Publications by authors named "Burcu Kucuk Bicer"

14 Publications

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Psychological distress during pandemic Covid-19 among adult general population: Result across 13 countries.

Clin Epidemiol Glob Health 2021 Apr-Jun;10:100708. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

South East Asia Community Observatory (SEACO) & Global Public Health, Jeffery Cheah School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Monash University Malaysia, Malaysia.

The COVID-19 pandemics caused an unprecedented mortality, distress, and globally poses a challenge to mental resilience. To our knowledge, this is the first study that aimed to investigate the psychological distress among the adult general population across 13 countries. This cross-sectional study was conducted through online survey by recruiting 7091 respondents. Psychological distress was evaluated with COVID-19 Peritraumatic Distress Index (CPDI). The crude prevalence of psychological distress due to COVID-19 is highest in Vietnam, followed by Egypt, and Bangladesh. Through Multivariate Logistic Regression Analysis, the respondents from Vietnam holds the highest level of distress, while the respondents from Sri Lanka holds the lowest level of distress with reference to Nepal.Female respondents had higher odds of having reported psychological distress, and those with tertiary education were less likely to report psychological distress compared to those with lower level of education. The findings indicate that psychological distress is varies across different countries. Therefore, different countries should continue the surveillance on psychological consequences through the COVID-19 pandemic to monitor the burden and to prepare for the targeted mental health support interventions according to the need. The coping strategies and social support should be provided especially to the lower educational attainment group.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cegh.2021.100708DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7889476PMC
February 2021

Estimating global injuries morbidity and mortality: methods and data used in the Global Burden of Disease 2017 study.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Gregory J Bertolacci Matthew Cunningham Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Kedir Hussein Abegaz Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Jose C Adsuar Shailesh M Advani Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Muktar Beshir Ahmed Rushdia Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Niguse Meles Alema Biresaw Wassihun Alemu Suliman A Alghnam Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Davood Anvari Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Habte Belete Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Akshaya Srikanth Bhagavathula Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Zulfiqar A Bhutta Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Archith Boloor Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Dejana Braithwaite Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Traolach Brugha Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Jens Robert Chapman Vijay Kumar Chattu Soosanna Kumary Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Jee-Young J Choi Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Flavia M Cicuttini João M Coelho Vera M Costa Saad M A Dahlawi Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Diego De Leo Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Hoa Thi Do Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Sharareh Eskandarieh Oghenowede Eyawo Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Artem Alekseevich Fomenkov Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Hadush Gebremariam Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Leake G Gebremeskel Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Agegnehu Bante Getenet Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Reza Ghanei Gheshlagh Asadollah Gholamian Syed Amir Gilani Tiffany K Gill Amir Hossein Goudarzian Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Demelash Woldeyohannes Handiso Josep Maria Haro Amir Hasanzadeh Shoaib Hassan Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani M Mofizul Islam Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Mohammad Ali Jahani Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Kelly M Jones Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Gbenga A Kayode Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Maseer Khan Ejaz Ahmad Khan Junaid Khan Tripti Khanna Salman Khazaei Habibolah Khazaie Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Yun Jin Kim Daniel Kim Sezer Kisa Adnan Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Ali Koolivand Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Nithin Kumar Manasi Kumar Vivek Kumar Narinder Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Carlo La Vecchia Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Shanshan Li Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Ronan A Lyons Daiane Borges Machado Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Venkatesh Maled Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Man Mohan Mehndiratta Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mohammad A Mohseni Bandpei Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Rahmatollah Moradzadeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Javad Nazari Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Trang Huyen Nguyen Cuong Tat Nguyen Diep Ngoc Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Michael R Phillips Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Navid Rabiee Mohammad Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Basema Saddik Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder A Singh Pankaj Kumar Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Amin Soheili Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Mariya Vladimirovna Titova Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Aristidis Tsatsakis Lorainne Tudor Car Irfan Ullah Saif Ullah Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Yousef Veisani Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Grant M A Wyper Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Pengpeng Ye Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Chuanhua Yu Yong Yu Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Fatemeh Zarei Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Rakhi Dandona Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad David M Pigott Robert C Reiner Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 24;26(Supp 1):i125-i153. Epub 2020 Aug 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: While there is a long history of measuring death and disability from injuries, modern research methods must account for the wide spectrum of disability that can occur in an injury, and must provide estimates with sufficient demographic, geographical and temporal detail to be useful for policy makers. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 study used methods to provide highly detailed estimates of global injury burden that meet these criteria.

Methods: In this study, we report and discuss the methods used in GBD 2017 for injury morbidity and mortality burden estimation. In summary, these methods included estimating cause-specific mortality for every cause of injury, and then estimating incidence for every cause of injury. Non-fatal disability for each cause is then calculated based on the probabilities of suffering from different types of bodily injury experienced.

Results: GBD 2017 produced morbidity and mortality estimates for 38 causes of injury. Estimates were produced in terms of incidence, prevalence, years lived with disability, cause-specific mortality, years of life lost and disability-adjusted life-years for a 28-year period for 22 age groups, 195 countries and both sexes.

Conclusions: GBD 2017 demonstrated a complex and sophisticated series of analytical steps using the largest known database of morbidity and mortality data on injuries. GBD 2017 results should be used to help inform injury prevention policy making and resource allocation. We also identify important avenues for improving injury burden estimation in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043531DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571362PMC
October 2020

The effects of adjuvant hormonotherapy on tear functions in patients with breast cancer.

Int Ophthalmol 2020 Aug 24;40(8):2077-2083. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Department of Ophthalmology, Saglik Bilimleri University, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

Purpose: Aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole) and selective estrogen receptor modulators (tamoxifen) are widely used as adjuvant hormonal therapy in women with hormone receptor-positive breast cancer. We aimed to evaluate the effects of oral adjuvant hormonotherapy on tear functions in patients with breast cancer.

Methods: In this case-control study, we enrolled eligible patients with breast cancer who were receiving regular medical selective estrogen receptor modulator (tamoxifen, n:50), aromatase inhibitors (anastrozole, letrozole, n:50) and gender-matched healthy controls (n:50). Tear functions were measured and compared by the Schirmer test, fluorescein breakup time, corneal staining evaluated by Oxford grading scale and Ocular Surface Disease Index scores.

Results: Mean age was 49.95 (± 9.2), 51.52 (± 7.2) and 51.91 (± 10.3) in tamoxifen, aromatase inhibitors groups and controls (p = 0.426). Mean duration of BC diagnosis (p = 0.536) and drug use (p = 0.417) was not significant between two groups. Ocular Surface Disease Index scores were lower (p < 0.001), and fluorescein breakup time measurements were higher (p < 0.001) in controls. Schirmer test scores were higher in controls than aromatase inhibitors group (p < 0.001). According to the scores of all measurements, the differences between aromatase inhibitors and tamoxifen groups were statistically significant (p < 0.001).

Conclusions: Our results demonstrated a high difference in all parameters in patients receiving aromatase inhibitors compared to tamoxifen group and controls. Aromatase inhibitors, which reduce estrogen levels in the blood, might affect the tear functions more than tamoxifen, which affects as antiestrogenic on estrogen receptors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10792-020-01384-7DOI Listing
August 2020

Global injury morbidity and mortality from 1990 to 2017: results from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Nathaniel J Henry Kate E LeGrand Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Rizwan Suliankatchi Abdulkader Aidin Abedi Akine Eshete Abosetugn Abdelrahman I Abushouk Oladimeji M Adebayo Marcela Agudelo-Botero Tauseef Ahmad Rushdia Ahmed Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Genet Melak Alamene Fahad Mashhour Alanezi Animut Alebel Niguse Meles Alema Suliman A Alghnam Samar Al-Hajj Beriwan Abdulqadir Ali Saqib Ali Mahtab Alikhani Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Amir Almasi-Hashiani Nihad A Almasri Khalid Altirkawi Yasser Sami Abdeldayem Amer Saeed Amini Arianna Maever Loreche Amit Catalina Liliana Andrei Alireza Ansari-Moghaddam Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Jalal Arabloo Morteza Arab-Zozani Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Filippo Ariani Amit Arora Malke Asaad Babak Asghari Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Getinet Ayano Martin Amogre Ayanore Samad Azari Ghasem Azarian Alaa Badawi Ashish D Badiye Eleni Bagli Atif Amin Baig Mohan Bairwa Ahad Bakhtiari Arun Balachandran Maciej Banach Srikanta K Banerjee Palash Chandra Banik Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Lope H Barrero Akbar Barzegar Mohsen Bayati Bayisa Abdissa Baye Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Tariku Tesfaye Bekuma Habte Belete Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Kidanemaryam Berhe Pankaj Bhardwaj Anusha Ganapati Bhat Krittika Bhattacharyya Sadia Bibi Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Guilherme Borges Antonio Maria Borzì Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Shyam S Budhathoki Josip Car Rosario Cárdenas Félix Carvalho João Mauricio Castaldelli-Maia Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Giulio Castelpietra Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Joht S Chandan Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Soosanna Kumary Chattu Vijay Kumar Chattu Irini Chatziralli Neha Chaudhary Daniel Youngwhan Cho Mohiuddin Ahsanul Kabir Chowdhury Dinh-Toi Chu Samantha M Colquhoun Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Giovanni Damiani Ahmad Daryani Claudio Alberto Dávila-Cervantes Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Desalegn Getnet Demsie Afshin Derakhshani Kebede Deribe Rupak Desai Mostafa Dianati Nasab Diana Dias da Silva Zahra Sadat Dibaji Forooshani Kerrie E Doyle Tim Robert Driscoll Eleonora Dubljanin Bereket Duko Adema Arielle Wilder Eagan Aziz Eftekhari Elham Ehsani-Chimeh Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Demelash Abewa Elemineh Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Sharareh Eskandarieh Pawan Sirwan Faris Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Yousef Fatahi Wubalem Fekadu Tomas Y Ferede Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Pietro Ferrara Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer Morenike Oluwatoyin Folayan Masoud Foroutan Joel Msafiri Francis Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Biniyam Sahiledengle Geberemariyam Abadi Kahsu Gebre Ketema Bizuwork Gebremedhin Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Berhe Gebremichael Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Birhanu Geta Mansour Ghafourifard Farhad Ghamari Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Michal Grivna Mohammed Ibrahim Mohialdeen Gubari Rafael Alves Guimarães Yuming Guo Gaurav Gupta Juanita A Haagsma Nima Hafezi-Nejad Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Brian James Hall Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Md Mehedi Hasan Amir Hasanzadeh Soheil Hassanipour Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Khezar Hayat Delia Hendrie Fatemeh Heydarpour Martha Híjar Hung Chak Ho Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Ramesh Holla Naznin Hossain Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Segun Emmanuel Ibitoye Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Irena Ilic Milena D Ilic Leeberk Raja Inbaraj Endang Indriasih Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam M Mofizul Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Farzad Jalilian Sudha Jayaraman Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Yetunde O John-Akinola Jost B Jonas Nitin Joseph Farahnaz Joukar Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rajendra Kadel Amaha Kahsay Leila R Kalankesh Rohollah Kalhor Teshome Abegaz Kamil Tanuj Kanchan Neeti Kapoor Manoochehr Karami Amir Kasaeian Hagazi Gebremedhin Kassaye Taras Kavetskyy Hafte Kahsay Kebede Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Bayew Kelkay Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ibrahim A Khalil Rovshan Khalilov Mohammad Khammarnia Ejaz Ahmad Khan Maseer Khan Tripti Khanna Habibolah Khazaie Fatemeh Khosravi Shadmani Roba Khundkar Daniel N Kiirithio Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Hamidreza Komaki Shivakumar K M Kondlahalli Vladimir Andreevich Korshunov Ai Koyanagi Moritz U G Kraemer Kewal Krishan Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Nithin Kumar G Anil Kumar Manasi Kumar Girikumar Kumaresh Om P Kurmi Oluwatosin Kuti Carlo La Vecchia Faris Hasan Lami Prabhat Lamichhane Justin J Lang Van C Lansingh Dennis Odai Laryea Savita Lasrado Arman Latifi Paolo Lauriola Janet L Leasher Shaun Wen Huey Lee Tsegaye Lolaso Lenjebo Miriam Levi Shanshan Li Shai Linn Xuefeng Liu Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Mohammed Madadin Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Jeadran N Malagon-Rojas Venkatesh Maled Reza Malekzadeh Deborah Carvalho Malta Navid Manafi Amir Manafi Ana-Laura Manda Narayana Manjunatha Fariborz Mansour-Ghanaei Borhan Mansouri Mohammad Ali Mansournia Joemer C Maravilla Lyn M March Amanda J Mason-Jones Seyedeh Zahra Masoumi Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Addisu Melese Zeleke Aschalew Melketsedik Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Meresa Berwo Mengesha Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Hayimro Edemealem Merie Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Andreea Mirica Erkin M Mirrakhimov Mehdi Mirzaei-Alavijeh Prasanna Mithra Babak Moazen Masoud Moghadaszadeh Efat Mohamadi Yousef Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Shafiu Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Masoud Moradi Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Tilahun Belete Mossie Atalay Goshu Muluneh Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Ghulam Mustafa Ashraf F Nabhan Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gurudatta Naik Mukhammad David Naimzada Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Morteza Naserbakht Vinod Nayak Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Rajan Nikbakhsh Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Chukwudi A Nnaji Peter S Nyasulu Felix Akpojene Ogbo Onome Bright Oghenetega In-Hwan Oh Emmanuel Wandera Okunga Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Ahmed Omar Bali Obinna E Onwujekwe Kwaku Oppong Asante Heather M Orpana Erika Ota Nikita Otstavnov Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Keyvan Pakshir Songhomitra Panda-Jonas Eun-Kee Park Sangram Kishor Patel Ashish Pathak Sanghamitra Pati George C Patton Kebreab Paulos Amy E Peden Veincent Christian Filipino Pepito Jeevan Pereira Hai Quang Pham Michael R Phillips Marina Pinheiro Roman V Polibin Suzanne Polinder Hossein Poustchi Swayam Prakash Dimas Ria Angga Pribadi Parul Puri Zahiruddin Quazi Syed Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Ata Rafiee Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Ali Rajabpour-Sanati Fatemeh Rajati Ivo Rakovac Kavitha Ranganathan Sowmya J Rao Vahid Rashedi Prateek Rastogi Priya Rathi Salman Rawaf Lal Rawal Reza Rawassizadeh Vishnu Renjith Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Jennifer Rickard Carlos Miguel Rios González Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Anas M Saad Yogesh Damodar Sabde Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeed Safari Roya Safari-Faramani Hamid Safarpour Mahdi Safdarian S Mohammad Sajadi Payman Salamati Farkhonde Salehi Saleh Salehi Zahabi Marwa R Rashad Salem Hosni Salem Omar Salman Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Abdur Razzaque Sarker Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mehdi Sayyah David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Subramanian Senthilkumaran Sadaf G Sepanlou Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Feng Sha Faramarz Shaahmadi Saeed Shahabi Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Hamid Sharifi Aziz Sheikh Mika Shigematsu Jae Il Shin Rahman Shiri Soraya Siabani Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Pankaj Kumar Singh Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Catalin-Gabriel Smarandache Emma U R Smith Amin Soheili Bija Soleymani Ali Reza Soltanian Joan B Soriano Muluken Bekele Sorrie Ireneous N Soyiri Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Hafiz Ansar Rasul Suleria Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Biruk Wogayehu Taddele Degena Bahrey Tadesse Animut Tagele Tamiru Ingan Ukur Tarigan Yonatal Mesfin Tefera Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Merhawi Gebremedhin Tekle Gebretsadkan Hintsa Tekulu Ayenew Kassie Tesema Berhe Etsay Tesfay Rekha Thapar Asres Bedaso Tilahune Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Hamid Reza Tohidinik Roman Topor-Madry Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Jaya Prasad Tripathy Alexander C Tsai Lorainne Tudor Car Saif Ullah Irfan Ullah Maida Umar Bhaskaran Unnikrishnan Era Upadhyay Olalekan A Uthman Pascual R Valdez Tommi Juhani Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Andrea Werdecker Taweewat Wiangkham Haileab Fekadu Wolde Dawit Habte Woldeyes Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Temesgen Gebeyehu Wondmeneh Adam Belay Wondmieneh Ai-Min Wu Rajaram Yadav Ali Yadollahpour Yuichiro Yano Sanni Yaya Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Yoosik Youm Mustafa Z Younis Zabihollah Yousefi Yong Yu Chuanhua Yu Hasan Yusefzadeh Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Maryam Zamanian Hamed Zandian Ahmad Zarei Fatemeh Zare Zhi-Jiang Zhang Yunquan Zhang Sanjay Zodpey Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Louisa Degenhardt Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Simon I Hay Ali H Mokdad Robert C Reiner Benn Sartorius Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 24;26(Supp 1):i96-i114. Epub 2020 Apr 24.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, USA.

