Publications by authors named "Bulent Ergin"

35 Publications

Corrections to "Microbubble Composition and Preparation for High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation".

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2021 Jun 25;68(6):2321. Epub 2021 May 25.

In the above article [1], the authors regret that there was a mistake in calculating the mol% of the microbubble coating composition used. For all experiments, the unit in mg/mL was utilized and the conversion mistake only came when converting to mol% in order to define the ratio between the coating formulation components. The correct molecular weight of PEG-40 stearate is 2046.54 g/mol [2], [3], not 328.53 g/mol. On page 556, Table I should read as shown here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2021.3067599DOI Listing
June 2021

Case Report: Sublingual Microcirculatory Alterations in a Covid-19 Patient With Subcutaneous Emphysema, Venous Thrombosis, and Pneumomediastinum.

Front Med (Lausanne) 2020 28;7:624695. Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Department of Intensive Care, Haga Teaching Hospital, The Hague, Netherlands.

The Corona virus disease 2019 (Covid-19) has brought a wide range of challenges in intensive care medicine. Understanding of the pathophysiology of Covid-19 relies on interpreting of its impact on the vascular, particularly microcirculatory system. Herein we report on the first use of the latest generation hand-held vital microscope to evaluate the sublingual microcirculation in a Covid-19 patient with subcutaneous emphysema, venous thrombosis and pneumomediastinum. Remarkably, microcirculatory parameters of the patient were increased during the exacerbation period, which is not a usual finding in critically ill patients mostly presenting with a loss of hemodynamic coherence. In contrast, recovery from the disease led to a subsequent amelioration of these parameters. This report clearly shows the importance of microcirculatory monitoring for evaluating the course and the adequacy of therapy in Covid-19 patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmed.2020.624695DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7876339PMC
January 2021

Capillary Leukocytes, Microaggregates, and the Response to Hypoxemia in the Microcirculation of Coronavirus Disease 2019 Patients.

Crit Care Med 2021 04;49(4):661-670

Department of Intensive Care, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: In this study, we hypothesized that coronavirus disease 2019 patients exhibit sublingual microcirculatory alterations caused by inflammation, coagulopathy, and hypoxemia.

Design: Multicenter case-controlled study.

Setting: Two ICUs in The Netherlands and one in Switzerland.

Patients: Thirty-four critically ill coronavirus disease 2019 patients were compared with 33 healthy volunteers.

Interventions: None.

Measurements And Main Results: The microcirculatory parameters quantified included total vessel density (mm × mm-2), functional capillary density (mm × mm-2), proportion of perfused vessels (%), capillary hematocrit (%), the ratio of capillary hematocrit to systemic hematocrit, and capillary RBC velocity (μm × s-1). The number of leukocytes in capillary-postcapillary venule units per 4-second image sequence (4 s-1) and capillary RBC microaggregates (4 s-1) was measured. In comparison with healthy volunteers, the microcirculation of coronavirus disease 2019 patients showed increases in total vessel density (22.8 ± sd 5.1 vs 19.9 ± 3.3; p < 0.0001) and functional capillary density (22.2 ± 4.8 vs 18.8 ± 3.1; p < 0.002), proportion of perfused vessel (97.6 ± 2.1 vs 94.6 ± 6.5; p < 0.01), RBC velocity (362 ± 48 vs 306 ± 53; p < 0.0001), capillary hematocrit (5.3 ± 1.3 vs 4.7 ± 0.8; p < 0.01), and capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio (0.18 ± 0.0 vs 0.11 ± 0.0; p < 0.0001). These effects were present in coronavirus disease 2019 patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores less than 10 but not in patients with Sequential Organ Failure Assessment scores greater than or equal to 10. The numbers of leukocytes (17.6 ± 6.7 vs 5.2 ± 2.3; p < 0.0001) and RBC microaggregates (0.90 ± 1.12 vs 0.06 ± 0.24; p < 0.0001) was higher in the microcirculation of the coronavirus disease 2019 patients. Receiver-operating-characteristics analysis of the microcirculatory parameters identified the number of microcirculatory leukocytes and the capillary-hematocrit-to-systemic-hematocrit ratio as the most sensitive parameters distinguishing coronavirus disease 2019 patients from healthy volunteers.

