after 1990 in the proportion of post-primary cases for DENV-1 and DENV-3, and a decrease in the proportion of dengue hemorrhagic fever and dengue shock syndrome cases in primary and post-primary cases over time. Exploratory mechanistic analysis of these observed trends considered changes in diagnostic methods, demography, force of infection, and Japanese encephalitis vaccination as possible explanations. Thailand is an important setting for studying DENV transmission as it has a "mature" dengue epidemiology with a strong surveillance system in place since the early 1970s. We characterized changes in dengue epidemiology over four decades, and possible impact of demographic and other changes in the human population. These results may inform other countries where similar changes in transmission and population demographics may now or may soon be occurring.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4889755PMC
June 2016

Incidence of Dengue Virus Infection in Adults and Children in a Prospective Longitudinal Cohort in the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2016 Feb 4;10(2):e0004337. Epub 2016 Feb 4.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The mean age of dengue has been increasing in some but not all countries. We sought to determine the incidence of dengue virus (DENV) infection in adults and children in a prospective cohort study in the Philippines where dengue is hyperendemic.

Methodology/principal Findings: A prospective cohort of subjects ≥6 months old in Cebu City, Philippines, underwent active community-based surveillance for acute febrile illnesses by weekly contact. Fever history within the prior seven days was evaluated with an acute illness visit followed by 2, 5, and 8-day, and 3-week convalescent visits. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week visits. Scheduled visits took place at enrolment and 12 months that included blood collections. Acute samples were tested by DENV PCR and acute/convalescent samples by DENV IgM/IgG ELISA to identify symptomatic infections. Enrolment and 12-month samples were tested by DENV hemagglutination inhibition (HAI) assay to identify subclinical infections. Of 1,008 enrolled subjects, 854 completed all study activities at 12 months per-protocol undergoing 868 person-years of surveillance. The incidence of symptomatic and subclinical infections was 1.62 and 7.03 per 100 person-years, respectively. However, in subjects >15 years old, only one symptomatic infection occurred whereas 27 subclinical infections were identified. DENV HAI seroprevalence increased sharply with age with baseline multitypic HAIs associated with fewer symptomatic infections. Using a catalytic model, the historical infection rate among dengue naïve individuals was estimated to be high at 11-22%/year.

Conclusions/significance: In this hyperendemic area with high seroprevalence of multitypic DENV HAIs in adults, symptomatic dengue rarely occurred in individuals older than 15 years. Our findings demonstrate that dengue is primarily a pediatric disease in areas with high force of infection. However, the average age of dengue could increase if force of infection decreases over time, as is occurring in some hyperendemic countries such as Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004337DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4742283PMC
February 2016

Dengue Virus (DENV) Neutralizing Antibody Kinetics in Children After Symptomatic Primary and Postprimary DENV Infection.

J Infect Dis 2016 May 23;213(9):1428-35. Epub 2015 Dec 23.

Department of Epidemiology, Johns Hopkins School of Public Health, Baltimore, Maryland Department of Biology, University of Florida, Gainesville Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville.

The immune response to dengue virus (DENV) infection is complex and not fully understood. Using longitudinal data from 181 children with dengue in Thailand who were followed for up to 3 years, we describe neutralizing antibody kinetics following symptomatic DENV infection. We observed that antibody titers varied by serotype, homotypic vs heterotypic responses, and primary versus postprimary infections. The rates of change in antibody titers over time varied between primary and postprimary responses. For primary infections, titers increased from convalescence to 6 months. By comparing homotypic and heterotypic antibody titers, we saw an increase in type specificity from convalescence to 6 months for primary DENV3 infections but not primary DENV1 infections. In postprimary cases, there was a decrease in titers from convalescence up until 6 months after infection. Beginning 1 year after both primary and postprimary infections, there was evidence of increasing antibody titers, with greater increases in children with lower titers, suggesting that antibody titers were boosted due to infection and that higher levels of neutralizing antibody may be more likely to confer a sterilizing immune response. These findings may help to model virus transmission dynamics and provide baseline data to support the development of vaccines and therapeutics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv759DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4813744PMC
May 2016

Epidemiology of Infant Dengue Cases Illuminates Serotype-Specificity in the Interaction between Immunity and Disease, and Changes in Transmission Dynamics.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Dec 11;9(12):e0004262. Epub 2015 Dec 11.

Dengue Vaccine Initiative, International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Korea.

Background: Infants born to dengue immune mothers acquire maternal antibodies to dengue. These antibodies, though initially protective, decline during the first year of life to levels thought to be disease enhancing, before reaching undetectable levels. Infants have long been studied to understand the interaction between infection and disease on an individual level.

