**24** Publications

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Sci Rep 2022 Jan 13;12(1):708. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Due to its nature as a strongly correlated quantum liquid, ultracold helium is characterized by the nontrivial interplay of different physical effects. Bosonic [Formula: see text] exhibits superfluidity and Bose-Einstein condensation. Its physical properties have been accurately determined on the basis of ab initio path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations. In contrast, the corresponding theoretical description of fermionic [Formula: see text] is severely hampered by the notorious fermion sign problem, and previous PIMC results have been derived by introducing the uncontrolled fixed-node approximation. In this work, we present extensive new PIMC simulations of normal liquid [Formula: see text] without any nodal constraints. This allows us to to unambiguously quantify the impact of Fermi statistics and to study the effects of temperature on different physical properties like the static structure factor [Formula: see text], the momentum distribution [Formula: see text], and the static density response function [Formula: see text]. In addition, the dynamic structure factor [Formula: see text] is rigorously reconstructed from imaginary-time PIMC data. From simulations of [Formula: see text], we derived the familiar phonon-maxon-roton dispersion function that is well-known for [Formula: see text] and has been reported previously for two-dimensional [Formula: see text] films (Nature 483:576-579 (2012)). The comparison of our new results for both [Formula: see text] and [Formula: see text] with neutron scattering measurements reveals an excellent agreement between theory and experiment.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-04355-9 | DOI Listing |

January 2022

J Phys Condens Matter 2022 Jan 13. Epub 2022 Jan 13.

Department of Astronomy, University of California - Berkeley, Berkeley CA 94720-3411, USA, Berkeley, California, 94720, UNITED STATES.

We perform ab initio simulations of beryllium (Be) and magnesium oxide (MgO) at megabar pressures and compare their structural and thermodynamic properties. We make a detailed comparison of our two recently derived phase diagrams of Be [Wu et al., Phys. Rev. B 104, 014103 (2021)] and MgO [Soubiran and Militzer, Phys. Rev. Lett. 125, 175701 (2020)] using the thermodynamic integration technique, as they exhibit striking similarities regarding their shape. We explore whether the Lindemann criterion can explain the melting temperatures of these materials through the calculation of the Debye temperature at high pressure. From our free energy calculations, we obtained a melting curve for Be that is well represented by the ﬁt Tm(P) = 1564K*[1 + P/(15.8037 GPa)]^0.414 , and a melting line of MgO, which can be well reproduced by the ﬁt Tm(P) = 3010K*(1 + P/a)^(1/c) with a = 10.5797 GPa and c = 2.8683 for the B1 phase and a = 26.1163 GPa and c = 2.2426 for the B2 phase. Both materials exhibit negative Clapeyron slopes on the boundaries between the two solid phases that are strongly aﬀected by anharmonic eﬀects, which also inﬂuences the location of the solid-solid-liquid triple point. We ﬁnd that the quasi-harmonic approximation underestimates the stability range of the low-pressure phases, namely hcp for Be and B1 for MgO. We also compute the phonon dispersion relations at low and high pressure for each of the phases of these materials, and also explore how the phonon density of states is modiﬁed by temperature. Finally, we derive secondary shock Hugoniot curves in addition to the principal Hugoniot curve for both materials, and study their oﬀsets in pressure between solid and liquid branches.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-648X/ac4b2a | DOI Listing |

January 2022

Phys Rev E 2021 Nov;104(5-2):055206

Center for Advanced Systems Understanding (CASUS), D-02826 Görlitz, Germany.

We carry out extensive direct path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) simulations of the uniform electron gas (UEG) at finite temperature for different values of the spin-polarization ξ. This allows us to unambiguously quantify the impact of spin effects on the momentum distribution function n(k) and related properties. We find that interesting physical effects like the interaction-induced increase in the occupation of the zero-momentum state n(0) substantially depend on ξ. Our results further advance the current understanding of the UEG as a fundamental model system, and are of practical relevance for the description of transport properties of warm dense matter in an external magnetic field. All PIMC results are freely available online and can be used as a benchmark for the development of methods and applications.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.104.055206 | DOI Listing |