Conclusions: The response of the microcirculation to coronavirus disease 2019-induced hypoxemia seems to be to increase its oxygen-extraction capacity by increasing RBC availability. Inflammation and hypercoagulation are apparent in the microcirculation by increased numbers of leukocytes and RBC microaggregates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000004862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7963442PMC
April 2021

Hemodilution causes glycocalyx shedding without affecting vascular endothelial barrier permeability in rats.

J Clin Transl Res 2020 Jun 12;5(5):243-252. Epub 2020 May 12.

Department of Adult Intensive Care, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The consequences of acute normovolemic hemodilution (ANH) following different types of fluids on the different components of the glycocalyx and on vascular barrier permeability (VBP) remain unknown.

Aim: The aim of the study was to investigate whether the microcirculatory disruption and glycocalyx shedding induced by ANH alters VBP and whether this is affected by the composition and volume of the resuscitation fluid.

Materials And Methods: Anesthetized Wistar albino rats (n=24) underwent stepwise ANH at hematocrit levels of 35%, 25%, 20%, and 15% induced by the exchange of blood with 6% balanced hydroxyethyl starch (1:1), balanced crystalloid (1:3), and normal saline (NS) (1:3). Glycocalyx-shed products were measured at each level of hemodilution. VBP was reflected in the decay of fluorescence dyes of different molecular size and their plasma retention ratios. Edema was assessed by measuring organ water content and muscle microcirculation by hand-held videomicroscopy.

Results: NS caused increased degradation of heparan sulfate and hyaluronan compared with the control group (=0.003, =0.004, respectively). Neither VBP nor tissue edema was affected by the fluid used. The total and perfused vessel densities within the microcirculation of muscle tissue decreased at hematocrit 15% in the balanced crystalloid (=0.02) and NS groups only (<0.0001, =0.0003, respectively) compared with baseline.

Conclusions: Balanced colloid solution preserved the glycocalyx layer better than balanced and unbalanced crystalloid solutions while maintaining the microcirculatory function associated with an improved total intravascular volume. Among the fluids tested, NS caused the most microcirculatory alterations. While ANH caused the degradation of glycocalyx components regardless of fluid, it did not disrupt the vascular barrier as indicated by macromolecular leakage.

Relevance For Patients: The results of this study provide insight into the choice of fluid for optimal perioperative fluid management and the consequences of fluid type on the vascular barrier, glycocalyx, and microcirculation.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7453805PMC
June 2020

Assessment of sublingual microcirculation in critically ill patients: consensus and debate.

Ann Transl Med 2020 Jun;8(12):793

Department of Intensive Care Med, Laboratory of Translational Intensive Care Med, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The main concern in shock and resuscitation is whether the microcirculation can carry adequate oxygen to the tissues and remove waste. Identification of an intact coherence between macro- and microcirculation during states of shock and resuscitation shows a functioning regulatory mechanism. However, loss of hemodynamic coherence between the macro and microcirculation can be encountered frequently in sepsis, cardiogenic shock, or any hemodynamically compromised patient. This loss of hemodynamic coherence results in an improvement in macrohemodynamic parameters following resuscitation without a parallel improvement in microcirculation resulting in tissue hypoxia and tissue compromise. Hand-held vital microscopes (HVMs) can visualize the microcirculation and help to diagnose the nature of microcirculatory shock. Although treatment with the sole aim of recruiting the microcirculation is as yet not realized, interventions can be tailored to the needs of the patient while monitoring sublingual microcirculation. With the help of the newly introduced software, called MicroTools, we believe sublingual microcirculation monitoring and diagnosis will be an essential point-of-care tool in managing shock patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm.2020.03.222DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7333125PMC
June 2020

Resuscitation with PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin preserves renal cortical oxygenation and improves skeletal muscle microcirculatory flow during endotoxemia.