Background: Past research in population health trends has shown that injuries form a substantial burden of population health loss. Regular updates to injury burden assessments are critical. We report Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 Study estimates on morbidity and mortality for all injuries.

Methods: We reviewed results for injuries from the GBD 2017 study. GBD 2017 measured injury-specific mortality and years of life lost (YLLs) using the Cause of Death Ensemble model. To measure non-fatal injuries, GBD 2017 modelled injury-specific incidence and converted this to prevalence and years lived with disability (YLDs). YLLs and YLDs were summed to calculate disability-adjusted life years (DALYs).

Findings: In 1990, there were 4 260 493 (4 085 700 to 4 396 138) injury deaths, which increased to 4 484 722 (4 332 010 to 4 585 554) deaths in 2017, while age-standardised mortality decreased from 1079 (1073 to 1086) to 738 (730 to 745) per 100 000. In 1990, there were 354 064 302 (95% uncertainty interval: 338 174 876 to 371 610 802) new cases of injury globally, which increased to 520 710 288 (493 430 247 to 547 988 635) new cases in 2017. During this time, age-standardised incidence decreased non-significantly from 6824 (6534 to 7147) to 6763 (6412 to 7118) per 100 000. Between 1990 and 2017, age-standardised DALYs decreased from 4947 (4655 to 5233) per 100 000 to 3267 (3058 to 3505).

Interpretation: Injuries are an important cause of health loss globally, though mortality has declined between 1990 and 2017. Future research in injury burden should focus on prevention in high-burden populations, improving data collection and ensuring access to medical care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043494DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571366PMC
October 2020

Burden of injury along the development spectrum: associations between the Socio-demographic Index and disability-adjusted life year estimates from the Global Burden of Disease Study 2017.

Authors:
Juanita A Haagsma Spencer L James Chris D Castle Zachary V Dingels Jack T Fox Erin B Hamilton Zichen Liu Lydia R Lucchesi Nicholas L S Roberts Dillon O Sylte Oladimeji M Adebayo Alireza Ahmadi Muktar Beshir Ahmed Miloud Taki Eddine Aichour Fares Alahdab Suliman A Alghnam Syed Mohamed Aljunid Rajaa M Al-Raddadi Ubai Alsharif Khalid Altirkawi Mina Anjomshoa Carl Abelardo T Antonio Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Olatunde Aremu Amit Arora Hamid Asayesh Reza Assadi Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Shivanthi Balalla Amrit Banstola Suzanne Lyn Barker-Collo Till Winfried Bärnighausen Shahrzad Bazargan-Hejazi Neeraj Bedi Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Soumyadeep Bhaumik Zulfiqar A Bhutta Ali Bijani Guilherme Borges Rohan Borschmann Dipan Bose Soufiane Boufous Alexandra Brazinova Julio Cesar Campuzano Rincon Rosario Cárdenas Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Christopher Stephen Crowe Koustuv Dalal Ahmad Daryani Dragos Virgil Davitoiu Louisa Degenhardt Diego De Leo Jan-Walter De Neve Kebede Deribe Getenet Ayalew Dessie Gabrielle Aline deVeber Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Linh Phuong Doan Kate A Dolan Tim Robert Driscoll Manisha Dubey Ziad El-Khatib Christian Lycke Ellingsen Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Aman Yesuf Endries Sharareh Eskandarieh Andre Faro Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Eduarda Fernandes Irina Filip Florian Fischer Richard Charles Franklin Takeshi Fukumoto Kebede Embaye Gezae Tiffany K Gill Alessandra C Goulart Ayman Grada Yuming Guo Rahul Gupta Hassan Haghparast Bidgoli Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Josep Maria Haro Hadi Hassankhani Hamid Yimam Hassen Rasmus Havmoeller Delia Hendrie Andualem Henok Martha Híjar Michael K Hole Enayatollah Homaie Rad Naznin Hossain Sorin Hostiuc Guoqing Hu Ehimario U Igumbor Olayinka Stephen Ilesanmi Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Rebecca Q Ivers Kathryn H Jacobsen Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Achala Upendra Jayatilleke Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Zahra Jorjoran Shushtari Jacek Jerzy Jozwiak Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Rizwan Kalani Amir Kasaeian Abraham Getachew Kelbore Andre Pascal Kengne Yousef Saleh Khader Morteza Abdullatif Khafaie Nauman Khalid Ejaz Ahmad Khan Abdullah T Khoja Aliasghar A Kiadaliri Young-Eun Kim Daniel Kim Adnan Kisa Ai Koyanagi Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Manasi Kumar Ratilal Lalloo Hilton Lam Faris Hasan Lami Van C Lansingh Janet L Leasher Shanshan Li Shai Linn Raimundas Lunevicius Flavia R Machado Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Muhammed Magdy Abd El Razek Narayan Bahadur Mahotra Marek Majdan Azeem Majeed Reza Malekzadeh Manzoor Ahmad Malik Deborah Carvalho Malta Ana-Laura Manda Mohammad Ali Mansournia Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Pallab K Maulik Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Man Mohan Mehndiratta Addisu Melese Walter Mendoza Melkamu Merid Mengesha Tuomo J Meretoja Atte Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Tomasz Miazgowski Ted R Miller G K Mini Erkin M Mirrakhimov Babak Moazen Naser Mohammad Gholi Mezerji Roghayeh Mohammadibakhsh Shafiu Mohammed Mariam Molokhia Lorenzo Monasta Stefania Mondello Pablo A Montero-Zamora Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Ghobad Moradi Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Lidia Morawska Ilais Moreno Velásquez Shane Douglas Morrison Marilita M Moschos Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Srinivas Murthy Kamarul Imran Musa Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Vinay Nangia Bruno Ramos Nascimento Duduzile Edith Ndwandwe Ionut Negoi Trang Huyen Nguyen Son Hoang Nguyen Long Hoang Nguyen Huong Lan Thi Nguyen Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Olanrewaju Oladimeji Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Pedro R Olivares Heather M Orpana Stanislav S Otstavnov Mahesh P A Smita Pakhale Eun-Kee Park George C Patton Konrad Pesudovs Michael R Phillips Suzanne Polinder Swayam Prakash Amir Radfar Anwar Rafay Alireza Rafiei Siavash Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Muhammad Aziz Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Kiana Ramezanzadeh Salman Rawaf David Laith Rawaf Andre M N Renzaho Serge Resnikoff Shahab Rezaeian Leonardo Roever Luca Ronfani Gholamreza Roshandel Yogesh Damodar Sabde Basema Saddik Payman Salamati Yahya Salimi Inbal Salz Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Lidia Sanchez Riera Milena M Santric Milicevic Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Susan M Sawyer Sonia Saxena Mete Saylan Ione J C Schneider David C Schwebel Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Ali Shaikh Mehran Shams-Beyranvand Morteza Shamsizadeh Mahdi Sharif-Alhoseini Aziz Sheikh Jiabin Shen Mika Shigematsu Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue João Pedro Silva Jasvinder A Singh Dhirendra Narain Sinha Adauto Martins Soares Filho Joan B Soriano Sergey Soshnikov Ireneous N Soyiri Vladimir I Starodubov Dan J Stein Mark A Stokes Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Jacob E Sunshine Bryan L Sykes Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Gizachew Assefa Tessema Jarnail Singh Thakur Khanh Bao Tran Bach Xuan Tran Lorainne Tudor Car Olalekan A Uthman Benjamin S Chudi Uzochukwu Pascual R Valdez Elena Varavikova Ana Maria Nogales Vasconcelos Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Yasir Waheed Yuan-Pang Wang Tissa Wijeratne Andrea Sylvia Winkler Priyanka Yadav Yuichiro Yano Muluken Azage Yenesew Paul Yip Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Shamsa Zafar Zoubida Zaidi Sojib Bin Zaman Mohammad Zamani Yong Zhao Sanjay Zodpey Simon I Hay Alan D Lopez Ali H Mokdad Theo Vos

Inj Prev 2020 Oct 8;26(Supp 1):i12-i26. Epub 2020 Jan 8.

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Background: The epidemiological transition of non-communicable diseases replacing infectious diseases as the main contributors to disease burden has been well documented in global health literature. Less focus, however, has been given to the relationship between sociodemographic changes and injury. The aim of this study was to examine the association between disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) from injury for 195 countries and territories at different levels along the development spectrum between 1990 and 2017 based on the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2017 estimates.

Methods: Injury mortality was estimated using the GBD mortality database, corrections for garbage coding and CODEm-the cause of death ensemble modelling tool. Morbidity estimation was based on surveys and inpatient and outpatient data sets for 30 cause-of-injury with 47 nature-of-injury categories each. The Socio-demographic Index (SDI) is a composite indicator that includes lagged income per capita, average educational attainment over age 15 years and total fertility rate.

Results: For many causes of injury, age-standardised DALY rates declined with increasing SDI, although road injury, interpersonal violence and self-harm did not follow this pattern. Particularly for self-harm opposing patterns were observed in regions with similar SDI levels. For road injuries, this effect was less pronounced.

