Publications by authors named "Burcin Simsek"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Analysis of female demographics in the United States: life expectancy, education, employment, family building decisions, and fertility service utilization.

Curr Opin Obstet Gynecol 2021 Mar 31. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut University of Pittsburgh, Department of Statistics, Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania IVI RMA New Jersey, Basking Ridge, New Jersey, USA.

Purpose Of The Review: To discuss changes in female demographic parameters in the US and associated increase in utilization of fertility services.

Recent Findings: Fractions of women earning bachelor's, master's, and doctoral degrees increased from 1970 to 2018 (32.6 vs 64.8; 7.9 vs 27.3; 0.54 vs 5.7 per 10,000 women; P < .001; respectively). This was associated with decrease in percentage of married women (61.9% vs 50.8%) and increase in median age at first marriage (20.8 vs 27.8). In parallel, mean age of mothers at first birth increased (21.4 vs 26.8), and pregnancy rates of women aged 35-39 and 40-44 years doubled between 1980 and 2010 (0.036 vs 0.077; 0.009 vs 0.019 per 1,000 women). With later pregnancy attempts, female fertility rates decreased from 1970 to 2017 (87.9% vs 60.3%; P < .001). Women undergoing assisted reproductive technologies (ART) treatment with a DOR diagnosis increased (12% vs 31%), and ART cycles using donor eggs increased (16,161 vs 24,300), between 2005 and 2016.

Summary: Participation of women in education is paralleled by increased female employment, later occurrence of marriage, increased age of childbearing, decreased fertility rates, and increased DOR diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2021

Nivolumab plus Cabozantinib versus Sunitinib for Advanced Renal-Cell Carcinoma.

N Engl J Med 2021 03;384(9):829-841

From the Department of Medical Oncology, Lank Center for Genitourinary Oncology, Dana-Farber Cancer Institute, Brigham and Women's Hospital, and Harvard Medical School, Boston (T.K.C.); the Department of Genitourinary Oncology, Barts Cancer Institute, Cancer Research UK Experimental Cancer Medicine Centre, Queen Mary University of London, Royal Free National Health Service Trust, London (T.P.); the Bradford Hill Clinical Research Center, Santiago, Chile (M.B.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France (B.E.); the Department of Hemato-Oncology, Urologic Oncology Clinic, Instituto Nacional de Ciencias Médicas y Nutrición Salvador Zubirán, Mexico City (M.T.B.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Centro Universitario contra el Cáncer, Hospital Universitario "Dr. José Eleuterio González," Universidad Autónoma de Nuevo León, Nuevo León (V.M.O.J.), and the Department of Medical Oncology, Hospital H+ Querétaro, Querétaro (J.P.F.) - all in Mexico; the Department of Outpatient Chemotherapy, Professor Franciszek Lukaszczyk Oncology Center, Bydgoszcz (B.Z.), and the Department of Clinical Oncology and Hematology, Regional Specialist Hospital, Biała Podlaska (J. Żołnierek) - both in Poland; the Division of Oncology, Department of Medicine, Siteman Cancer Center, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis (J.J.H.); Oncology Unit 1, Department of Oncology, Istituto Oncologico Veneto IRCCS, Padua (U.B.), the Department of Medical Oncology, Ospedale San Donato, Istituto Toscano i, Arezzo (A.H.), the Department of Internal Medicine, University of Pavia, Pavia (C.P.), and the University of Bari "A. Moro," Bari (C.P.) - all in Italy; the Department of Genitourinary Medical Oncology, M.D. Anderson Cancer Center, Houston (A.Y.S.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Vall d'Hebron Institute of Oncology, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Vall d'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Barcelona (C.S.); the Department of Medical Oncology, Royal Brisbane and Women's Hospital, Herston, QLD (J.C.G.), and Cabrini Monash University Department of Medical Oncology, Cabrini Health, Malvern, VIC (D.P.) - both in Australia; the Oncology Research Center, Hospital São Lucas, Porto Alegre, Brazil (C.B.); Fundacion Richardet Longo, Instituto Oncologico de Cordoba, Cordoba (M.R.), and Instituto Multidisciplinario de Oncología, Clínica Viedma, Viedma (R.K.) - both in Argentina; the Division of Medical Oncology, Department of Internal Medicine, University of Colorado School of Medicine, Aurora (E.R.K.); the Departments of Urology and Molecular Oncology, Niigata University Graduate School of Medical and Dental Sciences, Niigata (Y.T.), and the Department of Urology, Keio University School of Medicine, Tokyo (R.M.) - both in Japan; the Department of Urology, Eberhard Karls University Tübingen, Tübingen, Germany (J.B.); the Departments of Clinical Research (J. Zhang.), Clinical Oncology (M.A.M.), Biostatistics (B.S.), and Health Economics and Outcomes Research (F.E.), Bristol Myers Squibb, Princeton, NJ; the Department of Clinical Oncology, Exelixis, Alameda, CA (G.M.S.); the Genitourinary Malignancies Branch, Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD (A.B.A.); and the Department of Medicine, Memorial Sloan Kettering Cancer Center, New York (R.J.M.).