Am J Physiol Renal Physiol 2020 05 13;318(5):F1271-F1283. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Department of Translational Physiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

PEGylated carboxyhemoglobin (PEGHbCO), which has carbon monoxide-releasing properties and plasma expansion and oxygen-carrying properties, may improve both skeletal microcirculatory flow and renal cortical microcirculatory Po (CµPo) and, subsequently, limit endotoxemia-induced acute kidney injury. Anesthetized, ventilated Wistar albino rats ( = 44) underwent endotoxemic shock. CµPo was measured in exposed kidneys using a phosphorescence-quenching method. Rats were randomly assigned to the following five groups: ) unresuscitated lipopolysaccharide (LPS), ) LPS + Ringer's acetate (RA), ) LPS + RA + 0.5 µg·kg·min norepinephrine (NE), ) LPS + RA + 320 mg/kg PEGHbCO, and ) LPS + RA + PEGHbCO + NE. The total volume was 30 mL/kg in each group. A time control animal group was used. Skeletal muscle microcirculation was assessed by handheld intravital microscopy. Kidney immunohistochemistry and myeloperoxidase-stained leukocytes in glomerular and peritubular areas were analyzed. Endotoxemia-induced histological damage was assessed. Plasma levels of IL-6, heme oxygenase-1, malondialdehyde, and syndecan-1 were assessed by ELISA. CµPo was higher in the LPS + RA + PEGHbCO-resuscitated group, at 35 ± 6mmHg compared with 21 ± 12 mmHg for the LPS+RA group [mean difference: -13.53, 95% confidence interval: (-26.35; -0.7156), = 0.035]. The number of nonflowing, intermittent, or sluggish capillaries was smaller in groups infused with PEGHbCO compared with RA alone ( < 0.05), while the number of normally perfused vessels was greater ( < 0.05). The addition of NE did not further improve CµPo or microcirculatory parameters. Endotoxemia-induced kidney immunohistochemistry and histological alterations were not mitigated by PEGHbCO 1 h after resuscitation. Renal leukocyte infiltration and plasma levels of biomarkers were similar across groups. PEGHbCO enhanced CµPo while restoring skeletal muscle microcirculatory flow in previously nonflowing capillaries. PEGHbCO should be further evaluated as a resuscitation fluid in mid- to long-term models of sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/ajprenal.00513.2019DOI Listing
May 2020

Investigating the physiology of normothermic ex vivo heart perfusion in an isolated slaughterhouse porcine model used for device testing and training.

BMC Cardiovasc Disord 2019 11 11;19(1):254. Epub 2019 Nov 11.

Department Cardiothoracic Surgery, Amsterdam University Medical Center, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The PhysioHeart™ is a mature acute platform, based isolated slaughterhouse hearts and able to validate cardiac devices and techniques in working mode. Despite perfusion, myocardial edema and time-dependent function degradation are reported. Therefore, monitoring several variables is necessary to identify which of these should be controlled to preserve the heart function. This study presents biochemical, electrophysiological and hemodynamic changes in the PhysioHeart™ to understand the pitfalls of ex vivo slaughterhouse heart hemoperfusion.

Methods: Seven porcine hearts were harvested, arrested and revived using the PhysioHeart™. Cardiac output, SaO2, glucose and pH were maintained at physiological levels. Blood analyses were performed hourly and unipolar epicardial electrograms (UEG), pressures and flows were recorded to assess the physiological performance.

Results: Normal cardiac performance was attained in terms of mean cardiac output (5.1 ± 1.7 l/min) and pressures but deteriorated over time. Across the experiments, homeostasis was maintained for 171.4 ± 54 min, osmolarity and blood electrolytes increased significantly between 10 and 80%, heart weight increased by 144 ± 41 g, free fatty acids (- 60%), glucose and lactate diminished, ammonia increased by 273 ± 76% and myocardial necrosis and UEG alterations appeared and aggravated. Progressively deteriorating electrophysiological and hemodynamic functions can be explained by reperfusion injury, waste product intoxication (i.e. hyperammonemia), lack of essential nutrients, ion imbalances and cardiac necrosis as a consequence of hepatological and nephrological plasma clearance absence.

Conclusions: The PhysioHeart™ is an acute model, suitable for cardiac device and therapy assessment, which can precede conventional animal studies. However, observations indicate that ex vivo slaughterhouse hearts resemble cardiac physiology of deteriorating hearts in a multi-organ failure situation and signalize the need for plasma clearance during perfusion to attenuate time-dependent function degradation. The presented study therefore provides an in-dept understanding of the sources and reasons causing the cardiac function loss, as a first step for future effort to prolong cardiac perfusion in the PhysioHeart™. These findings could be also of potential interest for other cardiac platforms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12872-019-1242-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6849278PMC
November 2019

Attenuated cardiac function degradation in ex vivo pig hearts.