November 2021

Phys Rev E 2021 Jan;103(1-1):013203

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

We put together a first-principles equation of state (FPEOS) database for matter at extreme conditions by combining results from path integral Monte Carlo and density functional molecular dynamics simulations of the elements H, He, B, C, N, O, Ne, Na, Mg, Al, and Si as well as the compounds LiF, B_{4}C, BN, CH_{4}, CH_{2}, C_{2}H_{3}, CH, C_{2}H, MgO, and MgSiO_{3}. For all these materials, we provide the pressure and internal energy over a density-temperature range from ∼0.5 to 50 g cm^{-3} and from ∼10^{4} to 10^{9} K, which are based on ∼5000 different first-principles simulations. We compute isobars, adiabats, and shock Hugoniot curves in the regime of L- and K-shell ionization. Invoking the linear mixing approximation, we study the properties of mixtures at high density and temperature. We derive the Hugoniot curves for water and alumina as well as for carbon-oxygen, helium-neon, and CH-silicon mixtures. We predict the maximal shock compression ratios of H_{2}O, H_{2}O_{2}, Al_{2}O_{3}, CO, and CO_{2} to be 4.61, 4.64, 4.64, 4.89, and 4.83, respectively. Finally we use the FPEOS database to determine the points of maximum shock compression for all available binary mixtures. We identify mixtures that reach higher shock compression ratios than their end members. We discuss trends common to all mixtures in pressure-temperature and particle-shock velocity spaces. In the Supplemental Material, we provide all FPEOS tables as well as computer codes for interpolation, Hugoniot calculations, and plots of various thermodynamic functions.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.103.013203 | DOI Listing |

January 2021

Phys Rev E 2020 Nov;102(5-1):053203

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

Boron carbide (B_{4}C) is of both fundamental scientific and practical interest due to its structural complexity and how it changes upon compression, as well as its many industrial uses and potential for use in inertial confinement fusion (ICF) and high-energy density physics experiments. We report the results of a comprehensive computational study of the equation of state (EOS) of B_{4}C in the liquid, warm dense matter, and plasma phases. Our calculations are cross-validated by comparisons with Hugoniot measurements up to 61 megabar from planar shock experiments performed at the National Ignition Facility (NIF). Our computational methods include path integral Monte Carlo, activity expansion, as well as all-electron Green's function Korringa-Kohn-Rostoker and molecular dynamics that are both based on density functional theory. We calculate the pressure-internal energy EOS of B_{4}C over a broad range of temperatures (∼6×10^{3}-5×10^{8} K) and densities (0.025-50 g/cm^{3}). We assess that the largest discrepancies between theoretical predictions are ≲5% near the compression maximum at 1-2×10^{6} K. This is the warm-dense state in which the K shell significantly ionizes and has posed grand challenges to theory and experiment. By comparing with different EOS models, we find a Purgatorio model (LEOS 2122) that agrees with our calculations. The maximum discrepancies in pressure between our first-principles predictions and LEOS 2122 are ∼18% and occur at temperatures between 6×10^{3}-2×10^{5} K, which we believe originate from differences in the ion thermal term and the cold curve that are modeled in LEOS 2122 in comparison with our first-principles calculations. To account for potential differences in the ion thermal term, we have developed three new equation-of-state models that are consistent with theoretical calculations and experiment. We apply these new models to 1D hydrodynamic simulations of a polar direct-drive NIF implosion, demonstrating that these new models are now available for future ICF design studies.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.102.053203 | DOI Listing |

November 2020

J Chem Phys 2020 Nov;153(18):184101

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

We study nonideal mixing effects in the regime of warm dense matter (WDM) by computing the shock Hugoniot curves of BN, MgO, and MgSiO. First, we derive these curves from the equations of state (EOS) of the fully interacting systems, which were obtained using a combination of path integral Monte Carlo calculations at high temperature and density functional molecular dynamics simulations at lower temperatures. We then use the ideal mixing approximation at constant pressure and temperature to rederive these Hugoniot curves from the EOS tables of the individual elements. We find that the linear mixing approximation works remarkably well at temperatures above ∼2 × 10 K, where the shock compression ratio exceeds ∼3.2. The shape of the Hugoniot curve of each compound is well reproduced. Regions of increased shock compression, which emerge because of the ionization of L and K shell electrons, are well represented, and the maximum compression ratio of the Hugoniot curves is reproduced with high precision. Some deviations are seen near the onset of the L shell ionization regime, where ionization equilibrium in the fully interacting system cannot be well reproduced by the ideal mixing approximation. This approximation also breaks down at lower temperatures, where chemical bonds play an increasingly important role. However, the results imply that the equilibrium properties of binary and ternary mixtures in the regime of WDM can be derived from the EOS tables of the individual elements. This significantly simplifies the characterization of binary and ternary mixtures in the WDM and plasma phases, which otherwise requires large numbers of more computationally expensive first-principles computer simulations.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0023232 | DOI Listing |

