Publications by authors named "Burak Cem Soner"

14 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Neuroprotective Effect of Intrastriatal Caffeic Acid Phenethyl Ester Treatment in 6-OH Dopamine Model of Parkinson's Disease in Rats.

Parkinsons Dis 2021 30;2021:5553480. Epub 2021 Aug 30.

Ege University, Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, 35100 Izmir, Turkey.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is the second most common neurodegenerative disorder, and the main cause of PD is still not known. Until now, no cure for Parkinson's disease is yet in sight. Caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE) is a polyphenolic component of the propolis, which can be derived from honeybee hive propolis. We aimed to determine the effect of intrastriatal CAPE administration as a neuroprotective agent on 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA)-induced PD model. Adult male Wistar rats weighing 280-320 g were used. The PD model was induced with unilateral intrastriatal 6-OHDA injection. Treatment groups received 20 mol/5 L/4 day and 80 mol/5 L/4 day CAPE 24 h after 6-OHDA injection. Eight days after 6-OHDA application, behavioral studies (adhesive tape removal test, open-field test, cylinder test, and apomorphine-induced asymmetric rotational behavior) were performed once more to compare the effects of CAPE on behavior tests. Striatal histological verifications, immunohistochemistry, and stereological quantitation were performed. Our results for the first time showed that, besides improving the motor performance, CAPE treatment also prevents 6-OHDA-induced loss of TH-positive neurons. From our results, CAPE may be a promising clinical agent in the treatment of PD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/5553480DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8424247PMC
August 2021

CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells exhibit embryo-like behavior patterns.

Acta Histochem 2021 Jul 20;123(5):151743. Epub 2021 Jun 20.

Van Yuzuncu Yil University, Faculty of Medicine, Van, Turkey.

Cancer stem cells (CSCs), which act as an important bridge between cancer formation and embryonic development, represent a small population associated with tumor initiation, drug resistance, metastasis and recurrence. CSCs have the ability to form spheroids in three-dimensional culture systems. Tumor spheroids derived from CSCs with symmetric and asymmetric division patterns were found to contain highly heterogeneous cell groups. The biological behavior patterns which some CSCs display serve as an important bridge between cancer formation and embryonic development. The cell population in the DU-145 prostate cancer cell line with surface markers CD133+/CD44+ was isolated by FACS. Prostate spheroids were formed by using agarose-coated plates. The morphological characteristics of the cell population within spheroid structure and the expression of Ki-67 and Caspase-3 were investigated by histochemical methods. In this study, we observed that CD133+/CD44+ prostate CSCs form different spheroid structures as well as normal spheroid structures: i) some spheroid structures formed with a highly transparent zone on the outer part of the spheroid, in addition to the normal spheroidal zones and ii) spheroidal structures obtained from prostate CD1334+/CD44+ CSCs that share the same microenvironment are hollow spheres similar to the blastula-like structure in the embryo. These spheroidal structures exhibiting embryo-like properties indicate that the expression of embryonic factors might be reiterated in CSCs. Further investigation of the formation mechanism of the transparent zone and the hollow sphere will shed light on the embryonic origin of prostate cancer and the design of new therapeutic strategies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.acthis.2021.151743DOI Listing
July 2021

Erratum to: Behavioural effects of basal ganglia rho-kinase inhibition in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2016 Aug;31(4):859

Department of Medical Pharmacology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, University of Konya-NE, Akyokus, 42080, Konya, Meram, Turkey.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-016-9846-6DOI Listing
August 2016

Behavioural effects of basal ganglia rho-kinase inhibition in the unilateral 6-hydroxydopamine rat model of Parkinson's disease.

Metab Brain Dis 2016 08 21;31(4):849-57. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

Department of Medical Pharmacology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, University of Konya-NE, Akyokus, 42080, Konya, Meram, Turkey.