Methods/findings: Considering infants (cases <1 year old) as a unique group, we analyzed serotype specific dengue case data from patients admitted to a pediatric hospital in Bangkok, Thailand. We show differences in the propensity of serotypes to cause disease in individuals with dengue antibodies (infants and post-primary cases) and in individuals without dengue antibodies (primary cases). The mean age of infant cases differed among serotypes, consistent with previously observed differential waning of maternal antibody titers by serotype. We show that trends over time in epidemiology of infant cases are consistent with those observed in the whole population, and therefore with trends in the force of infection.

Conclusions/significance: Infants with dengue are informative about the interaction between antibody and the dengue serotypes, confirming that in this population DENV-2 and DENV-4 almost exclusively cause disease in the presence of dengue antibody despite infections occurring in others. We also observe differences between the serotypes in the mean age in infant cases, informative about the interaction between waning immunity and disease for the different serotypes in infants. In addition, we show that the mean age of infant cases over time is informative about transmission in the whole population. Therefore, ongoing surveillance for dengue in infants could provide useful insights into dengue epidemiology, particularly after the introduction of a dengue vaccine targeting adults and older children.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004262DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4684242PMC
December 2015

Reconstruction of 60 Years of Chikungunya Epidemiology in the Philippines Demonstrates Episodic and Focal Transmission.

J Infect Dis 2016 Feb 25;213(4):604-10. Epub 2015 Sep 25.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand International Vaccine Institute, Seoul, Republic of Korea.

Proper understanding of the long-term epidemiology of chikungunya has been hampered by poor surveillance. Outbreak years are unpredictable and cases often misdiagnosed. Here we analyzed age-specific data from 2 serological studies (from 1973 and 2012) in Cebu, Philippines, to reconstruct both the annual probability of infection and population-level immunity over a 60-year period (1952-2012). We also explored whether seroconversions during 2012-2013 were spatially clustered. Our models identified 4 discrete outbreaks separated by an average delay of 17 years. On average, 23% (95% confidence interval [CI], 16%-37%) of the susceptible population was infected per outbreak, with >50% of the entire population remaining susceptible at any point. Participants who seroconverted during 2012-2013 were clustered at distances of <230 m, suggesting focal transmission. Large-scale outbreaks of chikungunya did not result in sustained multiyear transmission. Nevertheless, we estimate that >350 000 infections were missed by surveillance systems. Serological studies could supplement surveillance to provide important insights on pathogen circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/infdis/jiv470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4721913PMC
February 2016

Immunogenic Properties of a BCG Adjuvanted Chitosan Nanoparticle-Based Dengue Vaccine in Human Dendritic Cells.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Sep 22;9(9):e0003958. Epub 2015 Sep 22.

The United States Army Medical Materiel Development Activity, Fort Detrick, Maryland, United States of America.

Dengue viruses (DENVs) are among the most rapidly and efficiently spreading arboviruses. WHO recently estimated that about half of the world's population is now at risk for DENV infection. There is no specific treatment or vaccine available to treat or prevent DENV infections. Here, we report the development of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV) composed of UV-inactivated DENV-2 (UVI-DENV) and Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (BCG-CWCs) loaded into chitosan nanoparticles (CS-NPs). CS-NPs were prepared by an emulsion polymerization method prior to loading of the BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV components. Using a scanning electron microscope and a zetasizer, DNV was determined to be of spherical shape with a diameter of 372.0 ± 11.2 nm in average and cationic surface properties. The loading efficacies of BCG-CWCs and UVI-DENV into the CS-NPs and BCG-CS-NPs were up to 97.2 and 98.4%, respectively. THP-1 cellular uptake of UVI-DENV present in the DNV was higher than soluble UVI-DENV alone. DNV stimulation of immature dendritic cells (iDCs) resulted in a significantly higher expression of DCs maturation markers (CD80, CD86 and HLA-DR) and induction of various cytokine and chemokine productions than in UVI-DENV-treated iDCs, suggesting a potential use of BCG- CS-NPs as adjuvant and delivery system for dengue vaccines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003958DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4578877PMC
September 2015

Epidemiological and Molecular Characterization of Dengue Virus Circulating in Bhutan, 2013-2014.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 21;9(8):e0004010. Epub 2015 Aug 21.