November 2020

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Oct;125(17):175701

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

With density functional molecular dynamics simulations, we computed the phase diagram of MgO from 50 to 2000 GPa up to 20 000 K. Via thermodynamic integration (TDI), we derive the Gibbs free energies of the B1, B2, and liquid phases and determine their phase boundaries. With TDI and a pseudo-quasi-harmonic approach, we show that anharmonic effects are important and stabilize the B1 phase in particular. As a result, the B1-B2 transition boundary in the pressure-temperature plane exhibits a steep slope. We predict the B1-B2-liquid triple point to occur at approximately T=10000 K and P=370 GPa, which is higher in pressure than was inferred with quasiharmonic methods alone. We predict the principal shock Hugoniot curve to enter the B2 phase stability domain but only over a very small range of parameters. This may render it difficult to observe this phase with shock experiments because of kinetic effects.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.175701 | DOI Listing |

October 2020

J Chem Phys 2020 Sep;153(9):094111

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

The high-pressure properties of fluorine and chlorine are not yet well understood because both are highly reactive and volatile elements, which have made conducting diamond anvil cell and x-ray diffraction experiments a challenge. Here, we use ab initio methods to search for stable crystal structures of both elements at megabar pressures. We demonstrate how symmetry and geometric constraints can be combined to efficiently generate crystal structures that are composed of diatomic molecules. Our algorithm extends the symmetry driven structure search method [R. Domingos et al., Phys. Rev. B 98, 174107 (2018)] by adding constraints for the bond length and the number of atoms in a molecule while still maintaining generality. As a method of validation, we have tested our approach for dense hydrogen and reproduced the known molecular structures of Cmca-12 and Cmca-4. We apply our algorithm to study chlorine and fluorine in the pressure range of 10 GPa-4000 GPa while considering crystal structures with up to 40 atoms per unit cell. We predict chlorine to follow the same series of phase transformations as elemental iodine from Cmca to Immm to Fm3¯m, but at substantially higher pressures. We predict fluorine to transition from a C2/c to Cmca structure at 70 GPa, to a novel orthorhombic and metallic structure with P4/mmc symmetry at 2500 GPa, and finally to its cubic analog form with Pm3¯n symmetry at 3000 GPa.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/5.0018402 | DOI Listing |

September 2020

J Chem Phys 2019 Dec;151(21):214104

We combine two first-principles computer simulation techniques, path integral Monte Carlo and density functional theory molecular dynamics, to determine the equation of state of magnesium oxide in the regime of warm dense matter, with densities ranging from 0.35 to 71 g cm and temperatures ranging from 10 000 K to 5 × 10 K. These conditions are relevant for the interiors of giant planets and stars as well as for shock wave compression measurements and inertial confinement fusion experiments. We study the electronic structure of MgO and the ionization mechanisms as a function of density and temperature. We show that the L-shell orbitals of magnesium and oxygen hybridize at high density. This results in a gradual ionization of the L-shell with increasing density and temperature. In this regard, MgO behaves differently from pure oxygen, which is reflected in the shape of the MgO principal shock Hugoniot curve. The curve of oxygen shows two compression maxima, while that of MgO shows only one. We predict a maximum compression ratio of 4.66 to occur for a temperature of 6.73 × 10 K. Finally, we study how multiple shocks and ramp waves can be used to cover a large range of densities and temperatures.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5126624 | DOI Listing |