Background: The efficacy and safety of nivolumab plus cabozantinib as compared with those of sunitinib in the treatment of previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma are not known.

Methods: In this phase 3, randomized, open-label trial, we randomly assigned adults with previously untreated clear-cell, advanced renal-cell carcinoma to receive either nivolumab (240 mg every 2 weeks) plus cabozantinib (40 mg once daily) or sunitinib (50 mg once daily for 4 weeks of each 6-week cycle). The primary end point was progression-free survival, as determined by blinded independent central review. Secondary end points included overall survival, objective response as determined by independent review, and safety. Health-related quality of life was an exploratory end point.

Results: Overall, 651 patients were assigned to receive nivolumab plus cabozantinib (323 patients) or sunitinib (328 patients). At a median follow-up of 18.1 months for overall survival, the median progression-free survival was 16.6 months (95% confidence interval [CI], 12.5 to 24.9) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 8.3 months (95% CI, 7.0 to 9.7) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for disease progression or death, 0.51; 95% CI, 0.41 to 0.64; P<0.001). The probability of overall survival at 12 months was 85.7% (95% CI, 81.3 to 89.1) with nivolumab plus cabozantinib and 75.6% (95% CI, 70.5 to 80.0) with sunitinib (hazard ratio for death, 0.60; 98.89% CI, 0.40 to 0.89; P = 0.001). An objective response occurred in 55.7% of the patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 27.1% of those receiving sunitinib (P<0.001). Efficacy benefits with nivolumab plus cabozantinib were consistent across subgroups. Adverse events of any cause of grade 3 or higher occurred in 75.3% of the 320 patients receiving nivolumab plus cabozantinib and in 70.6% of the 320 patients receiving sunitinib. Overall, 19.7% of the patients in the combination group discontinued at least one of the trial drugs owing to adverse events, and 5.6% discontinued both. Patients reported better health-related quality of life with nivolumab plus cabozantinib than with sunitinib.

Conclusions: Nivolumab plus cabozantinib had significant benefits over sunitinib with respect to progression-free survival, overall survival, and likelihood of response in patients with previously untreated advanced renal-cell carcinoma. (Funded by Bristol Myers Squibb and others; CheckMate 9ER number, NCT03141177.).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
March 2021

Miscarriage determination in first trimester based on alpha-fetoprotein extracted from sanitary pads.

Fertil Steril 2021 Jan 15. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Division of Reproductive Endocrinology and Infertility, Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: To determine if high alpha-fetoprotein (AFP) level in vaginal blood collected on a sanitary pad can assist with detecting an active miscarriage.

Design: A prospective cohort study.

Setting: Academic medical center.

Patient(s): Five groups were evaluated: women with active miscarriage, pregnancy of unknown location, completed miscarriage or extrauterine pregnancy (EUP), ongoing pregnancy, and undergoing elective dilation and curettage (D&C).

