Publications by authors named "Burden D"

169 Publications

HCl uptake through films of pentanoic acid and pentanoic acid/hexanol mixtures at the surface of sulfuric acid.

J Phys Chem A 2009 Dec;113(51):14131-40

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1101 University Avenue, Madison, Wisconsin 53706-1322, USA.

Molecular beam scattering experiments are used to investigate collisions and reactions of HCl with deuterated sulfuric acid containing 0-0.2 M pentanoic acid (PA) and mixtures of PA and hexanol. Surface tension measurements at 296 K indicate that PA segregates to the surface of the acid, reaching coverages of 58% and 52% of maximum packing on 60 and 68 wt % D(2)SO(4), respectively. We find that these films increase HCl entry into the acid at low PA surface coverage at 213 K. This enhancement is attributed to the dissociation of HCl molecules that come into contact with surface COOH groups and protonate them. At higher coverages, the PA film becomes more compact and impedes HCl uptake. Comparisons with films of pure hexanol and pentanoic acid/hexanol mixtures indicate that surface OH groups are more effective than COOH groups in catalyzing HCl entry. They also suggest that the PA films consist of patchy regions of tightly packed molecules, which are pushed away from the surface upon addition of the more surface active hexanol. HCl entry into the pure and mixed films can be analyzed quantitatively using a two-step model in which adsorbed HCl molecules penetrate between the alkyl chains and then dissociate at the surfactant-acid interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp9072119DOI Listing
December 2009

Self-perception of dentofacial attractiveness among patients requiring orthognathic surgery.

Angle Orthod 2010 Mar;80(2):361-6

Department of Orthodontics, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Objective: To test the hypothesis that the self-perception of dental and facial attractiveness among patients requiring orthognathic surgery is no different from that of control patients.

Materials And Methods: Happiness with dental and facial appearance was assessed using questionnaires completed by 162 patients who required orthognathic treatment and 157 control subjects. Visual analog scale, binary, and open response data were collected. Analysis was carried out using a general linear model, logistic regression, and chi-square tests.

Results: Orthognathic patients were less happy with their dental appearance than were controls. Class II patients and women had lower happiness scores for their dental appearance. Among orthognathic patients, the "shape" and "prominence" of their teeth were the most frequent causes of concern. Older subjects, women, and orthognathic patients were less happy with their facial appearance. Class III orthognathic patients, older subjects, and women were more likely to have looked at their own face in profile. A greater proportion of Class II subjects than Class III subjects wished to change their appearance.

Conclusions: The hypothesis is rejected. The findings indicate that women and patients requiring orthognathic surgery had lower levels of happiness with their dentofacial appearance. Although Class II patients exhibited the lowest levels of happiness with their dental appearance, there was some evidence that concerns and awareness about their facial profile were more pronounced among the Class III patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2319/051209-252.1DOI Listing
March 2010

Psychological status of patients referred for orthognathic correction of skeletal II and III discrepancies.

Angle Orthod 2010 Jan;80(1):43-8

Department of Orthodontics, School of Medicine, Dentistry and Biomedical Science, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Objective: To establish the extent of psychological problems among patients who require orthognathic treatment.

Materials And Methods: Five aspects of psychological functioning were assessed for 162 patients who required orthognathic treatment and compared with 157 control subjects.

Results: Analysis of variance did not detect any significant difference in the five psychological scores recorded for the skeletal II, skeletal III, and control groups. The proportion of subjects with one or more psychological measure beyond the normal range was 27% for skeletal II subjects, 25% for skeletal III subjects, and 26% for control subjects. One skeletal II subject (1.5%), three skeletal III subjects (3%), and five control subjects (3%) required referral for psychological counseling.

Conclusions: The orthognathic patients did not differ significantly from the control subjects in their psychological status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2319/022709-114.1DOI Listing
January 2010

Virtual patients in a virtual world: Training paramedic students for practice.

Med Teach 2009 Aug;31(8):713-20

St. George's University of London, UK.

Collaborative learning through case-based or problem-based learning (PBL) scenarios is an excellent way for students to acquire knowledge and develop decision-making skills. However, the process is threatened by the movement towards more self-directed learning and the migration of students from campus-based to workplace-based learning. Paper-based PBL cases can only proceed in a single direction which can prevent learners from exploring the impact of their decisions. The PREVIEW project, outlined in this article, trialled a replacement to traditional paper PBL with virtual patients (VPs) delivered through a virtual world platform. The idea was that an immersive 3D environment could provide (a) greater realism (b) active decision-making and (c) a suitable environment for collaboration amongst work-based learners meeting remotely. Five VP scenarios were designed for learners on a Paramedic Foundation Degree within the virtual world second life (SL). A player using the MedBiquitous VP international standard allowed cases to be played both within SL and on the web. Three testing days were run to evaluate the scenarios with paramedic students and tutors. Students unfamiliar with the SL environment worked through five PBL scenarios in small groups, shadowed by 'in-world' facilitators. Feedback indicated that the SL environment engages students effectively in learning, despite some technology barriers. Students believed SL could provide a more authentic learner environment than classroom-based PBL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/01421590903134160DOI Listing
August 2009

Heterogeneous translational dynamics of rhodamine B in polyelectrolyte multilayer thin films observed by single molecule microscopy.