Parkinson's disease (PD) is one of the most common neurodegenerative disorders, which affects more than six million people in the world. While current available pharmacological therapies for PD in the early stages of the disease usually improve motor symptoms, they cause side effects, such as fluctuations and dyskinesias in the later stages. In this later stage, high frequency deep brain stimulation of the subthalamic nucleus (STN-DBS) is a treatment option which is most successful to treat drug resistant advanced PD. It has previously been demonstrated that activation of Rho/Rho-kinase pathway is involved in the dopaminergic cell degeneration which is one of the main characteristics of PD pathology. In addition, the involvement of this pathway has been suggested in diverse cellular events in the central nervous system; such as epilepsy, anxiety-related behaviors, regulation of dendritic and axonal morphology, antinociception, subarachnoid haemorrhage, spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However, up to date, to our knowledge there are no previous reports showing the beneficial effects of the potent Rho-kinase inhibitor Y-27632 in the 6-hydroxydopamine (6-OHDA) rat model of PD. Therefore, in the present study, we investigated the behavioural effects of basal ganglia Y-27632 microinjections in this PD model. Our results indicated that basal ganglia Y-27632 microinjections significantly decreased the number of contralateral rotations-induced by apomorphine, significantly increased line crossings in the open-field test, contralateral forelimb use in the limb-use asymmetry test and contralateral tape playing time in the somatosensory asymmetry test, which may suggest that Y-27632 could be a potentially active antiparkinsonian agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-016-9820-3DOI Listing
August 2016

Enhanced G2/M Arrest, Caspase Related Apoptosis and Reduced E-Cadherin Dependent Intercellular Adhesion by Trabectedin in Prostate Cancer Stem Cells.

PLoS One 2015 20;10(10):e0141090. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

Department of Histology and Embryology, Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Bornova, Izmir, Turkey.

Trabectedin (Yondelis, ET-743) is a marine-derived tetrahydroisoquinoline alkaloid. It is originally derived from the Caribbean marine tunicate Ecteinascidia turbinata and currently produced synthetically. Trabectedin is active against a variety of tumor cell lines growing in culture. The present study focused on the effect of trabectedin in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression, apoptosis and spheroid formation in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Cluster of differentiation (CD) 133+high/CD44+high prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 and PC-3 human prostate cancer cell line through flow cytometry. We studied the growth-inhibitory effects of trabectedin and its molecular mechanisms on human prostate CSCs and non-CSCs. DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs were treated with 0.1, 1, 10 and 100 nM trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h and the growth inhibition rates were examined using the sphere-forming assay. Annexin-V assay and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the detection of the cell death. Concentration-dependent effects of trabectedin on the cell cycle were also evaluated. The cells were exposed to the different doses of trabectedin for 24, 48 and 72 h to evaluate the effect of trabectedin on the number and diameter of spheroids. According to the results, trabectedin induced cytotoxicity and apoptosis at the IC50 dose, resulting in a significant increase expression of caspase-3, caspase-8, caspase-9, p53 and decrease expression of bcl-2 in dose-dependent manner. Cell cycle analyses revealed that trabectedin induces dose-dependent G2/M-phase cell cycle arrest, particularly at high-dose treatments. Three-dimensional culture studies showed that trabectedin reduced the number and diameter of spheroids of DU145 and PC3 CSCs. Furthermore, we have found that trabectedin disrupted cell-cell interactions via E-cadherin in prostasphere of DU-145 and PC-3 CSCs. Our results showed that trabectedin inhibits cellular proliferation and accelerates apoptotic events in prostate CSCs; and may be a potential effective therapeutic agent against prostate cancer.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0141090PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4618065PMC
June 2016

Protective effects of Hawthorn (Crataegus oxyacantha) extract against digoxin-induced arrhythmias in rats.

Anatol J Cardiol 2015 25;15(12):970-5. Epub 2014 Dec 25.

Department of Pediatric Cardiology, Malatya State Hospital, Malatya-Turkey.

Objective: Digitalis preparations are commonly used by children and adults with heart diseases worldwide, although excessive doses may cause cardiac effects. The aim of the study is to evaluate the antiarrhythmic effect of Crataegus oxyacantha extract on digoxin-induced arrhythmias in anesthetized Wistar rats.