Intervention(s): None.

Main Outcome Measure(s): For each patient, AFP level in the vaginal blood collected on a sanitary pad was quantified.

Result(s): The vaginal blood AFP median levels (and their ranges) were 3.7 IU/mL (0.5-739.2) and 4,542 IU/mL (15.6-100,000) in the active miscarriage (n = 16) and the elective D&C (n = 24) groups, respectively. Alpha-fetoprotein was detected in all elective D&C and active miscarriage cases except in 1 case. In the ongoing pregnancy group (n = 35), only 2 of 35 specimens showed detectable AFP levels. In the pregnancy of unknown location (n = 12) and the completed miscarriage or EUP (n = 10) groups, no AFP was detected. Receiver operating characteristic analysis demonstrated 93.7% sensitivity and 97.8% specificity for the detection of an active miscarriage (cutoff 0.61 IU/mL; area under the curve 0.96).

Conclusion(s): Alpha-fetoprotein can be extracted from vaginal blood collected on sanitary pads. A high level of vaginal AFP can assist with the same-day detection of an active miscarriage. This novel test is useful in differentiating active miscarriages from ongoing pregnancies, completed miscarriages, and EUPs and, therefore, it reduces uncertainty, anxiety level, and number of repeat office visits.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2021

Correction to: Status of racial disparities between black and white women undergoing assisted reproductive technology in the US.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2020 Dec 21;18(1):125. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar St, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
December 2020

Status of racial disparities between black and white women undergoing assisted reproductive technology in the US.

Reprod Biol Endocrinol 2020 Nov 19;18(1):113. Epub 2020 Nov 19.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology and Reproductive Sciences, Yale School of Medicine, 330 Cedar St, New Haven, CT, 06510, USA.

Background: Numerous studies have demonstrated substantial differences in assisted reproductive technology outcomes between black non-Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women. We sought to determine if disparities in assisted reproductive technology outcomes between cycles from black non-Hispanic and white non-Hispanic women have changed and to identify factors that may have influenced change and determine racial differences in cumulative live birth rates.

Methods: This is a retrospective cohort study of the SARTCORS database outcomes for 2014-2016 compared with those previously reported in 2004-2006 and 1999/2000. Patient demographics, etiology of infertility, and cycle outcomes were compared between black non-hispanic and white non-hispanic patients. Categorical values were compared using Chi-squared testing. Continuous variables were compared using t-test. Multiple logistic regression was used to assess confounders.

Results: We analyzed 122,721 autologous, fresh, non-donor embryo cycles from 2014 to 2016 of which 13,717 cycles from black and 109,004 cycles from white women. The proportion of cycles from black women increased from 6.5 to 8.4%. Cycles from black women were almost 3 times more likely to have tubal and/or uterine factor and body mass index ≥30 kg/m. Multivariate logistic regression demonstrated that black women had a lower live birth rate (OR 0.71;P < 0.001) and a lower cumulative live birth rate for their initial cycle (OR 0.64; P < 0.001) independent of age, parity, body mass index, etiology of infertility, ovarian reserve, cycle cancellation, past spontaneous abortions, use of intra-cytoplasmic sperm injection or number of embryos transferred. A lower proportion of cycles in black women were represented among non-mandated states (P < 0.001) and cycles in black women were associated with higher clinical live birth rates in mandated states (P = 0.006).

Conclusions: Disparities in assisted reproductive technology outcomes in the US have persisted for black women over the last 15 years. Limited access to state mandated insurance may be contributory. Race has continued to be an independent prognostic factor for live birth and cumulative live birth rate from assisted reproductive technology in the US.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2020

Nivolumab Plus Ipilimumab for Metastatic Castration-Resistant Prostate Cancer: Preliminary Analysis of Patients in the CheckMate 650 Trial.

Cancer Cell 2020 10 10;38(4):489-499.e3. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

Department of Cancer Medicine, Gustave Roussy, University of Paris Saclay, 94800 Villejuif, France.