Langmuir 2009 Jul;25(14):8330-9

Department of Chemistry, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL 60187, USA.

The lateral diffusion dynamics of rhodamine B (RB) in polyelectrolyte multilayer (PEM) thin films has been studied with single-molecule confocal fluorescence microscopy. The films were made with sodium poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate) (PSS) and poly(diallydimethlyammonium chloride) (PDDA). Analysis of the real-time emission intensity traces reveals three diverse components of translational motion: (1) fast diffusion of RB through the confocal detection volume; (2) reversible tracer adsorption processes; and (3) nanoconfined diffusion. These processes cover a wide range of time scales. Analysis via fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS) involves multicomponent fitting of the autocorrelated emission data. The model includes a free Brownian diffusion parameter, D, and two rate constants of desorption, k(-1) and k(-2). For RB in a PSS/PDDA thin film made with 0.01 M NaCl in the polyelectrolyte buildup solutions, D = 1.7 x 10(-7) cm(2)/s, k(-1) = 30 s(-1), and k(-2) = 0.1 s(-1). FCS was also performed on RB/PEM samples made with NaCl concentrations of the buildup solutions ranging from 0.01 to 0.7 M. A weak dependence of D and k(-1) on NaCl concentration was observed while k(-2) increased linearly with [NaCl].
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la900573wDOI Listing
July 2009

Solvation of nitrophenol isomers: consequences for solute electronic structure and alkane/water partitioning.

J Phys Chem B 2009 Jan;113(3):759-66

Department of Physical Sciences, York College of Pennsylvania, York, Pennsylvania 17405, USA.

Solute partitioning across a variety of alkane/aqueous interfaces was examined as a function of solute and alkane solvent structure. Solutes include p-nitrophenol (PNP), 3,5-dimethyl-p-nitrophenol (3,5-DMPNP), and 2,6-dimethyl-p-nitrophenol (2,6-DMPNP), the latter two being isomers distinguished solely by the location of methyl substituents on the aromatic ring. The alkane solvents included cylohexane, methylcyclohexane, octane, and iso-octane (2,2,4-trimethylpentane). PNP partitioned preferentially into the water by factors as high as 160:1. The dimethyl isomers partitioned more equally between water and the different alkanes. 2,6-DMPNP showed a 3-fold greater affinity for the alkane phase than 3,5-DMPNP. Ab initio calculations were used to characterize the molecular and electronic structure of the three solutes and to quantify individual contributions to each solute's solvation energy in model aqueous and alkane phases. Differences between 2,6-DMPNP and 3,5-DMPNP partitioning are interpreted based on the ability of the methyl groups in 2,6-DMPNP to weaken hydrogen bonding between the phenol group and adjacent water molecules. This diminished solvation interaction reduces the barrier to solute migration into the nonpolar organic phase despite the fact that 2,6-DMPNP has a larger (calculated) permanent, ground-state dipole than 3,5-DMPNP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp805184wDOI Listing
January 2009

Surfactant control of gas transport and reactions at the surface of sulfuric acid.

Acc Chem Res 2009 Feb;42(2):379-87

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Aerosol particles in the atmosphere are tiny chemical reactors that catalyze numerous reactions, including the conversion of benign gases into ozone-destroying ones. In the lower stratosphere, these particles are often supercooled mixtures of water and sulfuric acid. The different species present at the surface of these droplets (H(2)O, H(3)O(+), HSO(4)(-), H(2)SO(4), and SO(4)(2-)) stand at the "gas-liquid frontier"; as the first to be struck by impinging molecules, these species provide the initial environment for solvation and reaction. Furthermore, aerosol particles may contain a wide range of organic molecules, some of which migrate to the surface and coat the droplet. How do ambient gases dissolve in the droplet if it is coated with an organic layer? At one extreme, monolayer films of insoluble, long-chain alcohols can dramatically reduce gas transport, packing so tightly at the surface of water that they impede water evaporation by factors of 10,000 or more. Shorter chain surfactants are expected to pack less tightly, but we wondered whether these incomplete monolayers also block gas transport and whether this system could serve as a model for understanding the surfaces of atmospheric aerosol particles. To address these questions, our research focuses on small, soluble surfactants such as butanol and hexanol dissolved in supercooled sulfuric acid. These amphiphilic molecules spontaneously segregate to the surface and coat the acid but only to a degree. Gas-liquid scattering experiments reveal that these porous films behave in surprisingly diverse ways: they can impose a barrier (to N(2)O(5) hydrolysis), be "invisible" (to water evaporation), or even enhance gas uptake (of HCl). The transition from obstacle to catalyst can be traced to specific interactions between the surfactant and each gas. For example, the hydrolysis of N(2)O(5) may be impeded because of its large size and because alcohol molecules that straddle the interface limit contact between N(2)O(5) and its H(3)O(+) and H(2)O reaction partners. However, these same alcohol molecules assist HCl dissociation because the alcohol OH groups provide extra interfacial protonation sites. Interestingly, butanol does not impede water evaporation, in part because the butyl chains pack much more loosely than insoluble, long-chain surfactants. Through these investigations, we hope to gain insight into the mechanisms by which surfactants on sulfuric acid and other aqueous solutions affect transport and reactivity at the gas-liquid interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ar800172mDOI Listing
February 2009

Web GIS in practice VI: a demo playlist of geo-mashups for public health neogeographers.