December 2019

Phys Rev E 2018 Aug;98(2-1):023205

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

We report a theoretical equation of state (EOS) table for boron across a wide range of temperatures (5.1×10^{4}-5.2×10^{8} K) and densities (0.25-49 g/cm^{3}) and experimental shock Hugoniot data at unprecedented high pressures (5608±118 GPa). The calculations are performed with first-principles methods combining path-integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) at high temperatures and density-functional-theory molecular-dynamics (DFT-MD) methods at lower temperatures. PIMC and DFT-MD cross-validate each other by providing coherent EOS (difference <1.5 Hartree/boron in energy and <5% in pressure) at 5.1×10^{5} K. The Hugoniot measurement is conducted at the National Ignition Facility using a planar shock platform. The pressure-density relation found in our shock experiment is on top of the shock Hugoniot profile predicted with our first-principles EOS and a semiempirical EOS table (LEOS 50). We investigate the self-diffusivity and the effect of thermal and pressure-driven ionization on the EOS and shock compression behavior in high-pressure and -temperature conditions. We also study the sensitivity of a polar direct-drive exploding pusher platform to pressure variations based on applying pressure multipliers to LEOS 50 and by utilizing a new EOS model based on our ab initio simulations via one-dimensional radiation-hydrodynamic calculations. The results are valuable for future theoretical and experimental studies and engineering design in high-energy density research.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.98.023205 | DOI Listing |

August 2018

Nat Commun 2018 09 24;9(1):3883. Epub 2018 Sep 24.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, CA, 94720, USA.

Super-Earths are extremely common among the numerous exoplanets that have been discovered. The high pressures and temperatures in their interiors are likely to lead to long-lived magma oceans. If their electrical conductivity is sufficiently high, the mantles of Super-Earth would generate their own magnetic fields. With ab initio simulations, we show that upon melting, the behavior of typical mantle silicates changes from semi-conducting to semi-metallic. The electrical conductivity increases and the optical properties are substantially modified. Melting could thus be detected with high-precision reflectivity measurements during the short time scales of shock experiments. We estimate the electrical conductivity of mantle silicates to be of the order of 100 Ω cm, which implies that a magnetic dynamo process would develop in the magma oceans of Super-Earths if their convective velocities have typical values of 1 mm/s or higher. We predict exoplanets with rotation periods longer than 2 days to have multipolar magnetic fields.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06432-6 | DOI Listing |

http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6155165 | PMC |

September 2018

J Chem Phys 2018 Mar;148(10):102318

Carbon-hydrogen plasmas and hydrocarbon materials are of broad interest to laser shock experimentalists, high energy density physicists, and astrophysicists. Accurate equations of state (EOSs) of hydrocarbons are valuable for various studies from inertial confinement fusion to planetary science. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics results at lower temperatures, we compute the EOSs for hydrocarbons from simulations performed at 1473 separate (ρ, T)-points distributed over a range of compositions. These methods accurately treat electronic excitation effects with neither adjustable parameter nor experimental input. PIMC is also an accurate simulation method that is capable of treating many-body interaction and nuclear quantum effects at finite temperatures. These methods therefore provide a benchmark-quality EOS that surpasses that of semi-empirical and Thomas-Fermi-based methods in the warm dense matter regime. By comparing our first-principles EOS to the LEOS 5112 model for CH, we validate the specific heat assumptions in this model but suggest that the Grüneisen parameter is too large at low temperatures. Based on our first-principles EOSs, we predict the principal Hugoniot curve of polystyrene to be 2%-5% softer at maximum shock compression than that predicted by orbital-free density functional theory and SESAME 7593. By investigating the atomic structure and chemical bonding of hydrocarbons, we show a drastic decrease in the lifetime of chemical bonds in the pressure interval from 0.4 to 4 megabar. We find the assumption of linear mixing to be valid for describing the EOS and the shock Hugoniot curve of hydrocarbons in the regime of partially ionized atomic liquids. We make predictions of the shock compression of glow-discharge polymers and investigate the effects of oxygen content and C:H ratio on its Hugoniot curve. Our full suite of first-principles simulation results may be used to benchmark future theoretical investigations pertaining to hydrocarbon EOSs and should be helpful in guiding the design of future experiments on hydrocarbons in the gigabar regime.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.5001208 | DOI Listing |

March 2018

Phys Rev E 2017 Jul 10;96(1-1):013204. Epub 2017 Jul 10.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA and Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