Metastatic castration-resistant prostate cancer (mCRPC) is immunologically "cold" and predominantly resistant to immune checkpoint therapy due to few tumor-infiltrating T cells. Ipilimumab (anti-CTLA-4) or anti-PD-1/PD-L1 monotherapy failed to show a significant benefit. Although the PD-1/PD-L1 pathway is minimally expressed in prostate tumors, we previously demonstrated that PD-1/PD-L1 expression increases as a compensatory inhibitory pathway in parallel with an ipilimumab-induced increase in tumor-infiltrating T cells. Here, we report the largest trial to date in mCRPC with anti-CTLA-4 plus anti-PD-1 (nivolumab 1 mg/kg plus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg; CheckMate 650, NCT02985957). With median follow-ups of 11.9 and 13.5 months in cohorts 1 (pre-chemotherapy; n = 45) and 2 (post-chemotherapy; n = 45), objective response rate was 25% and 10%, and median overall survival was 19.0 and 15.2 months, respectively. Four patients, two in each cohort, had complete responses. Exploratory studies identify potential biomarkers of response. Grade 3-4 treatment-related adverse events have occurred in ∼42%-53% of patients, with four treatment-related deaths. Therefore, dose/schedule modifications have been implemented.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2020

Overall survival at 5 years of follow-up in a phase III trial comparing ipilimumab 10 mg/kg with 3 mg/kg in patients with advanced melanoma.

J Immunother Cancer 2020 06;8(1)

Center for Immuno-Oncology, University Hospital of Siena, Instituto Toscano Tumori, Siena, Italy.

Background: We have previously reported significantly longer overall survival (OS) with ipilimumab 10 mg/kg versus ipilimumab 3 mg/kg in patients with advanced melanoma, with higher incidences of adverse events (AEs) at 10 mg/kg. This follow-up analysis reports a 5-year update of OS and safety.

Methods: This randomized, multicenter, double-blind, phase III trial included patients with untreated or previously treated unresectable stage III or IV melanoma. Patients were randomly assigned (1:1) to ipilimumab 10 mg/kg or 3 mg/kg every 3 weeks for 4 doses. The primary end point was OS.

Results: At a minimum follow-up of 61 months, median OS was 15.7 months (95% CI 11.6 to 17.8) at 10 mg/kg and 11.5 months (95% CI 9.9 to 13.3) at 3 mg/kg (HR 0.84, 95% CI 0.71 to 0.99; p=0.04). In a subgroup analysis, median OS of patients with asymptomatic brain metastasis was 7.0 months (95% CI 4.0 to 12.8) in the 10 mg/kg group and 5.7 months (95% CI 4.2 to 7.0) in the 3 mg/kg group. In patients with wild-type or mutant tumors, median OS was 13.8 months (95% CI 10.2 to 17.0) and 33.2 months (95% CI 19.4 to 45.2) in the 10 mg/kg group, and 11.2 months (95% CI 9.2 to 13.8) and 19.7 months (95% CI 11.6 to 25.3) in the 3 mg/kg group, respectively. The incidence of grade 3/4 treatment-related AEs was 36% in the 10 mg/kg group vs 20% in the 3 mg/kg group, and deaths due to treatment-related AEs occurred in four (1%) and two patients (1%), respectively.

Conclusions: This 61-month follow-up of a phase III trial showed sustained long-term survival in patients with advanced melanoma who started metastatic treatment with ipilimumab monotherapy, and confirmed the significant benefit for those who received ipilimumab 10 mg/kg vs 3 mg/kg. These results suggest the emergence of a plateau in the OS curve, consistent with previous ipilimumab studies.

Trial Registration Number: NCT01515189.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
June 2020

A step towards the automation of intracytoplasmic sperm injection: real time confirmation of mouse and human oocyte penetration and viability by electrical resistance measurement.

Fertil Steril 2020 01 26;113(1):234-236. Epub 2019 Dec 26.