Int J Health Geogr 2008 Jul 18;7:38. Epub 2008 Jul 18.

Faculty of Health and Social Work, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon PL48AA, UK.

'Mashup' was originally used to describe the mixing together of musical tracks to create a new piece of music. The term now refers to Web sites or services that weave data from different sources into a new data source or service. Using a musical metaphor that builds on the origin of the word 'mashup', this paper presents a demonstration "playlist" of four geo-mashup vignettes that make use of a range of Web 2.0, Semantic Web, and 3-D Internet methods, with outputs/end-user interfaces spanning the flat Web (two-dimensional - 2-D maps), a three-dimensional - 3-D mirror world (Google Earth) and a 3-D virtual world (Second Life). The four geo-mashup "songs" in this "playlist" are: 'Web 2.0 and GIS (Geographic Information Systems) for infectious disease surveillance', 'Web 2.0 and GIS for molecular epidemiology', 'Semantic Web for GIS mashup', and 'From Yahoo! Pipes to 3-D, avatar-inhabited geo-mashups'. It is hoped that this showcase of examples and ideas, and the pointers we are providing to the many online tools that are freely available today for creating, sharing and reusing geo-mashups with minimal or no coding, will ultimately spark the imagination of many public health practitioners and stimulate them to start exploring the use of these methods and tools in their day-to-day practice. The paper also discusses how today's Web is rapidly evolving into a much more intensely immersive, mixed-reality and ubiquitous socio-experiential Metaverse that is heavily interconnected through various kinds of user-created mashups.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-7-38DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2491600PMC
July 2008

C-reactive protein in psoriasis.

Br J Dermatol 2008 Feb 7;158(2):417-9. Epub 2007 Dec 7.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2007.08334.xDOI Listing
February 2008

Web GIS in practice V: 3-D interactive and real-time mapping in Second Life.

Int J Health Geogr 2007 Nov 27;6:51. Epub 2007 Nov 27.

Faculty of Health and Social Work, University of Plymouth, Drake Circus, Plymouth, Devon, PL4 8AA, UK.

This paper describes technologies from Daden Limited for geographically mapping and accessing live news stories/feeds, as well as other real-time, real-world data feeds (e.g., Google Earth KML feeds and GeoRSS feeds) in the 3-D virtual world of Second Life, by plotting and updating the corresponding Earth location points on a globe or some other suitable form (in-world), and further linking those points to relevant information and resources. This approach enables users to visualise, interact with, and even walk or fly through, the plotted data in 3-D. Users can also do the reverse: put pins on a map in the virtual world, and then view the data points on the Web in Google Maps or Google Earth. The technologies presented thus serve as a bridge between mirror worlds like Google Earth and virtual worlds like Second Life. We explore the geo-data display potential of virtual worlds and their likely convergence with mirror worlds in the context of the future 3-D Internet or Metaverse, and reflect on the potential of such technologies and their future possibilities, e.g. their use to develop emergency/public health virtual situation rooms to effectively manage emergencies and disasters in real time. The paper also covers some of the issues associated with these technologies, namely user interface accessibility and individual privacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1476-072X-6-51DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2216085PMC
November 2007

Parent reports of the psychosocial functioning of children with cleft lip and/or palate.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2007 May;44(3):304-11

School of Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Objectives: (1) to determine the opinion of parents regarding the psychosocial functioning of their child with cleft lip and/or palate (CLP); (2) to identify predictors of psychosocial functioning; and (3) to determine the level of agreement between children with CLP and their parents.

Participants: One hundred twenty-nine parents of children with CLP and 96 parents of children without CLP participated in this cross-sectional study.

Outcome Measures: Parental opinion of the child's self-esteem, anxiety, happiness, and problems caused by facial appearance were assessed using visual analogue scales. Parents completed the Child Behavior Checklist and were interviewed.

Results: Children with CLP were more anxious (p < 0.05), less happy with their appearance (p < 0.001), and in general (p < 0.05) had lower self-esteem (p < 0.05) and greater behavioral problems (p < 0.001) compared with non-CLP children. Parents reported that their child with CLP was teased more often (p < 0.001) and was less satisfied with his/her speech (p < 0.01) compared with reports of parents in the control group. A number of factors affected parents' ratings of their child's psychosocial functioning (presence of CLP, appearance happiness, previous history of CLP, and visibility of scar). Children who had been teased were more anxious (p < or = 0.01), less happy with their appearance (p < 0.001) and had greater behavioral problems (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Parents of children with CLP reported various psychosocial problems among their children. Parents considered children who had been teased to have greater psychosocial problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/05-205DOI Listing
May 2007

A distributed algorithm for multi-tau autocorrelation.