Methods: Control and experimental groups were evaluated for arrhythmias induced by digoxin. Fifteen rats (7 as controls and 8 as the experimental group) were included in the study. The dry fruits of 100 mg Crataegus oxyacantha were extracted by percolation method. Digoxin, at a dose of 40 µg/kg/min, was infused to form the arrhythmias in all rats. Simultaneously, the extract was infused into the experimental group, while 0.9% NaCl was infused into control group. Electrocardiographic QRS prolongation and arterial blood pressure changes were analyzed.

Results: The experimental group lived longer (62.13±2.20 min) than the controls (p=0.002). On the other hand, the time to beginning of QRS prolongation did not differ between the two groups (p=0.812). Bradycardia was significant in the control group (288.01±10.54 beat/min and p=0.01). The maximum QRS duration was observed in the control group during the digoxin and 0.9% NaCl infusion period (53.29±3.99 ms and p=0.001). Also, the durations of atrial and ventricular arrhythmias were shorter in the experimental group. However, arterial blood pressure dipping was significant in the experimental group (23.67±10.89 mm Hg and p<0.001).

Conclusion: Crataegus oxyacantha alcoholic extract produced an antiarrhythmic effect that was induced by digoxin in Wistar rats. However, in the clinical use of this extract, the hypotensive effect should be considered. Also, the alcoholic extract of Crataegus oxyacantha may be an alternative treatment medication for arrhythmias induced by digoxin toxicity in humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5152/akd.2014.5869DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5368468PMC
December 2016

Infralimbic cortex Rho-kinase inhibition causes antidepressant-like activity in rats.

Prog Neuropsychopharmacol Biol Psychiatry 2015 Mar 25;57:36-43. Epub 2014 Oct 25.

Department of Pharmacology, Meram Faculty of Medicine, University of Konya-NE, Konya, Turkey.

Depression is one of the most common psychiatric disorders in the world; however, its mechanisms remain unclear. Recently, a new signal-transduction pathway, namely Rho/Rho-kinase signalling, has been suggested to be involved in diverse cellular events in the central nervous system; such as epilepsy, anxiety-related behaviors, regulation of dendritic and axonal morphology, antinociception, subarachnoid haemorrhage, spinal cord injury and amyotrophic lateral sclerosis. However there is no evidence showing the involvement of Rho-kinase pathway in depression. In addition, the infralimbic cortex, rodent equivalent to subgenual cingulate cortex has been shown to be responsible for emotional responses. Thus, in the present study, intracranial guide cannulae were stereotaxically implanted bilaterally into the infralimbic cortex, and the effects of repeated microinjections of a Rho-kinase (ROCK) inhibitor Y-27632 (10 nmol) were investigated in rats. Y-27632 significantly decreased immobility time and increased swimming and climbing behaviors when compared to fluoxetine (10 μg) and saline groups in the forced swim test. In addition, Y-27632 treatment did not affect spontaneous locomotor activity and forelimb use in the open-field and cylinder tests respectively; but it enhanced limb placing accuracy in the ladder rung walking test. Our results suggest that Y-27632 could be a potentially active antidepressant agent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pnpbp.2014.10.008DOI Listing
March 2015

Cardiovascular effects of resveratrol and atorvastatin treatments in an HO-induced stress model.

Exp Ther Med 2014 Nov 11;8(5):1660-1664. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Department of Medical Pharmacology, Meram Medical Faculty, Necmettin Erbakan University, Konya 42080, Turkey.