Int J Artif Organs 2020 Mar 17;43(3):173-179. Epub 2019 Oct 17.

Department of Cardiothoracic Surgery, AMC Heart Center, Amsterdam University Medical Center-Location AMC, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Isolated hearts offer the opportunity to evaluate heart function, treatments, and diagnostic tools without in vivo factor interference. However, the early loss of cardiac function and edema occur over time and do limit the duration of the experiment. This research focuses on delaying these limitations using optimal blood control. This study examines whether blood conditioning by means of the combination of blood predilution and hemodialysis can significantly reduce cardiac function degradation. Slaughterhouse porcine hearts were revived in the PhysioHeart™ platform to restore physiological cardiac performance. Twelve hearts were divided into a control group and a dialysis group; in the latter group, hemodialysis was attached to the blood reservoir. Cardiac hemodynamics and blood parameters were recorded and evaluated. Blood conditioning significantly reduced the loss of cardiac pump function (control group vs dialysis group, -14.9 ± 6.3%/h vs -9.7 ± 2.7%/h) and loss of cardiac output (control group vs dialysis group, -11.8 ± 3.4%/h vs -5.9 ± 2.0%/h). Hemodialysis resulted in physiological and stable blood parameters, whereas in the control group ions reached pathological values, while interstitial edema still occurred. The combination of blood predilution and hemodialysis significantly attenuated ex vivo cardiac function degradation and delayed the loss of cardiac hemodynamics. We hypothesized that besides electrolyte and metabolic control, the hemodialysis-accompanied increase in hematocrit resulted in improved oxygen transport. This could have temporarily compensated the deleterious effect of an increased oxygen-diffusion distance due to edema in the dialysis group and resulted in less progression of cell decay. Clinically validated measures delaying edema might improve the effectiveness of the PhysioHeart™ platform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0391398819879706DOI Listing
March 2020

Leukocyte-Endothelium Interaction in the Sublingual Microcirculation of Coronary Artery Bypass Grafting Patients.

J Vasc Res 2020 10;57(1):8-15. Epub 2019 Sep 10.

Department of Translational Physiology, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Objective: The aim of this study was to apply an innovative methodology to incident dark-field (IDF) imaging in coronary artery bypass grafting (CABG) patients for the identification and quantification of rolling leukocytes along the sublingual microcirculatory endothelium.

Methods: This study was a post hoc analysis of a prospective study that evaluated the perioperative course of the sublingual microcirculation in CABG patients. Video images were captured using IDF imaging following the induction of anesthesia (T0) and cardiopulmonary bypass (CPB) (T1) in 10 patients. Rolling leukocytes were identified and quantified using frame averaging, which is a technique that was developed for correctly identifying leukocytes.

Results: The number of rolling leukocytes increased significantly from T0 (7.5 [6.4-9.1] leukocytes/capillary-postcapillary venule/4 s) to T1 (14.8 [13.2-15.5] leukocytes/capillary-postcapillary venule/4 s) (p < 0.0001). A significant increase in systemic leukocyte count was also detected from 7.4 ± 0.9 × 109/L (preoperative) to 12.4 ± 4.4 × 109/L (postoperative) (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: The ability to directly visualize leukocyte-endothelium interaction using IDF imaging facilitates the diagnosis of a systemic inflammatory response after CPB via the identification of rolling leukocytes. Integration of the frame averaging algorithm into the software of handheld vital microscopes may enable the use of microcirculatory leukocyte count as a real-time parameter at the bedside.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000501826DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7026940PMC
September 2020

Effect of Polyethylene-glycolated Carboxyhemoglobin on Renal Microcirculation in a Rat Model of Hemorrhagic Shock.

Anesthesiology 2019 11;131(5):1110-1124

From the Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands (P.G., B.E., M.H., C.I.) INSERM U1116, University of Lorraine, Vandoeuvre-Les-Nancy, France (P.G.) the Department of Anesthesiology and Critical Care Medicine, University Hospital of Nancy, Nancy, France (P.G.) the Department of Intensive Care Adults, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center, Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands (B.E., J.B., C.I.) the Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey (A.K.) Prolong Pharmaceuticals, South Plainfield, New Jersey (R.J.) the Department of Pulmonology and Critical Care, Columbia University Medical Center, New York, New York (J.B.) the Department of Intensive Care, Pontifical Catholic University of Chile, Santiago, Chile (J.B.).