We use path integral Monte Carlo and density functional molecular dynamics to construct a coherent set of equations of state (EOS) for a series of hydrocarbon materials with various C:H ratios (2:1, 1:1, 2:3, 1:2, and 1:4) over the range of 0.07-22.4gcm^{-3} and 6.7×10^{3}-1.29×10^{8}K. The shock Hugoniot curve derived for each material displays a single compression maximum corresponding to K-shell ionization. For C:H = 1:1, the compression maximum occurs at 4.7-fold of the initial density and we show radiation effects significantly increase the shock compression ratio above 2 Gbar, surpassing relativistic effects. The single-peaked structure of the Hugoniot curves contrasts with previous work on higher-Z plasmas, which exhibit a two-peak structure corresponding to both K- and L-shell ionization. Analysis of the electronic density of states reveals that the change in Hugoniot structure is due to merging of the L-shell eigenstates in carbon, while they remain distinct for higher-Z elements. Finally, we show that the isobaric-isothermal linear mixing rule for carbon and hydrogen EOS is a reasonable approximation with errors better than 1% for stellar-core conditions.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevE.96.013204 | DOI Listing |

July 2017

J Chem Phys 2017 Feb;146(7):074505

As one of the simple alkali metals, sodium has been of fundamental interest for shock physics experiments, but knowledge of its equation of state (EOS) in hot, dense regimes is not well known. By combining path integral Monte Carlo (PIMC) results for partially ionized states [B. Militzer and K. P. Driver, Phys. Rev. Lett. 115, 176403 (2015)] at high temperatures and density functional theory molecular dynamics (DFT-MD) results at lower temperatures, we have constructed a coherent equation of state for sodium over a wide density-temperature range of 1.93-11.60 g/cm and 10-1.29×10 K. We find that a localized, Hartree-Fock nodal structure in PIMC yields pressures and internal energies that are consistent with DFT-MD at intermediate temperatures of 2×10 K. Since PIMC and DFT-MD provide a first-principles treatment of electron shell and excitation effects, we are able to identify two compression maxima in the shock Hugoniot curve corresponding to K-shell and L-shell ionization. Our Hugoniot curves provide a benchmark for widely used EOS models: SESAME, LEOS, and Purgatorio. Due to the low ambient density, sodium has an unusually high first compression maximum along the shock Hugoniot curve. At beyond 10 K, we show that the radiation effect leads to very high compression along the Hugoniot curve, surpassing relativistic corrections, and observe an increasing deviation of the shock and particle velocities from a linear relation. We also compute the temperature-density dependence of thermal and pressure ionization processes.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.4976559 | DOI Listing |

February 2017

Phys Rev Lett 2015 Oct 22;115(17):176403. Epub 2015 Oct 22.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California, Berkeley 94720, USA.

We extend the applicability range of fermionic path integral Monte Carlo simulations to heavier elements and lower temperatures by introducing various localized nodal surfaces. Hartree-Fock nodes yield the most accurate prediction for pressure and internal energy, which we combine with the results from density functional molecular dynamics simulations to obtain a consistent equation of state for hot, dense silicon under plasma conditions and in the regime of warm dense matter (2.3-18.6 g cm(-3), 5.0×10(5)-1.3×10(8) K). The shock Hugoniot curve is derived and the structure of the fluid is characterized with various pair correlation functions.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.115.176403 | DOI Listing |

October 2015

Phys Rev Lett 2013 Apr 8;110(15):151102. Epub 2013 Apr 8.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science and Department of Astronomy, University of California, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Using density functional molecular dynamics free energy calculations, we show that the body centered cubic (bcc) phase of superionic ice previously believed to be the only phase is, in fact, thermodynamically unstable compared to a novel phase with oxygen positions in face centered cubic lattice sites. The novel phase has a lower proton mobility than the bcc phase and may exhibit a higher melting temperature. We predict a transition between the two phases at a pressure of 1±0.5 Mbar, with potential consequences for the interiors of ice giants such as Uranus and Neptune.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.110.151102 | DOI Listing |

April 2013

Phys Rev Lett 2012 Mar 14;108(11):111101. Epub 2012 Mar 14.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

Gas giants are believed to form by the accretion of hydrogen-helium gas around an initial protocore of rock and ice. The question of whether the rocky parts of the core dissolve into the fluid H-He layers following formation has significant implications for planetary structure and evolution. Here we use ab initio calculations to study rock solubility in fluid hydrogen, choosing MgO as a representative example of planetary rocky materials, and find MgO to be highly soluble in H for temperatures in excess of approximately 10,000 K, implying the potential for significant redistribution of rocky core material in Jupiter and larger exoplanets.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.108.111101 | DOI Listing |

March 2012

Phys Rev Lett 2010 Nov 2;105(19):195701. Epub 2010 Nov 2.