Oxidative stress has been implicated in the pathophysiology of several types of cardiovascular disease (CVD). Statins are widely used to inhibit the progression of atherosclerosis and reduce the incidence of CVD. Certain over-the-counter products, including resveratrol, show similar effects to statins and may thus be used in conjunction with statins for the treatment of the majority of patients with CVD. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effects of atorvastatin, resveratrol and resveratrol + atorvastatin (R+A) pretreatment on myocardial contractions and vascular endothelial functions in the presence of HO as an experimental model of oxidative stress in rats. Four groups were established and referred to as the control, atorvastatin, resveratrol and R+A groups. Atorvastatin (40 mg/kg, per oral) and/or resveratrol (30 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) treatments were administered for 14 days. On the 15th day, the thoracic aortas and hearts of the rats were dissected and placed into isolated organ baths. Vascular responses to cumulative doses of HO (1×10-1×10 M HO) with and without N (G)-nitro-L-arginine methyl ester (L-NAME) incubation were measured. In addition, myocardial electrical stimulation (ES) responses to various HO concentrations (1×10-1×10 M HO) were evaluated. In the control and atorvastatin groups, HO application caused a significant dose-dependent decrease in the ES-induced contractions in the myocardial tissue of rats. In the resveratrol and R+A groups, HO application did not significantly affect myocardial contraction at any dose. In all groups, incubation with L-NAME caused a significant augmentation in the HO response, revealing that this effect was mediated via the vascular endothelium. In conclusion, pretreatment with R+A for CVD appears to be superior to pretreatment with either agent alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2014.1956DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4186369PMC
November 2014

Induced growth inhibition, cell cycle arrest and apoptosis in CD133+/CD44+ prostate cancer stem cells by flavopiridol.

Int J Mol Med 2014 Nov 11;34(5):1249-56. Epub 2014 Sep 11.

Ege University Faculty of Medicine, Department of Histology and Embryology, Bornova 35100, Izmir, Turkey.

Flavopiridol is a flavone that inhibits several cyclin‑dependent kinases and exhibits potent growth‑inhibitory activity, apoptosis and G1‑phase arrest in a number of human tumor cell lines. Flavopiridol is currently undergoing investigation in human clinical trials. The present study focused on the effect of flavopiridol in cell proliferation, cell cycle progression and apoptosis in prostate cancer stem cells (CSCs). Therefore, cluster of differentiation 133 (CD133)(+high)/CD44(+high) prostate CSCs were isolated from the DU145 human prostate cancer cell line. The cells were treated with flavopiridol in a dose‑ and time‑dependent manner to determine the inhibitory effect. Cell viability and proliferation were analyzed and the efficiency of flavopiridol was assessed using the sphere‑forming assay. Flavopiridol was applied to monolayer cultures of CD133(high)/CD44(high) human prostate CSCs at the following final concentrations: 100, 300, 500 and 1000 nM . The cultures were incubated for 24, 48 and 72 h. The half maximal inhibitory concentration (IC(50)) value of the drug was determined as 500 nM for monolayer cells. Dead cells were analyzed prior and subsequent to exposure to increasing flavopiridol doses. Annexin‑V and immunofluorescence analyses were performed for the evaluation of apoptotic pathways. According to the results, flavopiridol treatment caused significant growth inhibition at 500 and 1000 nM when compared to the control at 24 h. G(0)/G(1) analysis showed a statistically significant difference between 100 and 500 nM (P<0.005), 100 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), 300 and 1000 nM (P<0.001), and 500 and 1000 nM (P<0.001). Flavopiridol also significantly influenced the cells in the G(2)/M phase, particularly at high‑dose treatments. Flavopiridol induced growth inhibition and apoptosis at the IC(50) dose (500 nM), resulting in a significant increase in immunofluorescence staining of caspase‑3, caspase‑8 and p53. In conclusion, the present results indicated that flavopiridol could be a useful therapeutic agent for prostate CSCs by inhibiting tumor growth and malignant progression, and inducing apoptosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijmm.2014.1930DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4199402PMC
November 2014

Stem cell and extracellular matrix-related molecules increase following melatonin treatment in the skin of postmenopausal rats.

Cell Biol Int 2014 Aug 12;38(8):924-32. Epub 2014 May 12.

Histology and Embryology, Acıbadem University, Vocational School of Health Services, Istanbul, Turkey.