Background: Primary resuscitation fluid to treat hemorrhagic shock remains controversial. Use of hydroxyethyl starches raised concerns of acute kidney injury. Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin, which has carbon monoxide-releasing molecules and oxygen-carrying properties, was hypothesized to sustain cortical renal microcirculatory PO2 after hemorrhagic shock and reduce kidney injury.

Methods: Anesthetized and ventilated rats (n = 42) were subjected to pressure-controlled hemorrhagic shock for 1 h. Renal cortical PO2 was measured in exposed kidneys using a phosphorescence quenching method. Rats were randomly assigned to six groups: polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin 320 mg · kg, 6% hydroxyethyl starch (130/0.4) in Ringer's acetate, blood retransfusion, diluted blood retransfusion (~4 g · dl), nonresuscitated animals, and time control. Nitric oxide and heme oxygenase 1 levels were determined in plasma. Kidney immunohistochemistry (histologic scores of neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin and tumor necrosis factor-α) and tubular histologic damages analyses were performed.

Results: Blood and diluted blood restored renal PO2 to 51 ± 5 mmHg (mean difference, -18; 95% CI, -26 to -11; P < 0.0001) and 47 ± 5 mmHg (mean difference, -23; 95% CI, -31 to -15; P < 0.0001), respectively, compared with 29 ± 8 mmHg for hydroxyethyl starch. No differences between polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin and hydroxyethyl starch were observed (33 ± 7 mmHg vs. 29 ± 8 mmHg; mean difference, -5; 95% CI, -12 to 3; P = 0.387), but significantly less volume was administered (4.5 [3.3-6.2] vs. 8.5[7.7-11.4] ml; mean rank difference, 11.98; P = 0.387). Blood and diluted blood increased the plasma bioavailability of nitric oxide compared with hydroxyethyl starch (mean rank difference, -20.97; P = 0.004; and -17.13; P = 0.029, respectively). No changes in heme oxygenase 1 levels were observed. Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin limited tubular histologic damages compared with hydroxyethyl starch (mean rank difference, 60.12; P = 0.0012) with reduced neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin (mean rank difference, 84.43; P < 0.0001) and tumor necrosis factor-α (mean rank difference, 49.67; P = 0.026) histologic scores.

Conclusions: Polyethylene-glycolated carboxyhemoglobin resuscitation did not improve renal PO2 but limited tubular histologic damages and neutrophil gelatinase-associated lipocalin upregulation after hemorrhage compared with hydroxyethyl starch, whereas a lower volume was required to sustain macrocirculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/ALN.0000000000002932DOI Listing
November 2019

In Response.

Anesth Analg 2019 09;129(3):e102-e103

Department of Translational Physiology, Amsterdam University Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands,

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000004182DOI Listing
September 2019

Glycocalyx Degradation Is Independent of Vascular Barrier Permeability Increase in Nontraumatic Hemorrhagic Shock in Rats.

Anesth Analg 2019 08;129(2):598-607

From the Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands.

Background: Glycocalyx shedding after traumatic hemorrhagic or septic shock, as well as different resuscitation fluids, has been causally linked to increased vascular barrier permeability (VBP) resulting in tissue edema. In nontraumatic hemorrhagic shock (NTHS), it remains questionable whether glycocalyx degradation in itself results in an alteration of VBP. The composition of fluids can also have a modulatory effect on glycocalyx shedding and VBP. We hypothesized that the shedding of the glycocalyx during NTHS has little effect on VBP and that the composition of fluids can modulate these effects.