Department of Virology, Armed Force Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Dengue is one of the most significant public health problems in tropical and subtropical countries, and is increasingly being detected in traditionally non-endemic areas. In Bhutan, dengue virus (DENV) has only recently been detected and limited information is available. In this study, we analyzed the epidemiological and molecular characteristics of DENV in two southern districts in Bhutan from 2013-2014. During this period, 379 patients were clinically diagnosed with suspected dengue, of whom 119 (31.4%) were positive for DENV infection by NS1 ELISA and/or nested RT-PCR. DENV serotypes 1, 2 and 3 were detected with DENV-1 being predominant. Phylogenetic analysis of DENV-1 using envelope gene demonstrated genotype V, closely related to strains from northern India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0004010DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4546418PMC
April 2016

Detection of Zika Virus Infection in Thailand, 2012-2014.

Am J Trop Med Hyg 2015 Aug 22;93(2):380-383. Epub 2015 Jun 22.

Zika virus (ZIKV) is an emerging mosquito-borne pathogen with reported cases in Africa, Asia, and large outbreaks in the Pacific. No autochthonous ZIKV infections have been confirmed in Thailand. However, there have been several cases reported in travelers returning from Thailand. Here we report seven cases of acute ZIKV infection in Thai residents across the country confirmed by molecular or serological testing including sequence data. These endemic cases, combined with previous reports in travelers, provide evidence that ZIKV is widespread throughout Thailand.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4269/ajtmh.15-0022DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4530765PMC
August 2015

High rate of subclinical chikungunya virus infection and association of neutralizing antibody with protection in a prospective cohort in the Philippines.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 May 7;9(5):e0003764. Epub 2015 May 7.

Division of Infectious Diseases and Immunology, Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts Medical School, Worcester, Massachusetts, United States of America.

Background: Chikungunya virus (CHIKV) is a globally re-emerging arbovirus for which previous studies have indicated the majority of infections result in symptomatic febrile illness. We sought to characterize the proportion of subclinical and symptomatic CHIKV infections in a prospective cohort study in a country with known CHIKV circulation.

Methods/findings: A prospective longitudinal cohort of subjects ≥6 months old underwent community-based active surveillance for acute febrile illness in Cebu City, Philippines from 2012-13. Subjects with fever history were clinically evaluated at acute, 2, 5, and 8 day visits, and at a 3-week convalescent visit. Blood was collected at the acute and 3-week convalescent visits. Symptomatic CHIKV infections were identified by positive CHIKV PCR in acute blood samples and/or CHIKV IgM/IgG ELISA seroconversion in paired acute/convalescent samples. Enrollment and 12-month blood samples underwent plaque reduction neutralization test (PRNT) using CHIKV attenuated strain 181/clone25. Subclinical CHIKV infections were identified by ≥8-fold rise from a baseline enrollment PRNT titer <10 without symptomatic infection detected during the intervening surveillance period. Selected CHIKV PCR-positive samples underwent viral isolation and envelope protein-1 gene sequencing. Of 853 subjects who completed all study procedures at 12 months, 19 symptomatic infections (2.19 per 100 person-years) and 87 subclinical infections (10.03 per 100 person-years) occurred. The ratio of subclinical-to-symptomatic infections was 4.6:1 varying with age from 2:1 in 6 month-5 year olds to 12:1 in those >50 years old. Baseline CHIKV PRNT titer ≥10 was associated with 100% (95%CI: 46.1, 100.0) protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. Phylogenetic analysis demonstrated Asian genotype closely related to strains from Asia and the Caribbean.

Conclusions: Subclinical infections accounted for a majority of total CHIKV infections. A positive baseline CHIKV PRNT titer was associated with protection from symptomatic CHIKV infection. These findings have implications for assessing disease burden, understanding virus transmission, and supporting vaccine development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003764DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4423927PMC
May 2015

A novel dengue virus serotype-2 nanovaccine induces robust humoral and cell-mediated immunity in mice.

Vaccine 2015 Mar 18;33(14):1702-10. Epub 2015 Feb 18.