Rev Sci Instrum 2007 Apr;78(4):044102

Chemistry Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, IL 60187, USA.

Network data-transfer times in distributed simulation environments can be reduced by performing data analysis at the remote source, if the analytical technique does not require the entire set of data at once. This novel multi-tau autocorrelation algorithm allows time-domain data records to be processed in discrete, distributed segments and combined at a later point in time. The new approach agrees with autocorrelation results performed by concatenating the discrete segments before correlation, but it operates with significantly shortened processing times. The multi-tau algorithm also benefits from reduced memory requirements since it does not require access to the entire data record at once, and from improved scalability since the multi-tau algorithm has order O(N), while fast Fourier transform autocorrelation algorithms have order O(N log N). This distributed algorithm has particular utility in simulations of fluorescence correlation spectroscopy or photon correlation spectroscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1063/1.2721116DOI Listing
April 2007

Numerical fluorescence correlation spectroscopy for the analysis of molecular dynamics under nonstandard conditions.

Anal Chem 2007 Jun 21;79(11):4031-9. Epub 2007 Apr 21.

Chemistry Department, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187, USA.

The suitability of mathematical models used to extract kinetic information from correlated data constitutes a significant issue in fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (FCS). Standard FCS equations are derived from a simple Gaussian approximation of the optical detection volume, but some investigations have suggested this traditional practice can lead to inaccurate and misleading conclusions under many experimental circumstances, particularly those encountered in one-photon confocal measurements. Furthermore, analytical models cannot be derived for all measurement scenarios. We describe a novel numerical approach to FCS that circumvents conventional analytical models, enabling meaningful analyses even under extraordinarily unusual measurement conditions. Numerical fluorescence correlation spectroscopy (NFCS) involves quantitatively matching experimental correlation curves with synthetic curves generated via diffusion simulation or direct calculation based on an experimentally determined 3D map of the detection volume. Model parameters are adjusted iteratively to minimize the residual differences between synthetic and experimental correlation curves. In order to reduce analysis time, we distribute calculations across a network of processors. As an example of this new approach, we demonstrate that synthetic autocorrelation curves correspond well with experimental data and that NFCS diffusion measurements of Rhodamine B remain constant, regardless of the distortion present in a confocal detection volume.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/ac062013mDOI Listing
June 2007

Filaggrin null alleles are not associated with psoriasis.

J Invest Dermatol 2007 Aug 5;127(8):1878-82. Epub 2007 Apr 5.

Epithelial Genetics Group, Human Genetics Unit, Division of Pathology and Neuroscience, University of Dundee, Ninewells Hospital and Medical School, Dundee, UK.

Psoriasis is a common skin disease with an etiology consistent with a multifactorial trait. Several psoriasis susceptibility loci are known, a number of which are also implicated in a predisposition to atopic dermatitis (AD), including the epidermal differentiation complex on chromosome 1q21. It has recently been shown in several replicate studies that prevalent null alleles for the filaggrin gene (FLG) on 1q21 are an important genetic factor in AD. Here, we examined the role of these FLG variants in psoriasis using case:control association studies comparing Irish and UK psoriasis cohorts (combined n=691) to ethnically matched populations (combined n=2117). No association was present for the two common European FLG mutations R501X and 2282del4 (combined chi2 P=0.989). In addition, the 3' end of the FLG open-reading frame was sequenced in a number of patients with differing types of psoriasis (plaque, guttate, palmoplantar, and late-onset), which excluded the possibility of a gain-of-function frameshift mutation such as those found in loricrin or certain keratin genes. These data suggest that FLG mutations are unlikely to be involved in genetic susceptibility to psoriasis and implies that there may be within-locus heterogeneity in chromosomal regions involved in both AD and psoriasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.jid.5700817DOI Listing
August 2007

The inhibition of N2O5 hydrolysis in sulfuric acid by 1-butanol and 1-hexanol surfactant coatings.

J Phys Chem A 2007 Apr 24;111(15):2921-9. Epub 2007 Mar 24.

Department of Chemistry, University of Wisconsin-Madison, Madison, Wisconsin 53706, USA.

Gas-liquid scattering experiments are used to measure the fraction of N2O5 molecules that are converted to HNO3 after colliding with 72 wt % H2SO4 containing 1-hexanol or 1-butanol at 216 K. These alcohols segregate to the surface of the acid, with saturation coverages estimated to be 60% of a close-packed monolayer for 1-hexanol and 44% of a close-packed monolayer for 1-butanol. We find that the alkyl films reduce the conversion of N2O5 to HNO3 from 0.15 on bare acid to 0.06 on the hexyl-coated acid and to 0.10 on the butyl-coated acid. The entry of HCl and HBr, however, is enhanced by the hexanol and butanol films. The hydrolysis of N2O5 may be inhibited because the alkyl chains restrict the transport of this large molecule and because the alcohol OH groups dilute the surface region, suppressing reaction between N2O5 and near-interfacial H3O+ or H2O. In contrast, the interfacial alcohol OH groups provide additional binding sites for HCl and HBr and help initiate ionization. These and previous scattering experiments indicate that short-chain alcohol surfactants impede or enhance sulfuric acid-mediated reactions in ways that depend on the chain length, liquid phase acidity, and nature of the gas molecule.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jp068228hDOI Listing
April 2007

A cephalometric study of Class II malocclusions treated with mandibular surgery.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2007 Jan;131(1):7.e1-8

Orthodontic Division, Oral Healthcare Research Centre, School of Dentistry, Queen's University, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Introduction: Class II malocclusion is often associated with retrognathic mandible. Some of these problems require surgical correction. The purposes of this study were to investigate treatment outcomes in patients with Class II malocclusions whose treatment included mandibular advancement surgery and to identify predictors of good outcomes.