Methods: Fully instrumented Wistar-albino rats were subjected to a pressure-controlled NTHS (mean arterial pressure of 30 mm Hg) for 60 minutes. Animals were fluid resuscitated with Ringer's acetate, balanced hydroxyethyl starch (HES) solution, or 0.9% normal saline to a mean arterial pressure of 80 mm Hg and compared with shams or nonresuscitated NTHS. Glycocalyx shed products were determined at baseline and 60 minutes after fluid resuscitation. Skeletal muscle microcirculation was visualized using handheld vital microscopy. VBP changes were assessed using plasma decay of 3 fluorescent dyes (40- and 500-kDa dextran and 70-kDa albumin), Evans blue dye exclusion, intravital fluorescence microscopy, and determination of tissue edema (wet/dry weight ratio).

Results: All glycocalyx shedding products were upgraded as a result of NTHS. Syndecan-1 significantly increased in NTHS (mean difference, -1668; 95% confidence interval [CI], -2336 to -1001; P < .0001), balanced crystalloid (mean difference, -964.2; 95% CI, -1492 to -436.4; P = .0001), and HES (mean difference, -1030; 95% CI, -1594 to -465.8; P = .0001) groups at the end of the experiment compared to baseline. Hyaluronan levels were higher at the end of the experiment in nonresuscitated NTHS (-923.1; 95% CI, -1216 to -630; P = .0001) and balanced crystalloid (-1039; 95% CI, -1332 to -745.5; P = .0001) or HES (-394.2; 95% CI, -670.1 to -118.3; P = .0027) groups compared to controls. Glycocalyx shedding resulted in microcirculation alterations as observed by handheld video microscopy. Total vessel density was altered in the normal saline (mean difference, 4.092; 95% CI, 0.6195-7.564; P = .016) and hemorrhagic shock (mean difference, 5.022; 95% CI, 1.55-8.495; P = .0024) groups compared to the control group, as well as the perfused vessel density and mean flow index. Despite degradation of endothelial glycocalyx, VBP as determined by 4 independent assays remained intact and continued to be so following fluid resuscitation.

Conclusions: NTHS induced glycocalyx shedding and microcirculation alterations, without altering VBP. Fluid resuscitation partially restored the microcirculation without altering VBP. These results challenge the concept that the glycocalyx barrier is a significant contributor to VBP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1213/ANE.0000000000003918DOI Listing
August 2019

FXR agonist obeticholic acid induces liver growth but exacerbates biliary injury in rats with obstructive cholestasis.

Sci Rep 2018 11 8;8(1):16529. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Experimental Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Cholestasis impairs liver regeneration following partial liver resection (PHx). Bile acid receptor farnesoid X-receptor (FXR) is a key mediator of liver regeneration. The effects of FXR agonist obeticholic acid (OCA) on liver (re)growth were therefore studied in cholestatic rats. Animals underwent sham surgery or reversible bile duct ligation (rBDL). PHx with concurrent internal biliary drainage was performed 7 days after rBDL. Animals were untreated or received OCA (10 mg/kg/day) per oral gavage from rBDL until sacrifice. After 7 days of OCA treatment, dry liver weight increased in the rBDL + OCA group, indicating OCA-mediated liver growth. Enhanced proliferation in the rBDL + OCA group prior to PHx concurred with a rise in Ki67-positive hepatocytes, elevated hepatic Ccnd1 and Cdc25b expression, and an induction of intestinal fibroblast growth factor 15 expression. Liver regrowth after PHx was initially stagnant in the rBDL + OCA group, possibly due to hepatomegaly prior to PHx. OCA increased hepatobiliary injury markers during BDL, which was accompanied by upregulation of the bile salt export pump. There were no differences in histological liver injury. In conclusion, OCA induces liver growth in cholestatic rats prior to PHx but exacerbates biliary injury during cholestasis, likely by forced pumping of bile acids into an obstructed biliary tree.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-33070-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6224438PMC
November 2018

Recruitment of sublingual microcirculation using handheld incident dark field imaging as a routine measurement tool during the postoperative de-escalation phase-a pilot study in post ICU cardiac surgery patients.

Perioper Med (Lond) 2018 9;7:18. Epub 2018 Aug 9.

3Department of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Management of tissue perfusion following cardiac surgery is a challenging task where common clinical parameters do not reflect microcirculatory dysfunction. Heterogeneity in blood flow perfusion and abnormalities in capillary density characterize microcirculatory dysfunction. The restoration of a normal microcirculation may become a novel target for therapy in the future in addition to macrocirculatory parameters. The aim of this study is to determine how the sublingual microcirculatory parameters vary at the bedside in post-cardiac surgery patients which underwent diuretic therapy to correct fluid overload.