Department of Virology, Armed Force Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand. Electronic address:

Dengue virus (DENV), a member of the Flaviviridae family, can be transmitted to humans through the bite of infected Aedes mosquitoes. The incidence of dengue has increased worldwide over the past few decades. Inadequate vector control, changing global ecology, increased urbanization, and faster global travel are factors enhancing the rapid spread of the virus and its vector. In the absence of specific antiviral treatments, the search for a safe and effective vaccine grows more imperative. Many strategies have been utilized to develop dengue vaccines. Here, we demonstrate the immunogenic properties of a novel dengue nanovaccine (DNV), composed of ultraviolet radiation (UV)-inactivated DENV-2, which has been loaded into the nanoparticles containing chitosan/Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette-Guerin cell wall components (CS/BCG-NPs). We investigated the immunogenicity of DNV in a Swiss albino mouse model. Inoculation with various concentrations of vaccine (0.3, 1, 3 and 10μg/dose) with three doses, 15-day apart, induced strong anti-dengue IgM and IgG antibodies in the mouse serum along with neutralizing antibody against DENV-2 reference strain (16681), a clinical-isolate strain (00745/10) and the mouse-adapted New Guinea-C (NGC) strain. Cytokine and chemokine secretion in the serum of DNV-immunized mice showed elevated levels of IFN-γ, IL-2, IL-5, IL-12p40, IL-12p70, IL-17, eotaxin and RANTES, all of which have varying immune functions. Furthermore, we observed a DNV dose-dependent increase in the frequencies of IFN-γ-producing CD4(+) and CD8(+) T cells after in vitro stimulation of nucleated cells. Based on these findings, DNV has the potential to become a candidate dengue vaccine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vaccine.2015.02.016DOI Listing
March 2015

Neutralizing dengue antibody in pregnant Thai women and cord blood.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2015 Feb 6;9(2):e0003396. Epub 2015 Feb 6.

Department of Pediatrics, Faculty of Medicine, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: The WHO 'Global Strategy for Dengue Prevention and Control, 2012-2020' addresses the growing need for the treatment of dengue, and targets a 25% reduction in morbidity and 50% in mortality (using 2010 estimates as baseline). Achieving these goals requires future dengue prevention strategies that will employ both potential vaccines and sustainable vector-control measures. Maternally transferred dengue antibody is an important factor in determining the optimal age for dengue vaccination.

Objectives: To estimate the seroprevalence of dengue antibodies among mothers living in an area of high endemicity--Ban Pong, Ratchaburi Province--and to assess maternal dengue antibodies transferred to cord blood.

Materials & Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted with 141 pregnant women who delivered at Ban Pong Hospital, Ratchaburi, Thailand. Maternal-cord paired sera were tested for dengue neutralizing (NT) antibody by PRNT50 assay. A ratio of ≥ 1:10 NT titer to dengue serotype was considered seropositive.

Results: Most mothers (137/141, 97.2%) had NT antibodies to at least one dengue serotype in their sera. At birth, the proportion of cord sera with NT antibodies to DEN-1, DEN-2, DEN-3, and DEN-4, were high and similar to the sera of their mothers, at 93.6%, 97.2%, 97.9%, and 92.2%, respectively. The dengue geometric mean titers (GMT) in cord blood were significantly higher than the maternal antibodies (p<0.001): highest in DEN-2, followed by DEN-3, and then DEN-1. The GMT of DEN-4 was the lowest among all four serotypes.

Conclusions: Dengue infection is highly prevalent among pregnant women in this dengue-endemic area. Most of the cord blood had transferred dengue antibodies, which may have an impact on the disease burden in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003396DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4320096PMC
February 2015

Monitoring and improving the sensitivity of dengue nested RT-PCR used in longitudinal surveillance in Thailand.

J Clin Virol 2015 Feb 12;63:25-31. Epub 2014 Dec 12.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, 315/6 Rajvithi Road, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: AFRIMS longitudinal dengue surveillance in Thailand depends on the nested RT-PCR and the dengue IgM/IgG ELISA.

Objective: To examine and improve the sensitivity of the nested RT-PCR using a panel of archived samples collected during dengue surveillance.

Study Design: A retrospective analysis of 16,454 dengue IgM/IgG ELISA positive cases collected between 2000 and 2013 was done to investigate the sensitivity of the nested RT-PCR. From these cases, 318 acute serum specimens or extracted RNA, previously found to be negative by the nested RT-PCR, were tested using TaqMan real-time RT-PCR (TaqMan rRT-PCR). To improve the sensitivity of nested RT-PCR, we designed a new primer based on nucleotide sequences from contemporary strains found to be positive by the TaqMan rRT-PCR. Sensitivity of the new nested PCR was calculated using a panel of 87 samples collected during 2011-2013.