Methods: Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs of 90 patients treated with mandibular advancement surgery by 57 consultant orthodontists in the United Kingdom before September 1998 were digitized, and cephalometric landmarks were identified. Paired samples t tests were used to compare the pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric values for each patient. For each cephalometric variable, the proportion of patients falling within the ideal range was identified. Multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to identify predictors of achieving ideal range outcomes for the key skeletal (ANB and SNB angles), dental (overjet and overbite), and soft-tissue (Holdaway angle) measurements.

Results: An overjet within the ideal range of 1 to 4 mm was achieved in 72% of patients and was more likely with larger initial ANB angles. Horizontal correction of the incisor relationship was achieved by a combination of 75% skeletal movement and 25% dentoalveolar change. An ideal posttreatment ANB angle was achieved in 42% of patients and was more likely in females and those with larger pretreatment ANB angles. Ideal soft-tissue Holdaway angles (7 degrees to 14 degrees ) were achieved in 49% of patients and were more likely in females and those with smaller initial SNA angles. Mandibular incisor decompensation was incomplete in 28% of patients and was more likely in females and patients with greater pretreatment mandibular incisor proclination. Correction of increased overbite was generally successful, although anterior open bites were found in 16% of patients at the end of treatment. These patients were more likely to have had initial open bites.

Conclusions: Mandibular surgery had a good success rate in normalizing the main dental and skeletal relationships. Less ideal soft-tissue profile outcomes were associated with larger pretreatment SNA-angle values, larger final mandibular incisor inclinations, and smaller final maxillary incisor inclinations. The use of mandibular surgery to correct anterior open bite was associated with poor outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2006.05.027DOI Listing
January 2007

Feasibility of genus-specific real-time PCR for the differentiation of larvae from gastrointestinal nematodes of naturally infected sheep.

Berl Munch Tierarztl Wochenschr 2006 Jul-Aug;119(7-8):303-7

Pfizer Ltd., Sandwich, UK.

Results of real-time PCR analysis of coproculture third stage larvae (L3) using genus specific TaqMan minor groove binder probes were compared with the results of morphological differentiation of L3 after coprocultured and direct morphological worm differentiation from gastrointestinal samples of eight sheep with naturally acquired nematodes infections. Faecal egg counts prior to postmortem confirmed infections with trichostrongyles with a geometric mean count of 4828 eggs per gram for all sheep. Individual egg counts correlated positively with total worm counts (correlation coefficient 0.794). Five different nematode species and one genus were found in the abomasi and small intestines: Cooperia curticei, Haemonchus contortus, Nematodirus spp., Teladorsagia (Ostertagia) circumcincta, Trichostrongylus axei and Trichostrongylus colubriformis. Coproculture of faecal eggs yielded five of these, Cooperia spp., Haemonchus spp., Ostertagia/Teladorsagia spp. and Trichostrongylus spp. Comparison between morphological L3 and worm differentiation data showed high congruence (94%). The agreement between PCR analysis of L3 after coproculture and direct morphological worm differentiation was 84%. Thus, real-time PCR was found to be suitable as a speedy and reliable diagnostic tool for the assessment of gastrointestinal nematode infections of ruminants in the field.
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November 2006

Self-reports of psychosocial functioning among children and young adults with cleft lip and palate.

Cleft Palate Craniofac J 2006 Sep;43(5):598-605

School of Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland.

Objective: A cross-sectional study was employed to determine the psychosocial effects of cleft lip and/or palate among children and young adults, compared with a control group of children and young adults without cleft lip and palate.

Participants: The study comprised 160 children and young adults with cleft lip and/or palate and 113 children and young adults without cleft lip and/or palate. All participants were between 8 and 21 years of age.

Outcome Measures: Psychological functioning (anxiety, self-esteem, depression, and behavioral problems) was assessed using validated psychological questionnaires. Happiness with facial appearance was rated using a visual analog scale. Social functioning, including experience of teasing/bullying and satisfaction with speech, was assessed using a semistructured interview.

Results: Participants with cleft lip and/or palate reported greater behavioral problems (p < .001) and more symptoms of depression (p < .01); they were teased more often (p < .001) and were less happy with their facial appearance (p < .01) and speech (p < .001), compared with controls. There were no significant difference between subjects with cleft lip and/or palate and subjects without cleft lip and/or palate in terms of anxiety (p > .05) or self-esteem (p > .05). Having been teased was a significant predictor of poor psychological functioning, more so than having a cleft lip and/or palate per se (p < .001).