Methods: In this prospective observational pilot study, video clips of sublingual microcirculation in post-cardiac surgery patients receiving furosemide and/or spironolactone to achieve normal fluid balance were recorded using Cytocam-IDF imaging. Data was obtained on the first (T0), second (T1), and third (T2) day after the patients left the intensive care unit (ICU). Measurements were analyzed off-line to obtain the following microcirculatory parameters: total vessel density (TVD), microcirculatory flow index (MFI), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), and perfused vessel density (PVD). Macrocirculatory parameters and body weight were also collected at these time points.

Results: Ninety measurements were performed in ten post ICU cardiac surgery patients. Thirteen measurements were excluded due to quality reasons; these excluded measurements were spread across the patients and time points, and there was no loss of patients or time points. An increase in TVD was observed from T0 to T1 (20 ± 2.7 to 24 ± 3.2 mm/mm;  = 0.0410) and from T0 to T2 (20 ± 2.7 to 26 ± 3.3 mm/mm;  = 0.0005). An increase in PVD was present from T0 to T1 (19 ± 2.3 to 24 ± 3.5 mm/mm;  = 0.0072) and from T0 to T2 (19 ± 2.3 to 26 ± 3.4 mm/mm,  = 0.0008). Fluid overload was assessed through a positive cumulative fluid balance on the day of ICU discharge.

Conclusions: Cytocam-IDF imaging to monitor microcirculation as a daily parameter is feasible and could become a valuable tool to non-invasively assess the tissue oxygenation at the bedside. An increase in TVD and PVD (functional capillary density) indicated the recruitment of the sublingual microcirculation in patients with diuretic therapy. Future research is needed to prove the correlation between the recruitment of the sublingual microcirculation and the de-escalation phase of the fluid management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13741-018-0091-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6083575PMC
August 2018

Assessment of hepatic microvascular flow and density in patients undergoing preoperative portal vein embolization.

HPB (Oxford) 2019 02 26;21(2):187-194. Epub 2018 Jul 26.

Department of Surgery, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam. Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The microvascular effects occurring after unilateral preoperative portal vein embolization (PVE) are poorly understood. The aim of this study was to assess the microvascular changes in the embolized and the non-embolized lobes after right PVE.

Methods: Videos of the hepatic microcirculation in patients undergoing right hemihepatectomy following PVE were recorded using a handheld vital microscope (Cytocam) based on incident dark field imaging. Hepatic microcirculation was measured in the embolized and the non-embolized lobes at laparotomy, 3-6 weeks after PVE. The following microcirculatory parameters were assessed: total vessel density (TVD), microcirculatory flow index (MFI), proportion of perfused vessel (PPV), perfused vessel density (PVD), sinusoidal diameter (SinD) and the absolute red blood cell velocity (RBCv).

Results: 16 patients after major liver resection were included, 8 with and 8 without preoperative PVE. Microvascular density parameters were higher in the non-embolized lobes when compared to the embolized lobes (TVD: 40.3 ± 8.9 vs. 26.8 ± 4.6 mm/mm (p < 0.003), PVD: 40.3 ± 8.8 vs. 26.7 ± 4.7 mm/mm (p < 0.002), SinD: 9.2 ± 1.7 vs. 6.3 ± 0.8 μm (p < 0.040)). RBCv, PPV and the MFI were not significantly different.

Conclusion: The non-embolized lobe has a significantly higher microvascular density, however without differences in microvascular flow. These findings indicate increased angiogenesis in the hypertrophic lobe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2018.07.002DOI Listing
February 2019

Dynamic Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Identifies Microcirculatory Alterations in Sepsis-Induced Acute Kidney Injury.

Crit Care Med 2018 08;46(8):1284-1292

Department of Intensive Care Adults, Erasmus MC, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Objectives: We developed quantitative methods to analyze microbubble kinetics based on renal contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging combined with measurements of sublingual microcirculation on a fixed area to quantify early microvascular alterations in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

Design: Prospective controlled animal experiment study.

Setting: Hospital-affiliated animal research institution.

Subjects: Fifteen female pigs.