The menopause has a negative effect in the skin. Melatonin affects skin functions and structures through actions mediated by cell-surface and putative-nuclear receptors expressed in skin cell. We have therefore determined the effects of melatonin treatment on stem cell in the epidermis and extracellular matrix related molecules in the dermis the skin of postmenopausal rats. A total of 45 female rats were divided into 5 groups: control group, group A [ovariectomy (OVX)], group B (OVX +10 mg/kg/day melatonin), group C (OVX +30 mg/kg/day melatonin), group S (sham operated + 10 mg/kg/day melatonin). Ventral skin samples were excised at 12th week after ovariectomy. Hematoxylin-eosin, periodic acid- methylamine silver, elastic van Gieson staining techniques were used to measure histomorphometrically the thickness of elastic fibers and basement membrane, depths of the epidermis, dermis, and subcutaneous fat layer. Immunohistochemical staining methods were used for fibroblast growth factor β (FGF β), collagen type I, fibronectin, β-catenin, c-kit, c-Myc evaluation. Epidermal thickness, subcutaneous fat layer, and elastic fibers were significantly decreased in group C, and there was a significant increase after melatonin treatment. Although there was no difference in dermal thickness of group C, melatonin also significantly increased the dermal thickness. High FGF β, type I collagen, fibronectin, β-catenin, c-Myc immunoreactivity developed following melatonin in all groups. Thus melatonin treatment of postmenopausal rats was mostly due to the decrease of stem cell and extracellular matrix-related molecules in the skin.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cbin.10286DOI Listing
August 2014

Acute effects of hypercholesterolemic diet on erectile responses in rats.

Urol Int 2010 12;85(1):112-7. Epub 2010 Mar 12.

Department of Urology, School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey. omer.demir @ deu.edu.tr

Objective: The aim of this study was to evaluate the acute effects of a high cholesterol diet (HCD) on erectile and endothelial functions in Sprague-Dawley rats.

Materials And Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 2 groups as control and HCD groups. The control group was fed on a normal diet and the hypercholesterolemia group was fed a 1% cholesterol-enriched diet daily for 2 weeks. Total cholesterol levels were measured at the end of 2 weeks in both groups. To examine the effect of HCD on erectile function, electric cavernous nerve stimulation (CNS) at 20 Hz with a pulse duration of 1 ms for 1 min at 5 V was performed. During CNS, we measured intracavernous pressure (ICP), mean arterial pressure (MAP), detumescence time and area under the curve (AUC). To evaluate the endothelial responses, acetylcholine (Ach) was applied cumulatively (1 nM to 1 microM) to thoracic aorta tissues contracted with 60 mM KCl.

Results: In the HCD group total cholesterol levels were significantly higher than in the control group (148.1 +/- 18.9 vs. 55.7 +/- 8.1 mg/dl, p = 0.002). The detumescence time was significantly decreased after HCD compared to the control diet (19.3 +/- 3.6 vs. 78.6 +/- 12.8 s, p < 0.001). The decreases in the HCD group were also significant in terms of ICP (53.4 +/- 4.5 vs. 35.6 +/- 5.5 mm Hg; p < 0.05), ICP/MAP (55.9 +/- 3.9 vs. 38.2 +/- 5.2%; p < 0.05) and AUC (1,404 +/- 197.1 vs. 2,250 +/- 253.7, p < 0.05) values. There were no significant changes in maximum relaxation responses of the thoracic aorta to Ach.

Conclusion: These results suggest that erectile functions were significantly damaged early in HCD rats. However, endothelial functions, evaluated in the thoracic aorta, were not affected simultaneously with erectile functions in rats fed a low concentration of HCD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000296286DOI Listing
December 2010

Contractility of diabetic human corpus cavernosum smooth muscle in response to serotonin mediated via Rho-kinase.

Pharmacology 2009 28;84(1):24-8. Epub 2009 May 28.

Advanced Professional School of Health Sciences, Dokuz Eylul University, Medical Faculty, Izmir, Turkey.

Background/aims: Serotonin (5-hydroxytryptamine, 5-HT)-induced contraction and the involvement of RhoA/Rho-kinase pathway in the 5-HT-induced contraction was investigated isometrically in vitro in both diabetic and nondiabetic human corpus cavernosum (HCC) tissues.