Conclusions: Teasing was greater among participants who had cleft lip and/ or palate and it was a significant predictor of poorer psychosocial functioning. Children and young adults with cleft lip and/or palate require psychological assessment, specifically focusing on their experience of teasing, as part of their routine cleft care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1597/05-080DOI Listing
September 2006

Class III surgical-orthodontic treatment: a cephalometric study.

Am J Orthod Dentofacial Orthop 2006 Sep;130(3):300-9

Orthodontic Division, Oral Healthcare Research Centre, School of Clinical Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, Belfast, Northern Ireland, United Kingdom.

Introduction: In this retrospective study, we investigated treatment outcomes in Class III surgical-orthodontic patients.

Methods: Records of 151 consecutively completed Class III surgical-orthodontic patients (overjet, 0 mm or less) were obtained from 87 consultant orthodontists in the United Kingdom. Pretreatment and posttreatment cephalometric radiographs were analyzed.

Results: Bimaxillary surgical patients (75%) had more negative initial ANB-angle values and smaller initial SNA-angle values than those treated with single-jaw mandibular surgery. Mandibular surgery patients (15%) had greater pretreatment mandibular prominence (SNB angle) than maxillary patients. Maxilla-only patients (10%) had lower negative initial overjet values than bimaxillary patients. An overjet within the ideal range of 1 to 4 mm was achieved in 83% of the patients. Logistic regression identified no predictors of ideal overjet outcome. SNB angle was corrected to within the ideal range of 75 degrees to 81 degrees in 44% of the patients. This was less likely in those treated with maxillary surgery only and larger initial SNB-angle values. An ideal posttreatment ANB angle (1 degrees to 5 degrees) was achieved in 40% of the patients and was more likely in those with bimaxillary surgery, lower negative pretreatment ANB angles, and presurgical orthodontic extractions in the maxillary arch. Ideal posttreatment unadjusted Holdaway angles (7 degrees to 14 degrees) were achieved in 59% of the patients and were more likely when single-jaw mandibular surgery was used. Incisor decompensation was incomplete in 46% of the patients and was associated with mandibular arch extractions.

Conclusions: Surgical-orthodontic treatment had a high success rate in normalizing the overjet and soft-tissue profile to within ideal ranges in Class III patients. Bimaxillary surgery was the most frequently used procedure and was associated with an increased likelihood of an ideal correction of the anteroposterior skeletal discrepancy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajodo.2005.01.023DOI Listing
September 2006

The orthodontic condition of children in the United Kingdom, 2003.

Br Dent J 2006 Jun;200(11):609-12;quiz 638

Department of Dental Health and Biological Sciences, Dental School, Cardiff University, UK.

Background: The 2003 Children's Dental Health Survey is the fourth in a series of decennial national children's dental health surveys in the United Kingdom.

Aims: This paper reports on the orthodontic condition of children aged 12 and 15 years.

Methodology: A representative sample of children across the UK were invited to participate in a clinical dental examination in school. Two thousand, five hundred and ninety-five 12-year-olds and 2,142 15-year-olds were examined. Current and past orthodontic treatment and type of appliance worn were recorded. Orthodontic treatment need was assessed by the Modified IOTN in those not undergoing treatment. A postal questionnaire sought parents' views on the orthodontic condition of their children and perceived need for treatment.

Results: At age 12, 35% were judged to have an orthodontic treatment need, 57% had no need and 8% were wearing an appliance. The corresponding figures at age 15 were, 21% (need), 65% (no need) and 14% (wearing appliance). A higher proportion of girls (p < 0.05) were wearing an appliance than boys. A greater proportion of 15-year-olds were undergoing treatment than in the 1993 and 1983 surveys and the use of fixed appliances had increased.

Conclusions: In this representative sample of UK children, one in five were still judged as having an orthodontic treatment need at age 15 years, as determined by the modified index of orthodontic treatment need. However, considerable variation was observed between professional and lay perceptions of need.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/sj.bdj.4813640DOI Listing
June 2006

Age-related changes in sagittal relationship between the maxilla and mandible.

Eur J Orthod 2005 Dec 10;27(6):568-78. Epub 2005 Aug 10.

Department of Orthodontics, University of Heidelberg, Germany.

The aim of the study was to assess age-related changes in sagittal jaw relationship during pre-pubertal and pubertal development on the basis of angular [ANB, anteroposterior dysplasia indicator (APDI) and A-B plane angle] and linear (Wits, AF-BF, App-Bpp, and App-Pgpp) measurements. Lateral cephalograms of orthodontically untreated subjects were evaluated at 7, 9, 11, 13 and 15 years of age. Cephalometric standards and age-related changes were determined on the basis of Class I subjects with a good occlusion (n = 18, 10 males and 8 females). With respect to changes related to growth, the main findings were, in both genders, a statistically significant age-related decrease in ANB angle, App-Bpp and App-Pgpp, a significant increase in APDI, but no age-related change in Wits. A reduction of sagittal jaw distance during pre-pubertal and pubertal development was observed arising from a relative dominance of sagittal mandibular growth. For an evaluation of differences concerning jaw relationship in Class II subjects, a group with Class II division 1 malocclusions (n = 17) and a group with Class II division 2 malocclusions (n = 12 were compared with two control groups, i.e. the good occlusion group and a Class I group (n = 37). Conclusions about the sagittal discrepancy in Class II division 1 and Class II division 2 subjects depended on the geometric reference used in the various parameters, and further research is called for with respect to the diagnostic performance of the various measurements. Differences between Class II subjects and controls present at 15 years of age were already established at 7 years of age, but were less pronounced.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji061DOI Listing
December 2005

The influence of lower face vertical proportion on facial attractiveness.