Conclusions: The overall global pattern is that of declining injury burden with increasing SDI. However, not all injuries follow this pattern, which suggests multiple underlying mechanisms influencing injury DALYs. There is a need for a detailed understanding of these patterns to help to inform national and global efforts to address injury-related health outcomes across the development spectrum.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/injuryprev-2019-043296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7571356PMC
October 2020

The Effects of Adjuvant Tamoxifen Use on Macula Pigment Epithelium Optical Density, Visual Acuity and Retinal Thickness in Patients with Breast Cancer.

Curr Eye Res 2020 05 13;45(5):623-628. Epub 2019 Nov 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital, Ankara, Turkey.

: We aimed to compare best corrected visual acuity, macular pigment optical density and macular thickness in patients with breast cancer, who received oral adjuvant hormone therapy.: We enrolled consecutive eligible patients with breast cancer who were receiving regular medical tamoxifen treatment. The participants were divided into two groups as cases and controls. Best-corrected visual acuity and retinal thickness were examined. Macular pigment optical density was measured by fundus reflectometry using the one-wavelength reflection method. The output parameters included max optical density, mean optical density, volume and area of the right eye.: A total of 104 eyes, cases (n: 50) and controls (n: 54) were included in the study. Mean age in cases was 49.95 ± 9.2 years and 50.21 ± 9.3 years in controls ( = .151). The mean foveal optical density and the maximum optical density differed between cases (0.13 ± 0.03 density units (DU)/0.35 ± 0.07 DU) and controls (0.18 ± 0.04 DU/0.41 ± 0.06 DU) ( = .002/p = .009). Macular pigment optical density volume was 8102.84 ± 2412.67 in cases versus 8280.18 ± 2904.56 in controls ( = .034), and mean MPOD area was 59567.79 ± 11538.06 in cases versus 61748.14 ± 10591.19 in controls ( = .023). The best corrected visual acuity and retinal thickness were similar in both groups ( > .05).: Patients in care of oral tamoxifen therapy were found to have significantly reduced macular pigment optical density. In addition, higher drug use duration correlated significantly with reduced macular pigment optical density, suggesting that the poor long-term effects may play a role in macular pigment absorption and incorporation in the retinal tissue.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/02713683.2019.1687725DOI Listing
May 2020

Global, Regional, and National Cancer Incidence, Mortality, Years of Life Lost, Years Lived With Disability, and Disability-Adjusted Life-Years for 29 Cancer Groups, 1990 to 2017: A Systematic Analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study.

Authors:
Christina Fitzmaurice Degu Abate Naghmeh Abbasi Hedayat Abbastabar Foad Abd-Allah Omar Abdel-Rahman Ahmed Abdelalim Amir Abdoli Ibrahim Abdollahpour Abdishakur S M Abdulle Nebiyu Dereje Abebe Haftom Niguse Abraha Laith Jamal Abu-Raddad Ahmed Abualhasan Isaac Akinkunmi Adedeji Shailesh M Advani Mohsen Afarideh Mahdi Afshari Mohammad Aghaali Dominic Agius Sutapa Agrawal Ayat Ahmadi Elham Ahmadian Ehsan Ahmadpour Muktar Beshir Ahmed Mohammad Esmaeil Akbari Tomi Akinyemiju Ziyad Al-Aly Assim M AlAbdulKader Fares Alahdab Tahiya Alam Genet Melak Alamene Birhan Tamene T Alemnew Kefyalew Addis Alene Cyrus Alinia Vahid Alipour Syed Mohamed Aljunid Fatemeh Allah Bakeshei Majid Abdulrahman Hamad Almadi Amir Almasi-Hashiani Ubai Alsharif Shirina Alsowaidi Nelson Alvis-Guzman Erfan Amini Saeed Amini Yaw Ampem Amoako Zohreh Anbari Nahla Hamed Anber Catalina Liliana Andrei Mina Anjomshoa Fereshteh Ansari Ansariadi Ansariadi Seth Christopher Yaw Appiah Morteza Arab-Zozani Jalal Arabloo Zohreh Arefi Olatunde Aremu Habtamu Abera Areri Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Ephrem Tsegay Asfaw Alebachew Fasil Ashagre Reza Assadi Bahar Ataeinia Hagos Tasew Atalay Zerihun Ataro Suleman Atique Marcel Ausloos Leticia Avila-Burgos Euripide F G A Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Nefsu Awoke Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Martin Amogre Ayanore Henok Tadesse Ayele Ebrahim Babaee Umar Bacha Alaa Badawi Mojtaba Bagherzadeh Eleni Bagli Senthilkumar Balakrishnan Abbas Balouchi Till Winfried Bärnighausen Robert J Battista Masoud Behzadifar Meysam Behzadifar Bayu Begashaw Bekele Yared Belete Belay Yaschilal Muche Belayneh Kathleen Kim Sachiko Berfield Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Mircea Beuran Nickhill Bhakta Krittika Bhattacharyya Belete Biadgo Ali Bijani Muhammad Shahdaat Bin Sayeed Charles Birungi Catherine Bisignano Helen Bitew Tone Bjørge Archie Bleyer Kassawmar Angaw Bogale Hunduma Amensisa Bojia Antonio M Borzì Cristina Bosetti Ibrahim R Bou-Orm Hermann Brenner Jerry D Brewer Andrey Nikolaevich Briko Nikolay Ivanovich Briko Maria Teresa Bustamante-Teixeira Zahid A Butt Giulia Carreras Juan J Carrero Félix Carvalho Clara Castro Franz Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Ester Cerin Yazan Chaiah Wagaye Fentahun Chanie Vijay Kumar Chattu Pankaj Chaturvedi Neelima Singh Chauhan Mohammad Chehrazi Peggy Pei-Chia Chiang Tesfaye Yitna Chichiabellu Onyema Greg Chido-Amajuoyi Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Jee-Young J Choi Devasahayam J Christopher Dinh-Toi Chu Maria-Magdalena Constantin Vera M Costa Emanuele Crocetti Christopher Stephen Crowe Maria Paula Curado Saad M A Dahlawi Giovanni Damiani Amira Hamed Darwish Ahmad Daryani José das Neves Feleke Mekonnen Demeke Asmamaw Bizuneh Demis Birhanu Wondimeneh Demissie Gebre Teklemariam Demoz Edgar Denova-Gutiérrez Afshin Derakhshani Kalkidan Solomon Deribe Rupak Desai Beruk Berhanu Desalegn Melaku Desta Subhojit Dey Samath Dhamminda Dharmaratne Meghnath Dhimal Daniel Diaz Mesfin Tadese Tadese Dinberu Shirin Djalalinia David Teye Doku Thomas M Drake Manisha Dubey Eleonora Dubljanin Eyasu Ejeta Duken Hedyeh Ebrahimi Andem Effiong Aziz Eftekhari Iman El Sayed Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Shaimaa I El-Jaafary Ziad El-Khatib Demelash Abewa Elemineh Hajer Elkout Richard G Ellenbogen Aisha Elsharkawy Mohammad Hassan Emamian Daniel Adane Endalew Aman Yesuf Endries Babak Eshrati Ibtihal Fadhil Vahid Fallah Omrani Mahbobeh Faramarzi Mahdieh Abbasalizad Farhangi Andrea Farioli Farshad Farzadfar Netsanet Fentahun Eduarda Fernandes Garumma Tolu Feyissa Irina Filip Florian Fischer James L Fisher Lisa M Force Masoud Foroutan Marisa Freitas Takeshi Fukumoto Neal D Futran Silvano Gallus Fortune Gbetoho Gankpe Reta Tsegaye Gayesa Tsegaye Tewelde Gebrehiwot Gebreamlak Gebremedhn Gebremeskel Getnet Azeze Gedefaw Belayneh K Gelaw Birhanu Geta Sefonias Getachew Kebede Embaye Gezae Mansour Ghafourifard Alireza Ghajar Ahmad Ghashghaee Asadollah Gholamian Paramjit Singh Gill Themba T G Ginindza Alem Girmay Muluken Gizaw Ricardo Santiago Gomez Sameer Vali Gopalani Giuseppe Gorini Bárbara Niegia Garcia Goulart Ayman Grada Maximiliano Ribeiro Guerra Andre Luiz Sena Guimaraes Prakash C Gupta Rahul Gupta Kishor Hadkhale Arvin Haj-Mirzaian Arya Haj-Mirzaian Randah R Hamadeh Samer Hamidi Lolemo Kelbiso Hanfore Josep Maria Haro Milad Hasankhani Amir Hasanzadeh Hamid Yimam Hassen Roderick J Hay Simon I Hay Andualem Henok Nathaniel J Henry Claudiu Herteliu Hagos D Hidru Chi Linh Hoang Michael K Hole Praveen Hoogar Nobuyuki Horita H Dean Hosgood Mostafa Hosseini Mehdi Hosseinzadeh Mihaela Hostiuc Sorin Hostiuc Mowafa Househ Mohammedaman Mama Hussen Bogdan Ileanu Milena D Ilic Kaire Innos Seyed Sina Naghibi Irvani Kufre Robert Iseh Sheikh Mohammed Shariful Islam Farhad Islami Nader Jafari Balalami Morteza Jafarinia Leila Jahangiry Mohammad Ali Jahani Nader Jahanmehr Mihajlo Jakovljevic Spencer L James Mehdi Javanbakht Sudha Jayaraman Sun Ha Jee Ensiyeh Jenabi Ravi Prakash Jha Jost B Jonas Jitendra Jonnagaddala Tamas Joo Suresh Banayya Jungari Mikk Jürisson Ali Kabir Farin Kamangar André Karch Narges Karimi Ansar Karimian Amir Kasaeian Gebremicheal Gebreslassie Kasahun Belete Kassa Tesfaye Dessale Kassa Mesfin Wudu Kassaw Anil Kaul Peter Njenga Keiyoro Abraham Getachew Kelbore Amene Abebe Kerbo Yousef Saleh Khader Maryam Khalilarjmandi Ejaz Ahmad Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Khaled Khatab Amir Khater Maryam Khayamzadeh Maryam Khazaee-Pool Salman Khazaei Abdullah T Khoja Mohammad Hossein Khosravi Jagdish Khubchandani Neda Kianipour Daniel Kim Yun Jin Kim Adnan Kisa Sezer Kisa Katarzyna Kissimova-Skarbek Hamidreza Komaki Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Burcu Kucuk Bicer Nuworza Kugbey Vivek Kumar Desmond Kuupiel Carlo La Vecchia Deepesh P Lad Eyasu Alem Lake Ayenew Molla Lakew Dharmesh Kumar Lal Faris Hasan Lami Qing Lan Savita Lasrado Paolo Lauriola Jeffrey V Lazarus James Leigh Cheru Tesema Leshargie Yu Liao Miteku Andualem Limenih Stefan Listl Alan D Lopez Platon D Lopukhov Raimundas Lunevicius Mohammed Madadin Sameh Magdeldin Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Azeem Majeed Afshin Maleki Reza Malekzadeh Ali Manafi Navid Manafi Wondimu Ayele Manamo Morteza Mansourian Mohammad Ali Mansournia Lorenzo Giovanni Mantovani Saman Maroufizadeh Santi Martini S Martini Tivani Phosa Mashamba-Thompson Benjamin Ballard Massenburg Motswadi Titus Maswabi Manu Raj Mathur Colm McAlinden Martin McKee Hailemariam Abiy Alemu Meheretu Ravi Mehrotra Varshil Mehta Toni Meier Yohannes A Melaku Gebrekiros Gebremichael Meles Hagazi Gebre Meles Addisu Melese Mulugeta Melku Peter T N Memiah Walter Mendoza Ritesh G Menezes Shahin Merat Tuomo J Meretoja Tomislav Mestrovic Bartosz Miazgowski Tomasz Miazgowski Kebadnew Mulatu M Mihretie Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Seyed Mostafa Mir Hamed Mirzaei Hamid Reza Mirzaei Rashmi Mishra Babak Moazen Dara K Mohammad Karzan Abdulmuhsin Mohammad Yousef Mohammad Aso Mohammad Darwesh Abolfazl Mohammadbeigi Hiwa Mohammadi Moslem Mohammadi Mahdi Mohammadian Abdollah Mohammadian-Hafshejani Milad Mohammadoo-Khorasani Reza Mohammadpourhodki Ammas Siraj Mohammed Jemal Abdu Mohammed Shafiu Mohammed Farnam Mohebi Ali H Mokdad Lorenzo Monasta Yoshan Moodley Mahmood Moosazadeh Maryam Moossavi Ghobad Moradi Mohammad Moradi-Joo Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Farhad Moradpour Lidia Morawska Joana Morgado-da-Costa Naho Morisaki Shane Douglas Morrison Abbas Mosapour Seyyed Meysam Mousavi Achenef Asmamaw Muche Oumer Sada S Muhammed Jonah Musa Ashraf F Nabhan Mehdi Naderi Ahamarshan Jayaraman Nagarajan Gabriele Nagel Azin Nahvijou Gurudatta Naik Farid Najafi Luigi Naldi Hae Sung Nam Naser Nasiri Javad Nazari Ionut Negoi Subas Neupane Polly A Newcomb Haruna Asura Nggada Josephine W Ngunjiri Cuong Tat Nguyen Leila Nikniaz Dina Nur Anggraini Ningrum Yirga Legesse Nirayo Molly R Nixon Chukwudi A Nnaji Marzieh Nojomi Shirin Nosratnejad Malihe Nourollahpour Shiadeh Mohammed Suleiman Obsa Richard Ofori-Asenso Felix Akpojene Ogbo In-Hwan Oh Andrew T Olagunju Tinuke O Olagunju Mojisola Morenike Oluwasanu Abidemi E Omonisi Obinna E Onwujekwe Anu Mary Oommen Eyal Oren Doris D V Ortega-Altamirano Erika Ota Stanislav S Otstavnov Mayowa Ojo Owolabi Mahesh P A Jagadish Rao Padubidri Smita Pakhale Amir H Pakpour Adrian Pana Eun-Kee Park Hadi Parsian Tahereh Pashaei Shanti Patel Snehal T Patil Alyssa Pennini David M Pereira Cristiano Piccinelli Julian David Pillay Majid Pirestani Farhad Pishgar Maarten J Postma Hadi Pourjafar Farshad Pourmalek Akram Pourshams Swayam Prakash Narayan Prasad Mostafa Qorbani Mohammad Rabiee Navid Rabiee Amir Radfar Alireza Rafiei Fakher Rahim Mahdi Rahimi Muhammad Aziz Rahman Fatemeh Rajati Saleem M Rana Samira Raoofi Goura Kishor Rath David Laith Rawaf Salman Rawaf Robert C Reiner Andre M N Renzaho Nima Rezaei Aziz Rezapour Ana Isabel Ribeiro Daniela Ribeiro Luca Ronfani Elias Merdassa Roro Gholamreza Roshandel Ali Rostami Ragy Safwat Saad Parisa Sabbagh Siamak Sabour Basema Saddik Saeid Safiri Amirhossein Sahebkar Mohammad Reza Salahshoor Farkhonde Salehi Hosni Salem Marwa Rashad Salem Hamideh Salimzadeh Joshua A Salomon Abdallah M Samy Juan Sanabria Milena M Santric Milicevic Benn Sartorius Arash Sarveazad Brijesh Sathian Maheswar Satpathy Miloje Savic Monika Sawhney Mehdi Sayyah Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker Mario Sekerija Sadaf G Sepanlou Masood Sepehrimanesh Seyedmojtaba Seyedmousavi Faramarz Shaahmadi Hosein Shabaninejad Mohammad Shahbaz Masood Ali Shaikh Amir Shamshirian Morteza Shamsizadeh Heidar Sharafi Zeinab Sharafi Mehdi Sharif Ali Sharifi Hamid Sharifi Rajesh Sharma Aziz Sheikh Reza Shirkoohi Sharvari Rahul Shukla Si Si Soraya Siabani Diego Augusto Santos Silva Dayane Gabriele Alves Silveira Ambrish Singh Jasvinder A Singh Solomon Sisay Freddy Sitas Eugène Sobngwi Moslem Soofi Joan B Soriano Vasiliki Stathopoulou Mu'awiyyah Babale Sufiyan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Takahiro Tabuchi Ken Takahashi Omid Reza Tamtaji Mohammed Rasoul Tarawneh Segen Gebremeskel Tassew Parvaneh Taymoori Arash Tehrani-Banihashemi Mohamad-Hani Temsah Omar Temsah Berhe Etsay Tesfay Fisaha Haile Tesfay Manaye Yihune Teshale Gizachew Assefa Tessema Subash Thapa Kenean Getaneh Tlaye Roman Topor-Madry Marcos Roberto Tovani-Palone Eugenio Traini Bach Xuan Tran Khanh Bao Tran Afewerki Gebremeskel Tsadik Irfan Ullah Olalekan A Uthman Marco Vacante Maryam Vaezi Patricia Varona Pérez Yousef Veisani Simone Vidale Francesco S Violante Vasily Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Theo Vos Kia Vosoughi Giang Thu Vu Isidora S Vujcic Henry Wabinga Tesfahun Mulatu Wachamo Fasil Shiferaw Wagnew Yasir Waheed Fitsum Weldegebreal Girmay Teklay Weldesamuel Tissa Wijeratne Dawit Zewdu Wondafrash Tewodros Eshete Wonde Adam Belay Wondmieneh Hailemariam Mekonnen Workie Rajaram Yadav Abbas Yadegar Ali Yadollahpour Mehdi Yaseri Vahid Yazdi-Feyzabadi Alex Yeshaneh Mohammed Ahmed Yimam Ebrahim M Yimer Engida Yisma Naohiro Yonemoto Mustafa Z Younis Bahman Yousefi Mahmoud Yousefifard Chuanhua Yu Erfan Zabeh Vesna Zadnik Telma Zahirian Moghadam Zoubida Zaidi Mohammad Zamani Hamed Zandian Alireza Zangeneh Leila Zaki Kazem Zendehdel Zerihun Menlkalew Zenebe Taye Abuhay Zewale Arash Ziapour Sanjay Zodpey Christopher J L Murray