Based on density functional calculations we predict water ice to attain two new crystal structures with Pbca and Cmcm symmetry at 7.6 and 15.5 Mbar, respectively. The known high-pressure ice phases VII, VIII, X, and Pbcm as well as the Pbca phase are all insulating and composed of two interpenetrating hydrogen bonded networks, but the Cmcm structure is metallic and consists of corrugated sheets of H and O atoms. The H atoms are squeezed into octahedral positions between next-nearest O atoms while they occupy tetrahedral positions between nearest O atoms in the ice X, Pbcm, and Pbca phases.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.105.195701 | DOI Listing |

November 2010

Phys Rev Lett 2010 Mar 22;104(12):121101. Epub 2010 Mar 22.

Department of Earth and Planetary Science, University of California Berkeley, Berkeley, California 94720, USA.

The Galileo probe showed that Jupiter's atmosphere is severely depleted in neon compared to protosolar values. We show via ab initio simulations of the partitioning of neon between hydrogen-helium phases that the observed depletion can be explained by the sequestration of neon into helium-rich droplets within the postulated hydrogen-helium immiscibility layer of the planets interior. We also demonstrate that this mechanism will not affect argon explaining the observed lack of depletion of this gas. This provides strong indirect evidence for hydrogen-helium immiscibility in Jupiter.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.104.121101 | DOI Listing |

March 2010

Chem Rev 2007 Oct 13;107(10):4133-51. Epub 2007 Sep 13.

Carnegie Institution of Washington, Geophysical Laboratory, 5251 Broad Branch Road, NW, Washington, DC 20015, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/cr050183d | DOI Listing |

October 2007

Nature 2006 Sep;443(7108):150-1

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/443150a | DOI Listing |

September 2006

J Chem Phys 2004 Nov;121(17):8423-7

Geophysical Laboratory, Carnegie Institution of Washington, Washington, DC 20015, USA.

The melting curve of H(2)O has been measured by in situ Raman spectroscopy in an externally heated diamond anvil cell up to 22 GPa and 900 K. The Raman-active OH-stretching bands and the translational modes of H(2)O as well as optical observations are used to directly and reliably detect melting in ice VII. The observed melting temperatures are higher than previously reported x-ray measurements and significantly lower than recent laser-heating determinations. However, our results are in accord with earlier optical determinations. The frequencies and intensities of the OH-stretching peaks change significantly across the melting line while the translational mode disappears altogether in the liquid phase. The observed OH-stretching bands of liquid water at high pressure are very similar to those obtained in shock-wave Raman measurements.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.1784438 | DOI Listing |

November 2004

Phys Rev Lett 2003 Dec 29;91(26 Pt 1):265503. Epub 2003 Dec 29.

Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

Using first principles simulations we have investigated the structural and bonding properties of dense fluid oxygen up to 180 GPa. We have found that band gap closure occurs in the molecular liquid, with a "slow" transition from a semiconducting to a poor metallic state occurring over a wide pressure range. At approximately 80 GPa, molecular dissociation is observed in the metallic fluid. Spin fluctuations play a key role in determining the electronic structure of the low pressure fluid, while they are suppressed at high pressure.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.91.265503 | DOI Listing |

December 2003

Phys Rev Lett 2002 Dec 27;89(28 Pt 1):280401. Epub 2002 Dec 27.

Physics Department, Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory, University of California, Livermore, California 94550, USA.

Interactions never lower the ground state kinetic energy of a quantum system below the noninteracting value. However, at nonzero temperature, where the system occupies a thermal distribution of states, interactions can reduce the kinetic energy. This can be demonstrated from a first order weak coupling expansion. Simulations (both variational and restricted path integral Monte Carlo) of the electron gas model and dense hydrogen confirm this and show that in contrast to the ground state case, at nonzero temperature the population of low momentum states can be increased relative to the free Fermi distribution. This effect is not seen in simulations of liquid 3He.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.89.280401 | DOI Listing |

December 2002

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