Methods: HCC tissues were obtained from 12 patients. The response to 5-HT (10(-9) to 10(-5) mol/l) was studied in isolated HCC tissues in the absence and in the presence of a Rho-kinase inhibitor (Y-27632).

Results: Preincubation with Y-27632 attenuated maximum contractions induced by 5-HT in tissues of both nondiabetics and diabetics. When diabetic and nondiabetic groups were compared, no significant difference was seen in 5-HT-induced contraction alone, but in the presence of Y-27632, 5-HT-induced contraction was significantly higher in the diabetic group.

Conclusion: These results suggest that the Rho-kinase-mediated pathway plays an important role for 5-HT-induced contraction in diabetic corpus cavernosum tissues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000221380DOI Listing
December 2009

Restraint stress impairs erectile responses in rats.

Tohoku J Exp Med 2009 Mar;217(3):239-42

Urology Department, Tepecik Training Hospital, Izmir, Turkey.

It has been established that various forms of physical and psychological stress reduce sexual functions. However, there is no study yet evaluating the functional changes over cavernosal pressure in rats exposed to restraint stress. In this study, we aimed to investigate the convenience of the restraint stress model that may be used to determine the disruptive effects of stress on erectile function. Sprague Dawley rats were randomized into two groups as control (n = 7) and stress (n = 7) groups. In the stress group, rats were placed for 60 minutes in a cylindrical plastic tube with holes for fresh air supply (restraint stress). Following the stress application, several parameters for erectile responses were evaluated immediately. The control animals were maintained at room temperature without any procedure until the measurement. During the electrical stimulation of cavernous nerve, we measured the intracavernous pressure (ICP), the ratio of ICP to the mean arterial pressure (MAP), and detumescence time. There were significant decreases in ICP (24.4 +/- 4.1 vs 53.4 +/- 4.5 mmHg, p < 0.01), ICP/MAP (34.4 +/- 7.8% vs 55.7 +/- 3.9%, p < 0.05), and detumescence time (31.7 +/- 6.1 vs 78.6 +/- 12.8 sec, p < 0.01) in stress group when compared to control group. Thus, restraint stress declined detumescence time and decreased intracavernosal pressure in male rats. In conclusion, restraint stress model in rats may be useful for determining the effects of stress on erectile response. Even a short-term restraint stress may cause erectile dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1620/tjem.217.239DOI Listing
March 2009

Renal and hepatic injury with elevated cardiac enzymes in Amanita phalloides poisoning: a case report.

Hum Exp Toxicol 2007 Sep;26(9):757-61

Department of Emergency Medicine, Dokuz Eylul University School of Medicine, Izmir, Turkey.

Amatoxins are one of the most potent toxins that cause hepatic and renal failure. However, this is the first report demonstrating an elevation of cardiac enzymes in a patient with Amanita phalloides poisoning. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the emergency department (ED) 42 h after an unknown type of mushroom ingestion. Hepatic, renal function tests, amylase and cardiac enzymes (troponin I, creatine kinase (CK), CK-MB isoenzyme and myoglobin) were found elevated in his blood chemistry. The electrocardiogram disclosed sinus tachycardia. Aggressive treatment with fluids, activated charcoal, penicillin G and silibinin were started. The patient was sent to hemodialysis because of anuria. During follow-up, biochemical parameters and clinical findings improved. The patient was discharged from the hospital following the arrangement of hemodialysis schedule because of the chronic renal failure. False elevations of cardiac markers may confuse the clinicians in differential diagnosis of myocardial infarction in ED. In our patient, amatoxins that have bound the actin filaments within myocardiocytes or renal cells and/or its effects as circulating anti-troponin antibodies might result in elevation of cardiac markers. Elevated cardiac enzyme levels without any acute coronary syndrome are probable in mushroom poisoning cases involving amatoxin ingestion.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0960327107083972DOI Listing
September 2007
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