Results And Conclusion: The percentage of dengue IgM/IgG ELISA positive cases that were negative by the nested RT-PCR varied from 17% to 42% for all serotypes depending on the year. Using TaqMan rRT-PCR, dengue RNA was detected in 194 (61%) of the 318 acute sera or extracted RNA previously found to be negative by the nested RT-PCR. The newly designed DENV-1 specific primer increased the sensitivity of DENV-1 detection by the nested RT-PCR from 48% to 88%, and of all 4 serotypes from 73% to 87%. These findings demonstrate the impact of genetic diversity and signal erosion on the sensitivity of PCR-based methods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcv.2014.12.009DOI Listing
February 2015

Multicountry prospective clinical evaluation of two enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays and two rapid diagnostic tests for diagnosing dengue fever.

J Clin Microbiol 2015 Apr 14;53(4):1092-102. Epub 2015 Jan 14.

Naval Medical Research Center, Silver Spring, Maryland, USA.

We evaluated four dengue diagnostic devices from Alere, including the SD Bioline Dengue Duo (nonstructural [NS] 1 Ag and IgG/IgM), the Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette (IgM/IgG) rapid diagnostic tests (RDTs), and the Panbio dengue IgM and IgG capture enzyme-linked immunosorbent assays (ELISAs) in a prospective, controlled, multicenter study in Peru, Venezuela, Cambodia, and the United States, using samples from 1,021 febrile individuals. Archived, well-characterized samples from an additional 135 febrile individuals from Thailand were also used. Reference testing was performed on all samples using an algorithm involving virus isolation, in-house IgM and IgG capture ELISAs, and plaque reduction neutralization tests (PRNT) to determine the infection status of the individual. The primary endpoints were the clinical sensitivities and specificities of these devices. The SD Bioline Dengue Duo had an overall sensitivity of 87.3% (95% confidence interval [CI], 84.1 to 90.2%) and specificity of 86.8% (95% CI, 83.9 to 89.3%) during the first 14 days post-symptom onset (p.s.o.). The Panbio Dengue Duo Cassette demonstrated a sensitivity of 92.1% (87.8 to 95.2%) and specificity of 62.2% (54.5 to 69.5%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. The Panbio IgM capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 87.6% (82.7 to 91.4%) and specificity of 88.1% (82.2 to 92.6%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. Finally, the Panbio IgG capture ELISA had a sensitivity of 69.6% (62.1 to 76.4%) and a specificity of 88.4% (82.6 to 92.8%) during days 4 to 14 p.s.o. for identification of secondary dengue infections. This multicountry prospective study resulted in reliable real-world performance data that will facilitate data-driven laboratory test choices for managing patient care during dengue outbreaks.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.03042-14DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4365197PMC
April 2015

Dengue virus neutralizing antibody levels associated with protection from infection in thai cluster studies.

PLoS Negl Trop Dis 2014 Oct 16;8(10):e3230. Epub 2014 Oct 16.

Department of Virology, Armed Forces Research Institute of Medical Sciences, Bangkok, Thailand.

Background: Long-term homologous and temporary heterologous protection from dengue virus (DENV) infection may be mediated by neutralizing antibodies. However, neutralizing antibody titers (NTs) have not been clearly associated with protection from infection.

Methodology/principal Findings: Data from two geographic cluster studies conducted in Kamphaeng Phet, Thailand were used for this analysis. In the first study (2004-2007), cluster investigations of 100-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases from a concurrent prospective cohort. Subjects between 6 months and 15 years old were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 15 by DENV PCR and IgM ELISA. In the second study (2009-2012), clusters of 200-meter radius were triggered by DENV-infected index cases admitted to the provincial hospital. Subjects of any age ≥6 months were evaluated for DENV infection at days 0 and 14. In both studies, subjects who were DENV PCR positive at day 14/15 were considered to have been "susceptible" on day 0. Comparison subjects from houses in which someone had documented DENV infection, but the subject remained DENV negative at days 0 and 14/15, were considered "non-susceptible." Day 0 samples were presumed to be from just before virus exposure, and underwent plaque reduction neutralization testing (PRNT). Seventeen "susceptible" (six DENV-1, five DENV-2, and six DENV-4), and 32 "non-susceptible" (13 exposed to DENV-1, 10 DENV-2, and 9 DENV-4) subjects were evaluated. Comparing subjects exposed to the same serotype, receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves identified homotypic PRNT titers of 11, 323 and 16 for DENV-1, -2 and -4, respectively, to differentiate "susceptible" from "non-susceptible" subjects.

Conclusions/significance: PRNT titers were associated with protection from infection by DENV-1, -2 and -4. Protective NTs appeared to be serotype-dependent and may be higher for DENV-2 than other serotypes. These findings are relevant for both dengue epidemiology studies and vaccine development efforts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pntd.0003230DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199527PMC
October 2014
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