Eur J Orthod 2005 Aug 16;27(4):349-54. Epub 2005 Jun 16.

Orthodontic Division, Oral Healthcare Research Centre, School of Dentistry, Queen's University, Belfast, UK.

This study investigated the influence of changing lower face vertical proportion on the attractiveness ratings scored by lay people.Ninety-two social science students rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, reduced or increased lower face proportions. The random sequences of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal lower face height relative to total face height [lower anterior face height/total anterior face height (LAFH/TAFH) of 55 per cent], and images with LAFH/TAFH increased or decreased by up to four standard deviations (SD) from the Eastman norm. All the images had a skeletal Class I antero-posterior (AP) relationship. A duplicate image in each sequence assessed repeatability. The participants scored each image using a 10 point numerical scale and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if the image was their own profile. The profile image with normal vertical facial proportions was rated by the lay people as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the vertical facial proportions diverged from the normal value. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were rated as significantly more attractive than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion. Images with a reduced lower face proportion were also significantly less likely to be judged as needing treatment than the corresponding images with an increased lower face proportion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji023DOI Listing
August 2005

Functional MASP2 single nucleotide polymorphism plays no role in psoriasis.

Br J Dermatol 2005 Jun;152(6):1313-5

Department Infection, Immunity and Inflammation, University of Leicester, Leicester LE1 9HN, UK.

Background: Psoriasis is a heritable disease and genome-wide scans have implicated several loci of susceptibility. The gene for MASP-2, a protease involved in complement activation, is located within one of these loci on chromosome 1p.

Objectives: To assess whether partial or total MASP-2 deficiency is a risk factor for developing psoriasis.

Methods: We screened a cohort of patients affected by plaque psoriasis and their parents by restriction fragment length polymorphism analyses.

Results: We detected a single nucleotide polymorphism that leads to an amino acid exchange, which results in dissociation of MASP-2 from a carbohydrate recognition complex.

Conclusions: We show that this mutant allele is not associated with psoriasis. There was no favoured transmission from parents to affected offspring. The calculated allele frequency in this psoriasis group (Scottish and English) was 0.0326, and in the unaffected group 0.0379.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1365-2133.2005.06547.xDOI Listing
June 2005

The psychosocial effects of cleft lip and palate: a systematic review.

Eur J Orthod 2005 Jun;27(3):274-85

Orthodontic Division, School of Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, Grosvenor Road, Belfast BT12 6BP, Northern Ireland, UK.

This systematic review examined the published scientific research on the psychosocial impact of cleft lip and palate (CLP) among children and adults. The primary objective of the review was to determine whether having CLP places an individual at greater risk of psychosocial problems. Studies that examined the psychosocial functioning of children and adults with repaired non-syndromal CLP were suitable for inclusion. The following sources were searched: Medline (January 1966-December 2003), CINAHL (January 1982-December 2003), Web of Science (January 1981-December 2003), PsycINFO (January 1887-December 2003), the reference section of relevant articles, and hand searches of relevant journals. There were 652 abstracts initially identified through database and other searches. On closer examination of these, only 117 appeared to meet the inclusion criteria. The full text of these papers was examined, with only 64 articles finally identified as suitable for inclusion in the review. Thirty of the 64 studies included a control group. The studies were longitudinal, cross-sectional, or retrospective in nature.Overall, the majority of children and adults with CLP do not appear to experience major psychosocial problems, although some specific problems may arise. For example, difficulties have been reported in relation to behavioural problems, satisfaction with facial appearance, depression, and anxiety. A few differences between cleft types have been found in relation to self-concept, satisfaction with facial appearance, depression, attachment, learning problems, and interpersonal relationships. With a few exceptions, the age of the individual with CLP does not appear to influence the occurrence or severity of psychosocial problems. However, the studies lack the uniformity and consistency required to adequately summarize the psychosocial problems resulting from CLP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cji004DOI Listing
June 2005

The influence of mandibular prominence on facial attractiveness.

Eur J Orthod 2005 Apr;27(2):129-33

Orthodontic Division, Oral Healthcare Research Centre, School of Clinical Dentistry, Northern Ireland, UK.