JAMA Oncol 2019 12;5(12):1749-1768

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Cancer and other noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) are now widely recognized as a threat to global development. The latest United Nations high-level meeting on NCDs reaffirmed this observation and also highlighted the slow progress in meeting the 2011 Political Declaration on the Prevention and Control of Noncommunicable Diseases and the third Sustainable Development Goal. Lack of situational analyses, priority setting, and budgeting have been identified as major obstacles in achieving these goals. All of these have in common that they require information on the local cancer epidemiology. The Global Burden of Disease (GBD) study is uniquely poised to provide these crucial data.

Objective: To describe cancer burden for 29 cancer groups in 195 countries from 1990 through 2017 to provide data needed for cancer control planning.

Evidence Review: We used the GBD study estimation methods to describe cancer incidence, mortality, years lived with disability, years of life lost, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs). Results are presented at the national level as well as by Socio-demographic Index (SDI), a composite indicator of income, educational attainment, and total fertility rate. We also analyzed the influence of the epidemiological vs the demographic transition on cancer incidence.

Findings: In 2017, there were 24.5 million incident cancer cases worldwide (16.8 million without nonmelanoma skin cancer [NMSC]) and 9.6 million cancer deaths. The majority of cancer DALYs came from years of life lost (97%), and only 3% came from years lived with disability. The odds of developing cancer were the lowest in the low SDI quintile (1 in 7) and the highest in the high SDI quintile (1 in 2) for both sexes. In 2017, the most common incident cancers in men were NMSC (4.3 million incident cases); tracheal, bronchus, and lung (TBL) cancer (1.5 million incident cases); and prostate cancer (1.3 million incident cases). The most common causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for men were TBL cancer (1.3 million deaths and 28.4 million DALYs), liver cancer (572 000 deaths and 15.2 million DALYs), and stomach cancer (542 000 deaths and 12.2 million DALYs). For women in 2017, the most common incident cancers were NMSC (3.3 million incident cases), breast cancer (1.9 million incident cases), and colorectal cancer (819 000 incident cases). The leading causes of cancer deaths and DALYs for women were breast cancer (601 000 deaths and 17.4 million DALYs), TBL cancer (596 000 deaths and 12.6 million DALYs), and colorectal cancer (414 000 deaths and 8.3 million DALYs).

Conclusions And Relevance: The national epidemiological profiles of cancer burden in the GBD study show large heterogeneities, which are a reflection of different exposures to risk factors, economic settings, lifestyles, and access to care and screening. The GBD study can be used by policy makers and other stakeholders to develop and improve national and local cancer control in order to achieve the global targets and improve equity in cancer care.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamaoncol.2019.2996DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777271PMC
December 2019

Child and Adolescent Health From 1990 to 2015: Findings From the Global Burden of Diseases, Injuries, and Risk Factors 2015 Study.

Authors:
Nicholas Kassebaum Hmwe Hmwe Kyu Leo Zoeckler Helen Elizabeth Olsen Katie Thomas Christine Pinho Zulfiqar A Bhutta Lalit Dandona Alize Ferrari Tsegaye Tewelde Ghiwot Simon I Hay Yohannes Kinfu Xiaofeng Liang Alan Lopez Deborah Carvalho Malta Ali H Mokdad Mohsen Naghavi George C Patton Joshua Salomon Benn Sartorius Roman Topor-Madry Stein Emil Vollset Andrea Werdecker Harvey A Whiteford Kalkidan Hasen Abate Kaja Abbas Solomon Abrha Damtew Muktar Beshir Ahmed Nadia Akseer Rajaa Al-Raddadi Mulubirhan Assefa Alemayohu Khalid Altirkawi Amanuel Alemu Abajobir Azmeraw T Amare Carl A T Antonio Johan Arnlov Al Artaman Hamid Asayesh Euripide Frinel G Arthur Avokpaho Ashish Awasthi Beatriz Paulina Ayala Quintanilla Umar Bacha Balem Demtsu Betsu Aleksandra Barac Till Winfried Bärnighausen Estifanos Baye Neeraj Bedi Isabela M Bensenor Adugnaw Berhane Eduardo Bernabe Oscar Alberto Bernal Addisu Shunu Beyene Sibhatu Biadgilign Boris Bikbov Cheryl Anne Boyce Alexandra Brazinova Gessessew Bugssa Hailu Austin Carter Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Fiona J Charlson Abdulaal A Chitheer Jee-Young Jasmine Choi Liliana G Ciobanu John Crump Rakhi Dandona Robert P Dellavalle Amare Deribew Gabrielle deVeber Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Manisha Dubey Amanuel Yesuf Endries Holly E Erskine Emerito Jose Aquino Faraon Andre Faro Farshad Farzadfar Joao C Fernandes Daniel Obadare Fijabi Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Luisa Sorio Flor Kyle J Foreman Richard C Franklin Maya S Fraser Joseph J Frostad Nancy Fullman Gebremedhin Berhe Gebregergs Alemseged Aregay Gebru Johanna M Geleijnse Katherine B Gibney Mahari Gidey Yihdego Ibrahim Abdelmageem Mohamed Ginawi Melkamu Dedefo Gishu Tessema Assefa Gizachew Elizabeth Glaser Audra L Gold Ellen Goldberg Philimon Gona Atsushi Goto Harish Chander Gugnani Guohong Jiang Rajeev Gupta Fisaha Haile Tesfay Graeme J Hankey Rasmus Havmoeller Martha Hijar Masako Horino H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Mihajlo B Jakovljevic Sudha P Jayaraman Vivekanand Jha Tariku Jibat Catherine O Johnson Jost Jonas Amir Kasaeian Norito Kawakami Peter N Keiyoro Ibrahim Khalil Young-Ho Khang Jagdish Khubchandani Aliasghar A Ahmad Kiadaliri Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Niranjan Kissoon Luke D Knibbs Ai Koyanagi Kristopher J Krohn Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Rachel Kulikoff G Anil Kumar Dharmesh Kumar Lal Hilton Y Lam Heidi J Larson Anders Larsson Dennis Odai Laryea Janni Leung Stephen S Lim Loon-Tzian Lo Warren D Lo Katharine J Looker Paulo A Lotufo Hassan Magdy Abd El Razek Reza Malekzadeh Desalegn Markos Shifti Mohsen Mazidi Peter A Meaney Kidanu Gebremariam Meles Peter Memiah Walter Mendoza Mubarek Abera Mengistie Gebremichael Welday Mengistu George A Mensah Ted R Miller Charles Mock Alireza Mohammadi Shafiu Mohammed Lorenzo Monasta Ulrich Mueller Chie Nagata Aliya Naheed Grant Nguyen Quyen Le Nguyen Elaine Nsoesie In-Hwan Oh Anselm Okoro Jacob Olusegun Olusanya Bolajoko O Olusanya Alberto Ortiz Deepak Paudel David M Pereira Norberto Perico Max Petzold Michael Robert Phillips Guilherme V Polanczyk Farshad Pourmalek Mostafa Qorbani Anwar Rafay Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Mahfuzar Rahman Rajesh Kumar Rai Usha Ram Zane Rankin Giuseppe Remuzzi Andre M N Renzaho Hirbo Shore Roba David Rojas-Rueda Luca Ronfani Rajesh Sagar Juan Ramon Sanabria Muktar Sano Kedir Mohammed Itamar S Santos Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Ben Schöttker David C Schwebel James G Scott Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Masood Ali Shaikh June She Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Inga Dora Sigfusdottir Jasvinder Singh Naris Silpakit Alison Smith Chandrashekhar Sreeramareddy Jeffrey D Stanaway Dan J Stein Caitlyn Steiner Muawiyyah Babale Sufiyan Soumya Swaminathan Rafael Tabarés-Seisdedos Karen M Tabb Fentaw Tadese Mohammad Tavakkoli Bineyam Taye Stephanie Teeple Teketo Kassaw Tegegne Girma Temam Shifa Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Bernadette Thomas Alan J Thomson Ruoyan Tobe-Gai Marcello Tonelli Bach Xuan Tran Christopher Troeger Kingsley N Ukwaja Olalekan Uthman Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Elisabete Weiderpass Robert Weintraub Solomon Weldemariam Gebrehiwot Ronny Westerman Hywel C Williams Charles D A Wolfe Rachel Woodbrook Yuichiro Yano Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Elias Asfaw Zegeye Liesl Joanna Zuhlke Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2017 06;171(6):573-592

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: Comprehensive and timely monitoring of disease burden in all age groups, including children and adolescents, is essential for improving population health.