Department of Obstetrics, Gynecology, and Reproductive Sciences, Yale University School of Medicine, New Haven, Connecticut.

Objective: To evaluate if oocyte penetration and viability can be confirmed by an electrical resistance increase. Automated (robotic) intracytoplasmic sperm injection (ICSI) requires confirmation of oolemma penetration before sperm injection. Visual assessment using image processing algorithms have been developed but remain unreliable. We hypothesized that an increase in electrical resistance upon oolemma piercing during ICSI can serve as an objective tool to confirm oocyte penetration and viability.

Design: Experimental study.

Setting: Research laboratory in an academic center.

Patients/animals: Oocytes from female mice and women undergoing oocyte retrieval procedure.

Intervention: Oolemma piercing attempts with the ICSI pipette were performed by advancing the pipette towards mature (metaphase II) oocytes collected from 6 to 12-week-old mice and immature (germinal vesicle stage and metaphase I) oocytes donated by women who underwent oocyte retrieval. Electrical resistance was measured using a conventional electrophysiological setup that includes an electrical resistance meter and two electrical wires located in the lumina of the holding and ICSI pipettes.

Main Outcome Measure(s): The measure of interest was the change in electrical resistance (ΔR) before and after advancing the ICSI pipette in an attempt to penetrate an oocyte. The experiments of resistance measurements were done in 3 steps: Step 1 (proof of concept), penetrated vs. non-penetrated mouse oocytes. Step 2, mouse oocytes with visually intact oolemma vs. fragmented mouse oocytes. Step 3, human oocytes with visually intact oolemma vs. fragmented human oocytes. For each group, median and range (in parenthesis) of ΔR were determined in MΩ. Mann-Whitney test was performed to compare the two groups in each step.

Results: In Step 1, the penetrated mouse oocytes showed a statistically significant resistance increase compared to the non-penetrated ones (n = 20, median ΔR = 7.79 [2.57 - 106.00] vs. n = 15, median ΔR = 0.10 [-0.06 - 0.69], respectively. In Step 2, the mouse oocytes with visually intact oolemma showed a statistically significant resistance increase compared to the fragmented ones (n = 45, median ΔR = 6.5 [0.1 - 191.7] vs. n = 13, median ΔR = 0.1 [-0.3 - 2.2], respectively. In Step 3, the human oocytes with visually intact oolemma showed a statistically significant resistance increase compared to the fragmented ones (n = 96, median ΔR = 1.92 [-0.05 - 6.70] vs. n = 17, median ΔR = 0.11 [0.00 - 0.30], respectively.

Conclusions: An electrical resistance increase can serve as a reliable tool to confirm oocyte penetration and viability, independent of optical visualization. Following further validation and safety assessment, this technology can potentially be integrated into manual and robotic ICSI systems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2020

Which Sleep Health Characteristics Predict All-Cause Mortality in Older Men? An Application of Flexible Multivariable Approaches.

Sleep 2018 01;41(1)

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA.

Study Objectives: Sleep is multidimensional, with domains including duration, timing, continuity, regularity, rhythmicity, quality, and sleepiness/alertness. Individual sleep characteristics representing these domains are known to predict health outcomes. However, most studies consider sleep characteristics in isolation, resulting in an incomplete understanding of which sleep characteristics are the strongest predictors of health outcomes. We applied three multivariable approaches to robustly determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk in the osteoporotic fractures in men sleep study.

Methods: In total, 2,887 men (mean 76.3 years) completed relevant assessments and were followed for up to 11 years. One actigraphy or self-reported sleep characteristic was selected to represent each of seven sleep domains. Multivariable Cox models, survival trees, and random survival forests were applied to determine which sleep characteristics increase mortality risk.