This study examined the attractiveness of facial profiles. One hundred and two social science students (28 males and 74 females) rated the attractiveness of a series of silhouettes with normal, Class II or Class III profiles. A random sequence of 10 images included an image with the Eastman normal SNB value of 78 degrees, and images with SNB values of 2.5, 5, 7.5 and 10 degrees above and below normal. A duplicate image in each sequence was used to assess reproducibility. The participants scored the attractiveness of each image and also indicated whether they would seek treatment if each image was their own profile. The profile with the normal SNB angle of 78 degrees was rated as the most attractive. Attractiveness scores reduced as the mandibular profile diverged from the normal SNB value. The +5 degree profile (SNB = 83 degrees) was rated as significantly more attractive than the -5 degree profile (SNB = 73 degrees; P = 0.004). No other significant differences between the scores for Class II and Class III profile pairs of equal severity were found. At 10 degrees below the normal SNB (Class II), 74 per cent of the sample would elect to have treatment, while 78 per cent would elect to have treatment at 10 degrees above the normal SNB (Class III).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/cjh093DOI Listing
April 2005

Membrane surface dynamics of DNA-threaded nanopores revealed by simultaneous single-molecule optical and ensemble electrical recording.

Langmuir 2004 Feb;20(3):898-905

Department of Chemistry, Wheaton College, Wheaton, Illinois 60187, USA.

We describe a method for simultaneous single-molecule optical and electrical characterization of membrane-based sensors that contain ion-channel nanopores. The technique is used to study the specific and nonspecific interactions of streptavidin-capped DNA polymers with lipid bilayers composed of diphytanoyl phosphatidylcholine and diphytanoyl phosphatidylglycerol. Biotinylated DNA that is bound to fluorescently labeled streptavidin is electrophoretically driven into, or away from, the lumen of alpha hemolysin (alphaHL) ion channels by an external electric field. Confocal microscopy simultaneously captures single-molecule fluorescence dynamics from the membrane interface at different applied potentials. Fluorescence correlation analysis is used to determine the surface number density and diffusion constant of membrane-associated complexes. The dual optical and electrical approach can detect membrane-associated species at a surface coverage below 10(-5) monolayers of streptavidin, a sensitivity that surpasses most other in vitro surface analysis techniques. By comparing the change in transmembrane current to the number of fluorescent molecules leaving the bilayer when the electrical potential is reversed, we demonstrate the general utility of the approach within the context of nanopore-based sensing and discuss a mechanism by which DNA-streptavidin complexes can be nonspecifically retained at the membrane interface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/la035728iDOI Listing
February 2004

Increasing adherence to a community-based guideline for acute sinusitis through education, physician profiling, and financial incentives.

Am J Manag Care 2004 Oct;10(10):670-8

Rochester Individual Practice Association, Inc, NY 14623, USA.

Objectives: To implement a large-scale multifaceted intervention consisting of physician education, profiling, and a financial incentive, to improve treatment quality for acute sinusitis.

Study Design: Cohort trial using a historical control of treatment patterns among approximately 500 internists, 200 family practitioners, and 200 pediatricians in a northeastern community-wide individual practice association.

Participants And Methods: Episode treatment group methods were adapted to identify cases (episodes) and to assess care patterns for acute sinusitis among 420,000 health maintenance organization patients seen between January 1, 1999, and December 31, 2001. The intervention consisted of care pathway development, physician and patient education, physician profiling, and a financial incentive.

Results: A statistical process control chart showed a shift toward recommended treatment patterns after our intervention. The rate of exceptions per episode of acute sinusitis decreased 20%, from 326 exceptions per 1000 episodes between January 1, 1999, and October 31, 2000, to 261 between November 1, 2000, and December 31, 2001. Decreased use of less effective or inappropriate antibiotics accounted for most of the change (199 to 136 exceptions per 1000 episodes [32% change]). Azithromycin use decreased 30%, from 97 to 68 prescriptions per 1000 episodes. Firstline antibiotic (amoxicillin and doxycycline) use increased 14%, from 451 to 514 prescriptions per 1000 episodes. Inappropriate radiology use decreased 20%, from 15 to 12 per 1000 episodes. These changes were significant at P < .005.

Conclusion: A multifaceted program, including education, physician profiling with actionable recommendations, and a financial incentive, significantly increased physicians' adherence to a community-developed care pathway and was successful at improving adherence to recommended patterns of antibiotic use in acute sinusitis.
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October 2004

The prevalence of bacteraemia on removal of fixed orthodontic appliances.

Eur J Orthod 2004 Aug;26(4):443-7

Orthodontic Division, School of Dentistry, Queen's University Belfast, UK.

This study investigated the prevalence of bacteraemia on removal of fixed appliances. Venous blood samples were taken before and after debonding and debanding for 30 patients (mean age 17 years 8 months) who had worn fixed appliances for an average of 19 months. Before removal of the fixed appliances, bacteraemia was detected in one of the 30 subjects (3%) and in four subjects (13%) following removal of their fixed appliances. The 95 per cent confidence intervals for the prevalence of post-debanding bacteraemia were 3.8 and 30.7 per cent. No significant relationship was detected between the mean plaque scores (t = -0.65, P = 0.52) or the mean gingival scores (t = 0.75, P = 0.46) and the occurrence of bacteraemia. The prevalence of bacteraemia detected following debanding in this study is considerably lower than reported for dental procedures traditionally covered by antibiotic prophylaxis guidelines.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ejo/26.4.443DOI Listing
August 2004