Objective: To quantify and describe levels and trends of mortality and nonfatal health outcomes among children and adolescents from 1990 to 2015 to provide a framework for policy discussion.

Evidence Review: Cause-specific mortality and nonfatal health outcomes were analyzed for 195 countries and territories by age group, sex, and year from 1990 to 2015 using standardized approaches for data processing and statistical modeling, with subsequent analysis of the findings to describe levels and trends across geography and time among children and adolescents 19 years or younger. A composite indicator of income, education, and fertility was developed (Socio-demographic Index [SDI]) for each geographic unit and year, which evaluates the historical association between SDI and health loss.

Findings: Global child and adolescent mortality decreased from 14.18 million (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 14.09 million to 14.28 million) deaths in 1990 to 7.26 million (95% UI, 7.14 million to 7.39 million) deaths in 2015, but progress has been unevenly distributed. Countries with a lower SDI had a larger proportion of mortality burden (75%) in 2015 than was the case in 1990 (61%). Most deaths in 2015 occurred in South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. Global trends were driven by reductions in mortality owing to infectious, nutritional, and neonatal disorders, which in the aggregate led to a relative increase in the importance of noncommunicable diseases and injuries in explaining global disease burden. The absolute burden of disability in children and adolescents increased 4.3% (95% UI, 3.1%-5.6%) from 1990 to 2015, with much of the increase owing to population growth and improved survival for children and adolescents to older ages. Other than infectious conditions, many top causes of disability are associated with long-term sequelae of conditions present at birth (eg, neonatal disorders, congenital birth defects, and hemoglobinopathies) and complications of a variety of infections and nutritional deficiencies. Anemia, developmental intellectual disability, hearing loss, epilepsy, and vision loss are important contributors to childhood disability that can arise from multiple causes. Maternal and reproductive health remains a key cause of disease burden in adolescent females, especially in lower-SDI countries. In low-SDI countries, mortality is the primary driver of health loss for children and adolescents, whereas disability predominates in higher-SDI locations; the specific pattern of epidemiological transition varies across diseases and injuries.

Conclusions And Relevance: Consistent international attention and investment have led to sustained improvements in causes of health loss among children and adolescents in many countries, although progress has been uneven. The persistence of infectious diseases in some countries, coupled with ongoing epidemiologic transition to injuries and noncommunicable diseases, require all countries to carefully evaluate and implement appropriate strategies to maximize the health of their children and adolescents and for the international community to carefully consider which elements of child and adolescent health should be monitored.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2017.0250DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5540012PMC
June 2017

Retinal and Choroidal Thickness in Adult Patients with Familial Mediterranean Fever.

Ophthalmic Epidemiol 2017 10 20;24(5):346-351. Epub 2017 Mar 20.

a Department of Ophthalmology , Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Training and Research Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.

Purpose: We aimed to evaluate changes in retinal, choroidal, ganglion cell complex (GCC) and retinal nerve fiber layer (RNFL) thicknesses in genetically diagnosed adult patients with familial Mediterranean fever (FMF).

Methods: A total of 50 eyes of 50 genetically diagnosed patients with FMF and 50 eyes of controls were analyzed. Patients were recruited from the Genetic Diagnostic Center of Dışkapı Yıldırım Beyazıt Research and Training Hospital, Turkey. Retinal and choroidal thicknesses were obtained using spectral-domain optical coherence tomography from choroid, retina, GCC, and RNFL.

Results: Average baseline choroidal thickness was statistically significantly thinner in patients with FMF than controls at C (325.85 ± 30.8 µm and 338.97 ± 23.9 µm, respectively, p = 0.038), C (328.77 ± 31.6 µm and 349.00 ± 23.3 µm, respectively, p = 0.002), C (324.97 ± 33.6 µm and 351.23 ± 23.8 µm respectively, p = 0.0001) and C (324.75 ± 37.1 µm and 344.61 ± 27.3 µm, respectively, p = 0.008). However, there was no significant difference in temporal choroidal thickness (C C C) in patients with FMF compared to controls (p > 0.05). There were no significant differences in retinal, GCC and RNFL thicknesses between the groups (p > 0.05).

Conclusion: We hypothesize that the chronic inflammation seen in FMF could be the reason for the reduction seen in choroidal thickness in adult patients with FMF. Retinal, GCC and RNFL thicknesses did not differ from controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09286586.2017.1294697DOI Listing
October 2017

Does Correction of Strabismus Improve Quality of Life in Children with Autism Spectrum Disorder: Results of a Parent Survey by Ophthalmologists.

Semin Ophthalmol 2018 6;33(2):149-154. Epub 2016 Sep 6.

a Department of Ophthalmology, Ministry of Health , Dr. Sami Ulus Maternity and Children Research and Training Hospital , Ankara , Turkey.

Purpose: Ophthalmic problems are reported to be common in children with autism spectrum disorder (ASD), and strabismus is of particular importance. We aimed to investigate the outcomes of strabismus management in cases with ASD and identify the impact of optical or surgical correction of the strabismus on the child using a questionnaire for parents.

Methods: A survey was designed to assess parents' perceptions of pre-management and post-management quality of life in 41 children aged 5-17 years with ASD and strabismus using a questionnaire with 10 questions, including three subscales.

Results: Significant improvements were noted after management in functional limitations (P < 0.01), psychosocial interactions (P < 0.01), and ocular alignment (P < 0.01) subscales.

Conclusion: This is the first study of the literature that investigated the impact of ocular re-alignment on behavioral patterns and social interactions of children with ASD and strabismus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/08820538.2016.1182559DOI Listing
April 2018

Global and National Burden of Diseases and Injuries Among Children and Adolescents Between 1990 and 2013: Findings From the Global Burden of Disease 2013 Study.

Authors:
Hmwe H Kyu Christine Pinho Joseph A Wagner Jonathan C Brown Amelia Bertozzi-Villa Fiona J Charlson Luc Edgar Coffeng Lalit Dandona Holly E Erskine Alize J Ferrari Christina Fitzmaurice Thomas D Fleming Mohammad H Forouzanfar Nicholas Graetz Caterina Guinovart Juanita Haagsma Hideki Higashi Nicholas J Kassebaum Heidi J Larson Stephen S Lim Ali H Mokdad Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Shaun V Odell Gregory A Roth Peter T Serina Jeffrey D Stanaway Awoke Misganaw Harvey A Whiteford Timothy M Wolock Sarah Wulf Hanson Foad Abd-Allah Semaw Ferede Abera Laith J Abu-Raddad Fadia S AlBuhairan Azmeraw T Amare Carl Abelardo T Antonio Al Artaman Suzanne L Barker-Collo Lope H Barrero Corina Benjet Isabela M Bensenor Zulfiqar A Bhutta Boris Bikbov Alexandra Brazinova Ismael Campos-Nonato Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ferrán Catalá-López Rajiv Chowdhury Cyrus Cooper John A Crump Rakhi Dandona Louisa Degenhardt Robert P Dellavalle Samath D Dharmaratne Emerito Jose A Faraon Valery L Feigin Thomas Fürst Johanna M Geleijnse Bradford D Gessner Katherine B Gibney Atsushi Goto David Gunnell Graeme J Hankey Roderick J Hay John C Hornberger H Dean Hosgood Guoqing Hu Kathryn H Jacobsen Sudha P Jayaraman Panniyammakal Jeemon Jost B Jonas André Karch Daniel Kim Sungroul Kim Yoshihiro Kokubo Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer G Anil Kumar Anders Larsson Janet L Leasher Ricky Leung Yongmei Li Steven E Lipshultz Alan D Lopez Paulo A Lotufo Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Marek Majdan Reza Malekzadeh Taufiq Mashal Amanda J Mason-Jones Yohannes Adama Melaku Ziad A Memish Walter Mendoza Ted R Miller Charles N Mock Joseph Murray Sandra Nolte In-Hwan Oh Bolajoko Olubukunola Olusanya Katrina F Ortblad Eun-Kee Park Angel J Paternina Caicedo Scott B Patten George C Patton David M Pereira Norberto Perico Frédéric B Piel Suzanne Polinder Svetlana Popova Farshad Pourmalek D Alex Quistberg Giuseppe Remuzzi Alina Rodriguez David Rojas-Rueda Dietrich Rothenbacher David H Rothstein Juan Sanabria Itamar S Santos David C Schwebel Sadaf G Sepanlou Amira Shaheen Rahman Shiri Ivy Shiue Vegard Skirbekk Karen Sliwa Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Dan J Stein Timothy J Steiner Lars Jacob Stovner Bryan L Sykes Karen M Tabb Abdullah Sulieman Terkawi Alan J Thomson Andrew L Thorne-Lyman Jeffrey Allen Towbin Kingsley Nnanna Ukwaja Tommi Vasankari Narayanaswamy Venketasubramanian Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Elisabete Weiderpass Robert G Weintraub Andrea Werdecker James D Wilkinson Solomon Meseret Woldeyohannes Charles D A Wolfe Yuichiro Yano Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa El Sayed Zaki Mohsen Naghavi Christopher J L Murray Theo Vos

JAMA Pediatr 2016 Mar;170(3):267-87

Institute for Health Metrics and Evaluation, University of Washington, Seattle.

Importance: The literature focuses on mortality among children younger than 5 years. Comparable information on nonfatal health outcomes among these children and the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among older children and adolescents is scarce.

Objective: To determine levels and trends in the fatal and nonfatal burden of diseases and injuries among younger children (aged <5 years), older children (aged 5-9 years), and adolescents (aged 10-19 years) between 1990 and 2013 in 188 countries from the Global Burden of Disease (GBD) 2013 study.

Evidence Review: Data from vital registration, verbal autopsy studies, maternal and child death surveillance, and other sources covering 14,244 site-years (ie, years of cause of death data by geography) from 1980 through 2013 were used to estimate cause-specific mortality. Data from 35,620 epidemiological sources were used to estimate the prevalence of the diseases and sequelae in the GBD 2013 study. Cause-specific mortality for most causes was estimated using the Cause of Death Ensemble Model strategy. For some infectious diseases (eg, HIV infection/AIDS, measles, hepatitis B) where the disease process is complex or the cause of death data were insufficient or unavailable, we used natural history models. For most nonfatal health outcomes, DisMod-MR 2.0, a Bayesian metaregression tool, was used to meta-analyze the epidemiological data to generate prevalence estimates.

Findings: Of the 7.7 (95% uncertainty interval [UI], 7.4-8.1) million deaths among children and adolescents globally in 2013, 6.28 million occurred among younger children, 0.48 million among older children, and 0.97 million among adolescents. In 2013, the leading causes of death were lower respiratory tract infections among younger children (905.059 deaths; 95% UI, 810,304-998,125), diarrheal diseases among older children (38,325 deaths; 95% UI, 30,365-47,678), and road injuries among adolescents (115,186 deaths; 95% UI, 105,185-124,870). Iron deficiency anemia was the leading cause of years lived with disability among children and adolescents, affecting 619 (95% UI, 618-621) million in 2013. Large between-country variations exist in mortality from leading causes among children and adolescents. Countries with rapid declines in all-cause mortality between 1990 and 2013 also experienced large declines in most leading causes of death, whereas countries with the slowest declines had stagnant or increasing trends in the leading causes of death. In 2013, Nigeria had a 12% global share of deaths from lower respiratory tract infections and a 38% global share of deaths from malaria. India had 33% of the world's deaths from neonatal encephalopathy. Half of the world's diarrheal deaths among children and adolescents occurred in just 5 countries: India, Democratic Republic of the Congo, Pakistan, Nigeria, and Ethiopia.

Conclusions And Relevance: Understanding the levels and trends of the leading causes of death and disability among children and adolescents is critical to guide investment and inform policies. Monitoring these trends over time is also key to understanding where interventions are having an impact. Proven interventions exist to prevent or treat the leading causes of unnecessary death and disability among children and adolescents. The findings presented here show that these are underused and give guidance to policy makers in countries where more attention is needed.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5076765PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamapediatrics.2015.4276DOI Listing
March 2016

Global, regional, and national comparative risk assessment of 79 behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks or clusters of risks in 188 countries, 1990-2013: a systematic analysis for the Global Burden of Disease Study 2013.