Results: Rhythmicity (actigraphy pseudo-F statistic) and continuity (actigraphy minutes awake after sleep onset) were the most robust sleep predictors across models. In a multivariable Cox model, lower rhythmicity (hazard ratio, HR [95%CI] =1.12 [1.04, 1.22]) and lower continuity (1.16 [1.08, 1.24]) were the strongest sleep predictors. In the random survival forest, rhythmicity and continuity were the most important individual sleep characteristics (ranked as the sixth and eighth most important among 43 possible sleep and non-sleep predictors); moreover, the predictive importance of all sleep information considered simultaneously followed only age, cognition, and cardiovascular disease.

Conclusions: Research within a multidimensional sleep health framework can jumpstart future research on causal pathways linking sleep and health, new interventions that target specific sleep health profiles, and improved sleep screening for adverse health outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
January 2018

Phase II study of ipilimumab in adolescents with unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma.

Eur J Cancer 2017 11 5;86:358-363. Epub 2017 Nov 5.

St. Jude Children's Research Hospital, Memphis, TN, USA.

Background: Ipilimumab is approved for the treatment of advanced melanoma in adults; however, little information on the efficacy and safety of ipilimumab in younger patients is available.

Methods: Patients aged 12 to <18 years with previously treated or untreated, unresectable stage III or IV malignant melanoma received ipilimumab 3 or 10 mg/kg every 3 weeks. Primary end-points were 1-year overall survival and safety.

Results: Over a period of 3.5 years, 12 patients received ipilimumab at either 3 mg/kg (n = 4) or 10 mg/kg (n = 8). The median number of ipilimumab doses was four for 3 mg/kg and three for 10 mg/kg. At 1 year, three of four patients on 3 mg/kg and five of eight patients on 10 mg/kg were alive. Two patients on 10 mg/kg had partial response, and one on 3 mg/kg had stable disease. One patient had durable partial response at 3 years without further treatment, at time of this report. There was one grade 3/4 immune-mediated adverse reaction with 3 mg/kg and five with 10 mg/kg. There were no treatment-related deaths. The study was stopped due to slow accrual.

Conclusions: At >1 year follow-up, ipilimumab demonstrated activity in melanoma patients aged 12 to <18 years, with a similar safety profile as that seen in adults. Our trial highlights the difficulties of enrolling younger patients with rare diseases in clinical trials for treatments that are approved in adults, suggesting adolescents with cancer types occurring predominantly in adults should be considered for inclusion in adult trials of promising new drugs.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT01696045.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
November 2017

An approach to revealing clinically relevant subgroups across the mood spectrum.

J Affect Disord 2016 Oct 7;203:265-274. Epub 2016 Jun 7.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA, United States.

Background: Individuals diagnosed with bipolar 1 disorder (BP1), bipolar 2 disorder (BP2), or major depressive disorder (MDD) experience varying levels of depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms. Clarifying symptom heterogeneity is meaningful, as even subthreshold symptoms may impact quality of life and treatment outcome. The MOODS Lifetime self-report instrument was designed to capture the full range of depressive and (hypo)manic characteristics.

Methods: This study applied clustering methods to 347 currently depressed adults with MDD, BP2, or BP1 to reveal naturally occurring MOODS subgroups. Subgroups were then compared on baseline clinical and demographic characteristics and as well as depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms over twenty weeks of treatment.

Results: Four subgroups were identified: (1) high depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=77, 22%), (2) moderate depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=115, 33%), (3) low depressive and moderate (hypo)manic symptoms (N=82, 24%), and (4) low depressive and (hypo)manic symptoms (N=73, 21%). Individuals in the low depressive/moderate (hypo)manic subgroup had poorer quality of life and greater depressive symptoms over the course of treatment. Individuals in the high and moderate severity subgroups had greater substance use, longer duration of illness, and greater (hypo)manic symptoms throughout treatment. Treatment outcomes were primarily driven by individuals diagnosed with MDD.

Limitations: The sample was drawn from three randomized clinical trials. Validation is required for this exploratory study.

Conclusions: After validation, these subgroups may inform classification and personalized treatment beyond categorical diagnosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source Listing
October 2016