Authors:
Mohammad H Forouzanfar Lily Alexander H Ross Anderson Victoria F Bachman Stan Biryukov Michael Brauer Richard Burnett Daniel Casey Matthew M Coates Aaron Cohen Kristen Delwiche Kara Estep Joseph J Frostad K C Astha Hmwe H Kyu Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Marie Ng Erica Leigh Slepak Bernadette A Thomas Joseph Wagner Gunn Marit Aasvang Cristiana Abbafati Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren Foad Abd-Allah Semaw F Abera Victor Aboyans Biju Abraham Jerry Puthenpurakal Abraham Ibrahim Abubakar Niveen M E Abu-Rmeileh Tania C Aburto Tom Achoki Ademola Adelekan Koranteng Adofo Arsène K Adou José C Adsuar Ashkan Afshin Emilie E Agardh Mazin J Al Khabouri Faris H Al Lami Sayed Saidul Alam Deena Alasfoor Mohammed I Albittar Miguel A Alegretti Alicia V Aleman Zewdie A Alemu Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho Samia Alhabib Raghib Ali Mohammed K Ali François Alla Peter Allebeck Peter J Allen Ubai Alsharif Elena Alvarez Nelson Alvis-Guzman Adansi A Amankwaa Azmeraw T Amare Emmanuel A Ameh Omid Ameli Heresh Amini Walid Ammar Benjamin O Anderson Carl Abelardo T Antonio Palwasha Anwari Solveig Argeseanu Cunningham Johan Arnlöv Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic Al Artaman Rana J Asghar Reza Assadi Lydia S Atkins Charles Atkinson Marco A Avila Baffour Awuah Alaa Badawi Maria C Bahit Talal Bakfalouni Kalpana Balakrishnan Shivanthi Balalla Ravi Kumar Balu Amitava Banerjee Ryan M Barber Suzanne L Barker-Collo Simon Barquera Lars Barregard Lope H Barrero Tonatiuh Barrientos-Gutierrez Ana C Basto-Abreu Arindam Basu Sanjay Basu Mohammed O Basulaiman Carolina Batis Ruvalcaba Justin Beardsley Neeraj Bedi Tolesa Bekele Michelle L Bell Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Habib Benzian Eduardo Bernabé Tariku J Beyene Neeraj Bhala Ashish Bhalla Zulfiqar A Bhutta Boris Bikbov Aref A Bin Abdulhak Jed D Blore Fiona M Blyth Megan A Bohensky Berrak Bora Başara Guilherme Borges Natan M Bornstein Dipan Bose Soufiane Boufous Rupert R Bourne Michael Brainin Alexandra Brazinova Nicholas J Breitborde Hermann Brenner Adam D M Briggs David M Broday Peter M Brooks Nigel G Bruce Traolach S Brugha Bert Brunekreef Rachelle Buchbinder Linh N Bui Gene Bukhman Andrew G Bulloch Michael Burch Peter G J Burney Ismael R Campos-Nonato Julio C Campuzano Alejandra J Cantoral Jack Caravanos Rosario Cárdenas Elisabeth Cardis David O Carpenter Valeria Caso Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ruben E Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Fiorella Cavalleri Alanur Çavlin Vineet K Chadha Jung-Chen Chang Fiona J Charlson Honglei Chen Wanqing Chen Zhengming Chen Peggy P Chiang Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Rajiv Chowdhury Costas A Christophi Ting-Wu Chuang Sumeet S Chugh Massimo Cirillo Thomas K D Claßen Valentina Colistro Mercedes Colomar Samantha M Colquhoun Alejandra G Contreras Cyrus Cooper Kimberly Cooperrider Leslie T Cooper Josef Coresh Karen J Courville Michael H Criqui Lucia Cuevas-Nasu James Damsere-Derry Hadi Danawi Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Paul I Dargan Adrian Davis Dragos V Davitoiu Anand Dayama E Filipa de Castro Vanessa De la Cruz-Góngora Diego De Leo Graça de Lima Louisa Degenhardt Borja del Pozo-Cruz Robert P Dellavalle Kebede Deribe Sarah Derrett Don C Des Jarlais Muluken Dessalegn Gabrielle A deVeber Karen M Devries Samath D Dharmaratne Mukesh K Dherani Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Klara Dokova E Ray Dorsey Tim R Driscoll Leilei Duan Adnan M Durrani Beth E Ebel Richard G Ellenbogen Yousef M Elshrek Matthias Endres Sergey P Ermakov Holly E Erskine Babak Eshrati Alireza Esteghamati Saman Fahimi Emerito Jose A Faraon Farshad Farzadfar Derek F J Fay Valery L Feigin Andrea B Feigl Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Alize J Ferrari Cleusa P Ferri Abraham D Flaxman Thomas D Fleming Nataliya Foigt Kyle J Foreman Urbano Fra Paleo Richard C Franklin Belinda Gabbe Lynne Gaffikin Emmanuela Gakidou Amiran Gamkrelidze Fortuné G Gankpé Ron T Gansevoort Francisco A García-Guerra Evariste Gasana Johanna M Geleijnse Bradford D Gessner Pete Gething Katherine B Gibney Richard F Gillum Ibrahim A M Ginawi Maurice Giroud Giorgia Giussani Shifalika Goenka Ketevan Goginashvili Hector Gomez Dantes Philimon Gona Teresita Gonzalez de Cosio Dinorah González-Castell Carolyn C Gotay Atsushi Goto Hebe N Gouda Richard L Guerrant Harish C Gugnani Francis Guillemin David Gunnell Rahul Gupta Rajeev Gupta Reyna A Gutiérrez Nima Hafezi-Nejad Holly Hagan Maria Hagstromer Yara A Halasa Randah R Hamadeh Mouhanad Hammami Graeme J Hankey Yuantao Hao Hilda L Harb Tilahun Nigatu Haregu Josep Maria Haro Rasmus Havmoeller Simon I Hay Mohammad T Hedayati Ileana B Heredia-Pi Lucia Hernandez Kyle R Heuton Pouria Heydarpour Martha Hijar Hans W Hoek Howard J Hoffman John C Hornberger H Dean Hosgood Damian G Hoy Mohamed Hsairi Guoqing Hu Howard Hu Cheng Huang John J Huang Bryan J Hubbell Laetitia Huiart Abdullatif Husseini Marissa L Iannarone Kim M Iburg Bulat T Idrisov Nayu Ikeda Kaire Innos Manami Inoue Farhad Islami Samaya Ismayilova Kathryn H Jacobsen Henrica A Jansen Deborah L Jarvis Simerjot K Jassal Alejandra Jauregui Sudha Jayaraman Panniyammakal Jeemon Paul N Jensen Vivekanand Jha Fan Jiang Guohong Jiang Ying Jiang Jost B Jonas Knud Juel Haidong Kan Sidibe S Kany Roseline Nadim E Karam André Karch Corine K Karema Ganesan Karthikeyan Anil Kaul Norito Kawakami Dhruv S Kazi Andrew H Kemp Andre P Kengne Andre Keren Yousef S Khader Shams Eldin Ali Hassan Khalifa Ejaz A Khan Young-Ho Khang Shahab Khatibzadeh Irma Khonelidze Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Sungroul Kim Yunjin Kim Ruth W Kimokoti Yohannes Kinfu Jonas M Kinge Brett M Kissela Miia Kivipelto Luke D Knibbs Ann Kristin Knudsen Yoshihiro Kokubo M Rifat Kose Soewarta Kosen Alexander Kraemer Michael Kravchenko Sanjay Krishnaswami Hans Kromhout Tiffany Ku Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Ernst J Kuipers Chanda Kulkarni Veena S Kulkarni G Anil Kumar Gene F Kwan Taavi Lai Arjun Lakshmana Balaji Ratilal Lalloo Tea Lallukka Hilton Lam Qing Lan Van C Lansingh Heidi J Larson Anders Larsson Dennis O Laryea Pablo M Lavados Alicia E Lawrynowicz Janet L Leasher Jong-Tae Lee James Leigh Ricky Leung Miriam Levi Yichong Li Yongmei Li Juan Liang Xiaofeng Liang Stephen S Lim M Patrice Lindsay Steven E Lipshultz Shiwei Liu Yang Liu Belinda K Lloyd Giancarlo Logroscino Stephanie J London Nancy Lopez Joannie Lortet-Tieulent Paulo A Lotufo Rafael Lozano Raimundas Lunevicius Jixiang Ma Stefan Ma Vasco M P Machado Michael F MacIntyre Carlos Magis-Rodriguez Abbas A Mahdi Marek Majdan Reza Malekzadeh Srikanth Mangalam Christopher C Mapoma Marape Marape Wagner Marcenes David J Margolis Christopher Margono Guy B Marks Randall V Martin Melvin B Marzan Mohammad T Mashal Felix Masiye Amanda J Mason-Jones Kunihiro Matsushita Richard Matzopoulos Bongani M Mayosi Tasara T Mazorodze Abigail C McKay Martin McKee Abigail McLain Peter A Meaney Catalina Medina Man Mohan Mehndiratta Fabiola Mejia-Rodriguez Wubegzier Mekonnen Yohannes A Melaku Michele Meltzer Ziad A Memish Walter Mendoza George A Mensah Atte Meretoja Francis Apolinary Mhimbira Renata Micha Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Awoke Misganaw Santosh Mishra Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim Karzan A Mohammad Ali H Mokdad Glen L Mola Lorenzo Monasta Julio C Montañez Hernandez Marcella Montico Ami R Moore Lidia Morawska Rintaro Mori Joanna Moschandreas Wilkister N Moturi Dariush Mozaffarian Ulrich O Mueller Mitsuru Mukaigawara Erin C Mullany Kinnari S Murthy Mohsen Naghavi Ziad Nahas Aliya Naheed Kovin S Naidoo Luigi Naldi Devina Nand Vinay Nangia K M Venkat Narayan Denis Nash Bruce Neal Chakib Nejjari Sudan P Neupane Charles R Newton Frida N Ngalesoni Jean de Dieu Ngirabega Grant Nguyen Nhung T Nguyen Mark J Nieuwenhuijsen Muhammad I Nisar José R Nogueira Joan M Nolla Sandra Nolte Ole F Norheim Rosana E Norman Bo Norrving Luke Nyakarahuka In-Hwan Oh Takayoshi Ohkubo Bolajoko O Olusanya Saad B Omer John Nelson Opio Ricardo Orozco Rodolfo S Pagcatipunan Amanda W Pain Jeyaraj D Pandian Carlo Irwin A Panelo Christina Papachristou Eun-Kee Park Charles D Parry Angel J Paternina Caicedo Scott B Patten Vinod K Paul Boris I Pavlin Neil Pearce Lilia S Pedraza Andrea Pedroza Ljiljana Pejin Stokic Ayfer Pekericli David M Pereira Rogelio Perez-Padilla Fernando Perez-Ruiz Norberto Perico Samuel A L Perry Aslam Pervaiz Konrad Pesudovs Carrie B Peterson Max Petzold Michael R Phillips Hwee Pin Phua Dietrich Plass Dan Poenaru Guilherme V Polanczyk Suzanne Polinder Constance D Pond C Arden Pope Daniel Pope Svetlana Popova Farshad Pourmalek John Powles Dorairaj Prabhakaran Noela M Prasad Dima M Qato Amado D Quezada D Alex A Quistberg Lionel Racapé Anwar Rafay Kazem Rahimi Vafa Rahimi-Movaghar Sajjad Ur Rahman Murugesan Raju Ivo Rakovac Saleem M Rana Mayuree Rao Homie Razavi K Srinath Reddy Amany H Refaat Jürgen Rehm Giuseppe Remuzzi Antonio L Ribeiro Patricia M Riccio Lee Richardson Anne Riederer Margaret Robinson Anna Roca Alina Rodriguez David Rojas-Rueda Isabelle Romieu Luca Ronfani Robin Room Nobhojit Roy George M Ruhago Lesley Rushton Nsanzimana Sabin Ralph L Sacco Sukanta Saha Ramesh Sahathevan Mohammad Ali Sahraian Joshua A Salomon Deborah Salvo Uchechukwu K Sampson Juan R Sanabria Luz Maria Sanchez Tania G Sánchez-Pimienta Lidia Sanchez-Riera Logan Sandar Itamar S Santos Amir Sapkota Maheswar Satpathy James E Saunders Monika Sawhney Mete I Saylan Peter Scarborough Jürgen C Schmidt Ione J C Schneider Ben Schöttker David C Schwebel James G Scott Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Berrin Serdar Edson E Servan-Mori Gavin Shaddick Saeid Shahraz Teresa Shamah Levy Siyi Shangguan Jun She Sara Sheikhbahaei Kenji Shibuya Hwashin H Shin Yukito Shinohara Rahman Shiri Kawkab Shishani Ivy Shiue Inga D Sigfusdottir Donald H Silberberg Edgar P Simard Shireen Sindi Abhishek Singh Gitanjali M Singh Jasvinder A Singh Vegard Skirbekk Karen Sliwa Michael Soljak Samir Soneji Kjetil Søreide Sergey Soshnikov Luciano A Sposato Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Nicolas J C Stapelberg Vasiliki Stathopoulou Nadine Steckling Dan J Stein Murray B Stein Natalie Stephens Heidi Stöckl Kurt Straif Konstantinos Stroumpoulis Lela Sturua Bruno F Sunguya Soumya Swaminathan Mamta Swaroop Bryan L Sykes Karen M Tabb Ken Takahashi Roberto T Talongwa Nikhil Tandon David Tanne Marcel Tanner Mohammad Tavakkoli Braden J Te Ao Carolina M Teixeira Martha M Téllez Rojo Abdullah S Terkawi José Luis Texcalac-Sangrador Sarah V Thackway Blake Thomson Andrew L Thorne-Lyman Amanda G Thrift George D Thurston Taavi Tillmann Myriam Tobollik Marcello Tonelli Fotis Topouzis Jeffrey A Towbin Hideaki Toyoshima Jefferson Traebert Bach X Tran Leonardo Trasande Matias Trillini Ulises Trujillo Zacharie Tsala Dimbuene Miltiadis Tsilimbaris Emin Murat Tuzcu Uche S Uchendu Kingsley N Ukwaja Selen B Uzun Steven van de Vijver Rita Van Dingenen Coen H van Gool Jim van Os Yuri Y Varakin Tommi J Vasankari Ana Maria N Vasconcelos Monica S Vavilala Lennert J Veerman Gustavo Velasquez-Melendez N Venketasubramanian Lakshmi Vijayakumar Salvador Villalpando Francesco S Violante Vasiliy Victorovich Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Gregory R Wagner Stephen G Waller Mitchell T Wallin Xia Wan Haidong Wang JianLi Wang Linhong Wang Wenzhi Wang Yanping Wang Tati S Warouw Charlotte H Watts Scott Weichenthal Elisabete Weiderpass Robert G Weintraub Andrea Werdecker K Ryan Wessells Ronny Westerman Harvey A Whiteford James D Wilkinson Hywel C Williams Thomas N Williams Solomon M Woldeyohannes Charles D A Wolfe John Q Wong Anthony D Woolf Jonathan L Wright Brittany Wurtz Gelin Xu Lijing L Yan Gonghuan Yang Yuichiro Yano Pengpeng Ye Muluken Yenesew Gökalp K Yentür Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Zourkaleini Younoussi Chuanhua Yu Maysaa E Zaki Yong Zhao Yingfeng Zheng Maigeng Zhou Jun Zhu Shankuan Zhu Xiaonong Zou Joseph R Zunt Alan D Lopez Theo Vos Christopher J Murray

Lancet 2015 Dec 11;386(10010):2287-323. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Background: The Global Burden of Disease, Injuries, and Risk Factor study 2013 (GBD 2013) is the first of a series of annual updates of the GBD. Risk factor quantification, particularly of modifiable risk factors, can help to identify emerging threats to population health and opportunities for prevention. The GBD 2013 provides a timely opportunity to update the comparative risk assessment with new data for exposure, relative risks, and evidence on the appropriate counterfactual risk distribution.

Methods: Attributable deaths, years of life lost, years lived with disability, and disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) have been estimated for 79 risks or clusters of risks using the GBD 2010 methods. Risk-outcome pairs meeting explicit evidence criteria were assessed for 188 countries for the period 1990-2013 by age and sex using three inputs: risk exposure, relative risks, and the theoretical minimum risk exposure level (TMREL). Risks are organised into a hierarchy with blocks of behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks at the first level of the hierarchy. The next level in the hierarchy includes nine clusters of related risks and two individual risks, with more detail provided at levels 3 and 4 of the hierarchy. Compared with GBD 2010, six new risk factors have been added: handwashing practices, occupational exposure to trichloroethylene, childhood wasting, childhood stunting, unsafe sex, and low glomerular filtration rate. For most risks, data for exposure were synthesised with a Bayesian meta-regression method, DisMod-MR 2.0, or spatial-temporal Gaussian process regression. Relative risks were based on meta-regressions of published cohort and intervention studies. Attributable burden for clusters of risks and all risks combined took into account evidence on the mediation of some risks such as high body-mass index (BMI) through other risks such as high systolic blood pressure and high cholesterol.

Findings: All risks combined account for 57·2% (95% uncertainty interval [UI] 55·8-58·5) of deaths and 41·6% (40·1-43·0) of DALYs. Risks quantified account for 87·9% (86·5-89·3) of cardiovascular disease DALYs, ranging to a low of 0% for neonatal disorders and neglected tropical diseases and malaria. In terms of global DALYs in 2013, six risks or clusters of risks each caused more than 5% of DALYs: dietary risks accounting for 11·3 million deaths and 241·4 million DALYs, high systolic blood pressure for 10·4 million deaths and 208·1 million DALYs, child and maternal malnutrition for 1·7 million deaths and 176·9 million DALYs, tobacco smoke for 6·1 million deaths and 143·5 million DALYs, air pollution for 5·5 million deaths and 141·5 million DALYs, and high BMI for 4·4 million deaths and 134·0 million DALYs. Risk factor patterns vary across regions and countries and with time. In sub-Saharan Africa, the leading risk factors are child and maternal malnutrition, unsafe sex, and unsafe water, sanitation, and handwashing. In women, in nearly all countries in the Americas, north Africa, and the Middle East, and in many other high-income countries, high BMI is the leading risk factor, with high systolic blood pressure as the leading risk in most of Central and Eastern Europe and south and east Asia. For men, high systolic blood pressure or tobacco use are the leading risks in nearly all high-income countries, in north Africa and the Middle East, Europe, and Asia. For men and women, unsafe sex is the leading risk in a corridor from Kenya to South Africa.

Interpretation: Behavioural, environmental and occupational, and metabolic risks can explain half of global mortality and more than one-third of global DALYs providing many opportunities for prevention. Of the larger risks, the attributable burden of high BMI has increased in the past 23 years. In view of the prominence of behavioural risk factors, behavioural and social science research on interventions for these risks should be strengthened. Many prevention and primary care policy options are available now to act on key risks.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00128-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4685753PMC
December 2015

Global, regional, and national disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) for 306 diseases and injuries and healthy life expectancy (HALE) for 188 countries, 1990-2013: quantifying the epidemiological transition.

Authors:
Christopher J L Murray Ryan M Barber Kyle J Foreman Ayse Abbasoglu Ozgoren Foad Abd-Allah Semaw F Abera Victor Aboyans Jerry P Abraham Ibrahim Abubakar Laith J Abu-Raddad Niveen M Abu-Rmeileh Tom Achoki Ilana N Ackerman Zanfina Ademi Arsène K Adou José C Adsuar Ashkan Afshin Emilie E Agardh Sayed Saidul Alam Deena Alasfoor Mohammed I Albittar Miguel A Alegretti Zewdie A Alemu Rafael Alfonso-Cristancho Samia Alhabib Raghib Ali François Alla Peter Allebeck Mohammad A Almazroa Ubai Alsharif Elena Alvarez Nelson Alvis-Guzman Azmeraw T Amare Emmanuel A Ameh Heresh Amini Walid Ammar H Ross Anderson Benjamin O Anderson Carl Abelardo T Antonio Palwasha Anwari Johan Arnlöv Valentina S Arsic Arsenijevic Al Artaman Rana J Asghar Reza Assadi Lydia S Atkins Marco A Avila Baffour Awuah Victoria F Bachman Alaa Badawi Maria C Bahit Kalpana Balakrishnan Amitava Banerjee Suzanne L Barker-Collo Simon Barquera Lars Barregard Lope H Barrero Arindam Basu Sanjay Basu Mohammed O Basulaiman Justin Beardsley Neeraj Bedi Ettore Beghi Tolesa Bekele Michelle L Bell Corina Benjet Derrick A Bennett Isabela M Bensenor Habib Benzian Eduardo Bernabé Amelia Bertozzi-Villa Tariku J Beyene Neeraj Bhala Ashish Bhalla Zulfiqar A Bhutta Kelly Bienhoff Boris Bikbov Stan Biryukov Jed D Blore Christopher D Blosser Fiona M Blyth Megan A Bohensky Ian W Bolliger Berrak Bora Başara Natan M Bornstein Dipan Bose Soufiane Boufous Rupert R A Bourne Lindsay N Boyers Michael Brainin Carol E Brayne Alexandra Brazinova Nicholas J K Breitborde Hermann Brenner Adam D Briggs Peter M Brooks Jonathan C Brown Traolach S Brugha Rachelle Buchbinder Geoffrey C Buckle Christine M Budke Anne Bulchis Andrew G Bulloch Ismael R Campos-Nonato Hélène Carabin Jonathan R Carapetis Rosario Cárdenas David O Carpenter Valeria Caso Carlos A Castañeda-Orjuela Ruben E Castro Ferrán Catalá-López Fiorella Cavalleri Alanur Çavlin Vineet K Chadha Jung-Chen Chang Fiona J Charlson Honglei Chen Wanqing Chen Peggy P Chiang Odgerel Chimed-Ochir Rajiv Chowdhury Hanne Christensen Costas A Christophi Massimo Cirillo Matthew M Coates Luc E Coffeng Megan S Coggeshall Valentina Colistro Samantha M Colquhoun Graham S Cooke Cyrus Cooper Leslie T Cooper Luis M Coppola Monica Cortinovis Michael H Criqui John A Crump Lucia Cuevas-Nasu Hadi Danawi Lalit Dandona Rakhi Dandona Emily Dansereau Paul I Dargan Gail Davey Adrian Davis Dragos V Davitoiu Anand Dayama Diego De Leo Louisa Degenhardt Borja Del Pozo-Cruz Robert P Dellavalle Kebede Deribe Sarah Derrett Don C Des Jarlais Muluken Dessalegn Samath D Dharmaratne Mukesh K Dherani Cesar Diaz-Torné Daniel Dicker Eric L Ding Klara Dokova E Ray Dorsey Tim R Driscoll Leilei Duan Herbert C Duber Beth E Ebel Karen M Edmond Yousef M Elshrek Matthias Endres Sergey P Ermakov Holly E Erskine Babak Eshrati Alireza Esteghamati Kara Estep Emerito Jose A Faraon Farshad Farzadfar Derek F Fay Valery L Feigin David T Felson Seyed-Mohammad Fereshtehnejad Jefferson G Fernandes Alize J Ferrari Christina Fitzmaurice Abraham D Flaxman Thomas D Fleming Nataliya Foigt Mohammad H Forouzanfar F Gerry R Fowkes Urbano Fra Paleo Richard C Franklin Thomas Fürst Belinda Gabbe Lynne Gaffikin Fortuné G Gankpé Johanna M Geleijnse Bradford D Gessner Peter Gething Katherine B Gibney Maurice Giroud Giorgia Giussani Hector Gomez Dantes Philimon Gona Diego González-Medina Richard A Gosselin Carolyn C Gotay Atsushi Goto Hebe N Gouda Nicholas Graetz Harish C Gugnani Rahul Gupta Rajeev Gupta Reyna A Gutiérrez Juanita Haagsma Nima Hafezi-Nejad Holly Hagan Yara A Halasa Randah R Hamadeh Hannah Hamavid Mouhanad Hammami Jamie Hancock Graeme J Hankey Gillian M Hansen Yuantao Hao Hilda L Harb Josep Maria Haro Rasmus Havmoeller Simon I Hay Roderick J Hay Ileana B Heredia-Pi Kyle R Heuton Pouria Heydarpour Hideki Higashi Martha Hijar Hans W Hoek Howard J Hoffman H Dean Hosgood Mazeda Hossain Peter J Hotez Damian G Hoy Mohamed Hsairi Guoqing Hu Cheng Huang John J Huang Abdullatif Husseini Chantal Huynh Marissa L Iannarone Kim M Iburg Kaire Innos Manami Inoue Farhad Islami Kathryn H Jacobsen Deborah L Jarvis Simerjot K Jassal Sun Ha Jee Panniyammakal Jeemon Paul N Jensen Vivekanand Jha Guohong Jiang Ying Jiang Jost B Jonas Knud Juel Haidong Kan André Karch Corine K Karema Chante Karimkhani Ganesan Karthikeyan Nicholas J Kassebaum Anil Kaul Norito Kawakami Konstantin Kazanjan Andrew H Kemp Andre P Kengne Andre Keren Yousef S Khader Shams Eldin A Khalifa Ejaz A Khan Gulfaraz Khan Young-Ho Khang Christian Kieling Daniel Kim Sungroul Kim Yunjin Kim Yohannes Kinfu Jonas M Kinge Miia Kivipelto Luke D Knibbs Ann Kristin Knudsen Yoshihiro Kokubo Soewarta Kosen Sanjay Krishnaswami Barthelemy Kuate Defo Burcu Kucuk Bicer Ernst J Kuipers Chanda Kulkarni Veena S Kulkarni G Anil Kumar Hmwe H Kyu Taavi Lai Ratilal Lalloo Tea Lallukka Hilton Lam Qing Lan Van C Lansingh Anders Larsson Alicia E B Lawrynowicz Janet L Leasher James Leigh Ricky Leung Carly E Levitz Bin Li Yichong Li Yongmei Li Stephen S Lim Maggie Lind Steven E Lipshultz Shiwei Liu Yang Liu Belinda K Lloyd Katherine T Lofgren Giancarlo Logroscino Katharine J Looker Joannie Lortet-Tieulent Paulo A Lotufo Rafael Lozano Robyn M Lucas Raimundas Lunevicius Ronan A Lyons Stefan Ma Michael F Macintyre Mark T Mackay Marek Majdan Reza Malekzadeh Wagner Marcenes David J Margolis Christopher Margono Melvin B Marzan Joseph R Masci Mohammad T Mashal Richard Matzopoulos Bongani M Mayosi Tasara T Mazorodze Neil W Mcgill John J Mcgrath Martin Mckee Abigail Mclain Peter A Meaney Catalina Medina Man Mohan Mehndiratta Wubegzier Mekonnen Yohannes A Melaku Michele Meltzer Ziad A Memish George A Mensah Atte Meretoja Francis A Mhimbira Renata Micha Ted R Miller Edward J Mills Philip B Mitchell Charles N Mock Norlinah Mohamed Ibrahim Karzan A Mohammad Ali H Mokdad Glen L D Mola Lorenzo Monasta Julio C Montañez Hernandez Marcella Montico Thomas J Montine Meghan D Mooney Ami R Moore Maziar Moradi-Lakeh Andrew E Moran Rintaro Mori Joanna Moschandreas Wilkister N Moturi Madeline L Moyer Dariush Mozaffarian William T Msemburi Ulrich O Mueller Mitsuru Mukaigawara Erin C Mullany Michele E Murdoch Joseph Murray Kinnari S Murthy Mohsen Naghavi Aliya Naheed Kovin S Naidoo Luigi Naldi Devina Nand Vinay Nangia K M Venkat Narayan Chakib Nejjari Sudan P Neupane Charles R Newton Marie Ng Frida N Ngalesoni Grant Nguyen Muhammad I Nisar Sandra Nolte Ole F Norheim Rosana E Norman Bo Norrving Luke Nyakarahuka In-Hwan Oh Takayoshi Ohkubo Summer L Ohno Bolajoko O Olusanya John Nelson Opio Katrina Ortblad Alberto Ortiz Amanda W Pain Jeyaraj D Pandian Carlo Irwin A Panelo Christina Papachristou Eun-Kee Park Jae-Hyun Park Scott B Patten George C Patton Vinod K Paul Boris I Pavlin Neil Pearce David M Pereira Rogelio Perez-Padilla Fernando Perez-Ruiz Norberto Perico Aslam Pervaiz Konrad Pesudovs Carrie B Peterson Max Petzold Michael R Phillips Bryan K Phillips David E Phillips Frédéric B Piel Dietrich Plass Dan Poenaru Suzanne Polinder Daniel Pope Svetlana Popova Richie G Poulton Farshad Pourmalek Dorairaj Prabhakaran Noela M Prasad Rachel L Pullan Dima M Qato D Alex Quistberg Anwar Rafay Kazem Rahimi Sajjad U Rahman Murugesan Raju Saleem M Rana Homie Razavi K Srinath Reddy Amany Refaat Giuseppe Remuzzi Serge Resnikoff Antonio L Ribeiro Lee Richardson Jan Hendrik Richardus D Allen Roberts David Rojas-Rueda Luca Ronfani Gregory A Roth Dietrich Rothenbacher David H Rothstein Jane T Rowley Nobhojit Roy George M Ruhago Mohammad Y Saeedi Sukanta Saha Mohammad Ali Sahraian Uchechukwu K A Sampson Juan R Sanabria Logan Sandar Itamar S Santos Maheswar Satpathy Monika Sawhney Peter Scarborough Ione J Schneider Ben Schöttker Austin E Schumacher David C Schwebel James G Scott Soraya Seedat Sadaf G Sepanlou Peter T Serina Edson E Servan-Mori Katya A Shackelford Amira Shaheen Saeid Shahraz Teresa Shamah Levy Siyi Shangguan Jun She Sara Sheikhbahaei Peilin Shi Kenji Shibuya Yukito Shinohara Rahman Shiri Kawkab Shishani Ivy Shiue Mark G Shrime Inga D Sigfusdottir Donald H Silberberg Edgar P Simard Shireen Sindi Abhishek Singh Jasvinder A Singh Lavanya Singh Vegard Skirbekk Erica Leigh Slepak Karen Sliwa Samir Soneji Kjetil Søreide Sergey Soshnikov Luciano A Sposato Chandrashekhar T Sreeramareddy Jeffrey D Stanaway Vasiliki Stathopoulou Dan J Stein Murray B Stein Caitlyn Steiner Timothy J Steiner Antony Stevens Andrea Stewart Lars J Stovner Konstantinos Stroumpoulis Bruno F Sunguya Soumya Swaminathan Mamta Swaroop Bryan L Sykes Karen M Tabb Ken Takahashi Nikhil Tandon David Tanne Marcel Tanner Mohammad Tavakkoli Hugh R Taylor Braden J Te Ao Fabrizio Tediosi Awoke M Temesgen Tara Templin Margreet Ten Have Eric Y Tenkorang Abdullah S Terkawi Blake Thomson Andrew L Thorne-Lyman Amanda G Thrift George D Thurston Taavi Tillmann Marcello Tonelli Fotis Topouzis Hideaki Toyoshima Jefferson Traebert Bach X Tran Matias Trillini Thomas Truelsen Miltiadis Tsilimbaris Emin M Tuzcu Uche S Uchendu Kingsley N Ukwaja Eduardo A Undurraga Selen B Uzun Wim H Van Brakel Steven Van De Vijver Coen H van Gool Jim Van Os Tommi J Vasankari N Venketasubramanian Francesco S Violante Vasiliy V Vlassov Stein Emil Vollset Gregory R Wagner Joseph Wagner Stephen G Waller Xia Wan Haidong Wang Jianli Wang Linhong Wang Tati S Warouw Scott Weichenthal Elisabete Weiderpass Robert G Weintraub Wang Wenzhi Andrea Werdecker Ronny Westerman Harvey A Whiteford James D Wilkinson Thomas N Williams Charles D Wolfe Timothy M Wolock Anthony D Woolf Sarah Wulf Brittany Wurtz Gelin Xu Lijing L Yan Yuichiro Yano Pengpeng Ye Gökalp K Yentür Paul Yip Naohiro Yonemoto Seok-Jun Yoon Mustafa Z Younis Chuanhua Yu Maysaa E Zaki Yong Zhao Yingfeng Zheng David Zonies Xiaonong Zou Joshua A Salomon Alan D Lopez Theo Vos

Lancet 2015 Nov 28;386(10009):2145-91. Epub 2015 Aug 28.

Background: The Global Burden of Disease Study 2013 (GBD 2013) aims to bring together all available epidemiological data using a coherent measurement framework, standardised estimation methods, and transparent data sources to enable comparisons of health loss over time and across causes, age-sex groups, and countries. The GBD can be used to generate summary measures such as disability-adjusted life-years (DALYs) and healthy life expectancy (HALE) that make possible comparative assessments of broad epidemiological patterns across countries and time. These summary measures can also be used to quantify the component of variation in epidemiology that is related to sociodemographic development.

Methods: We used the published GBD 2013 data for age-specific mortality, years of life lost due to premature mortality (YLLs), and years lived with disability (YLDs) to calculate DALYs and HALE for 1990, 1995, 2000, 2005, 2010, and 2013 for 188 countries. We calculated HALE using the Sullivan method; 95% uncertainty intervals (UIs) represent uncertainty in age-specific death rates and YLDs per person for each country, age, sex, and year. We estimated DALYs for 306 causes for each country as the sum of YLLs and YLDs; 95% UIs represent uncertainty in YLL and YLD rates. We quantified patterns of the epidemiological transition with a composite indicator of sociodemographic status, which we constructed from income per person, average years of schooling after age 15 years, and the total fertility rate and mean age of the population. We applied hierarchical regression to DALY rates by cause across countries to decompose variance related to the sociodemographic status variable, country, and time.

Findings: Worldwide, from 1990 to 2013, life expectancy at birth rose by 6·2 years (95% UI 5·6-6·6), from 65·3 years (65·0-65·6) in 1990 to 71·5 years (71·0-71·9) in 2013, HALE at birth rose by 5·4 years (4·9-5·8), from 56·9 years (54·5-59·1) to 62·3 years (59·7-64·8), total DALYs fell by 3·6% (0·3-7·4), and age-standardised DALY rates per 100 000 people fell by 26·7% (24·6-29·1). For communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional disorders, global DALY numbers, crude rates, and age-standardised rates have all declined between 1990 and 2013, whereas for non-communicable diseases, global DALYs have been increasing, DALY rates have remained nearly constant, and age-standardised DALY rates declined during the same period. From 2005 to 2013, the number of DALYs increased for most specific non-communicable diseases, including cardiovascular diseases and neoplasms, in addition to dengue, food-borne trematodes, and leishmaniasis; DALYs decreased for nearly all other causes. By 2013, the five leading causes of DALYs were ischaemic heart disease, lower respiratory infections, cerebrovascular disease, low back and neck pain, and road injuries. Sociodemographic status explained more than 50% of the variance between countries and over time for diarrhoea, lower respiratory infections, and other common infectious diseases; maternal disorders; neonatal disorders; nutritional deficiencies; other communicable, maternal, neonatal, and nutritional diseases; musculoskeletal disorders; and other non-communicable diseases. However, sociodemographic status explained less than 10% of the variance in DALY rates for cardiovascular diseases; chronic respiratory diseases; cirrhosis; diabetes, urogenital, blood, and endocrine diseases; unintentional injuries; and self-harm and interpersonal violence. Predictably, increased sociodemographic status was associated with a shift in burden from YLLs to YLDs, driven by declines in YLLs and increases in YLDs from musculoskeletal disorders, neurological disorders, and mental and substance use disorders. In most country-specific estimates, the increase in life expectancy was greater than that in HALE. Leading causes of DALYs are highly variable across countries.

Interpretation: Global health is improving. Population growth and ageing have driven up numbers of DALYs, but crude rates have remained relatively constant, showing that progress in health does not mean fewer demands on health systems. The notion of an epidemiological transition--in which increasing sociodemographic status brings structured change in disease burden--is useful, but there is tremendous variation in burden of disease that is not associated with sociodemographic status. This further underscores the need for country-specific assessments of DALYs and HALE to appropriately inform health policy decisions and attendant actions.

Funding: Bill & Melinda Gates Foundation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)61340-XDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4673910PMC
November 2015

Preparations for Severe Winter Conditions by Emergency Health Personnel in Turkey.

Disaster Med Public Health Prep 2014 Apr 23:1-4. Epub 2014 Apr 23.

Department of Public Health, Hacettepe University, Ankara, Turkey.

Objective: Emergency and core ambulance personnel work under all environmental conditions, including severe weather condtions. We evaluated emergency medical personnel in Çanakkale, Turkey, for their degree of preparedness.

Methods: A descriptive study was conducted in Çanakkale, Turkey, within 112 emergency service units and their 17 district stations. Surveys were developed to measure the level of preparedness for serious winter conditions that individual workers made for themselves, their homes, and their cars.

Results: Of the 167 survey participants, the mean age was 29.8 ± 7.9 years; 52.7% were women; more than half (54.75%) were emergency medical technicians; and 53.3% were married. Only 10.4% of those who heated their homes with natural gas had carbon monoxide detectors. Scores relating to household and individual preparation for severe winter conditions increased by participants' age (P < .003), being married (P < .000) and working in the city center (P < .021); and for men whose cars were equipped with tow ropes, extra clothing, and snow tires (P < .05). Absenteeism was higher for central-city personnel than district workers because they were less prepared for harsh winter conditions (P = .016).

Conclusion: Many of the surveyed emergency health personel demonstrated insufficient preparations for serious winter conditions. To increase the safety and efficiency of emergency medical personnel, educational training programs should be rountinely conducted. (Disaster Med Public Health Preparedness. 2014;0:1-4).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/dmp.2014.28DOI Listing
April 2014