Interventions: The animals were instrumented with a renal artery flow probe after surgically exposing the kidney. Nine animals were given IV infusion of lipopolysaccharide to induce septic shock, and six were used as controls.

Measurements And Main Results: Contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging was performed on the kidney before, during, and after having induced shock. Sublingual microcirculation was measured continuously using the Cytocam on the same spot. Contrast-enhanced ultrasound effectively allowed us to develop new analytical methods to measure dynamic variations in renal microvascular perfusion during shock and resuscitation. Renal microvascular hypoperfusion was quantified by decreased peak enhancement and an increased ratio of the final plateau intensity to peak enhancement. Reduced intrarenal blood flow could be estimated by measuring the microbubble transit times between the interlobar arteries and capillary vessels in the renal cortex. Sublingual microcirculation measured using the Cytocam in a fixed area showed decreased functional capillary density associated with plugged sublingual capillary vessels that persisted during and after fluid resuscitation.

Conclusions: In our lipopolysaccharide model, with resuscitation targeted at blood pressure, contrast-enhanced ultrasound imaging can identify renal microvascular alterations by showing prolonged contrast enhancement in microcirculation during shock, worsened by resuscitation with fluids. Concomitant analysis of sublingual microcirculation mirrored those observed in the renal microcirculation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CCM.0000000000003209DOI Listing
August 2018

Identification and quantification of human microcirculatory leukocytes using handheld video microscopes at the bedside.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2018 06 8;124(6):1550-1557. Epub 2018 Mar 8.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam , Amsterdam , The Netherlands.

Leukocyte recruitment and adhesion to the endothelium are hallmarks of systemic inflammation that manifest in a wide range of diseases. At present, no method is available to directly measure leukocyte kinetics at the bedside. In this study, we validate a new method to identify and quantify microcirculatory leukocytes observed by handheld vital microscopy (HVM) using space-time diagram (STD) analysis. Video clips ( n = 59) containing one capillary-postcapillary venule unit where leukocytes could be observed emanating from a capillary into a venule in cardiac surgery patients ( n = 20) were included. STD analysis and manual counting were used to quantify the number of leukocytes (total, rolling, and nonrolling). Pearson's correlation and Bland-Altman analysis were used to determine agreement between the STDs and manual counting. For reproducibility, intra- and interobserver coefficients of variation (CVs) were assessed. Leukocyte (rolling and nonrolling) and red blood cell velocities were assessed. The STDs and manual counting procedures for the quantification of rolling leukocytes showed good agreement ( r = 0.8197, P < 0.0001), with a Bland-Altman analysis mean difference of -0.0 (-6.56; 6.56). The overall intraobserver CV for the STD method was 1.5%. The overall interobserver CVs for the STD and the manual method were 5.6% and 9.4%, respectively. The nonrolling velocity was significantly higher than the rolling velocity (812 ± 519 µm/s vs. 201 ± 149 µm/s, P = 0.001). STD results agreed with the manual counting procedure results, had a better reproducibility, and could assess the leukocyte velocity. STD analysis using bedside HVM imaging presented a new methodology for quantifying leukocyte kinetics and functions in the microcirculation. NEW & NOTEWORTHY In this study, we introduce space-time diagram analysis of sublingual microcirculation imaging using handheld vital microscopy to identify and quantify the presence and kinetics of human microcirculatory leukocytes. We validated the methodology by choosing anatomical units consisting of a capillary connected to a venule, which allowed precise identification of leukocytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00962.2017DOI Listing
June 2018

Divergent Effects of Hypertonic Fluid Resuscitation on Renal Pathophysiological and Structural Parameters in Rat Model of Lower Body Ischemia/Reperfusion-Induced Sterile Inflammation.

Shock 2018 12;50(6):655-663

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

The pathogenesis of acute kidney injury (AKI) is characterized by the deterioration of tissue perfusion and oxygenation and enhanced inflammation. The purpose of this study was to investigate whether or not the hemodynamic and inflammatory effects of hypertonic saline (HS) protect the kidney by promoting renal microcirculatory oxygenation and possible deleterious effects of HS due to its high sodium content on renal functional and structural injury following ischemia/reperfusion. Mechanically ventilated and anesthetized rats were randomly divided into four groups (n = 6 per group): a sham-operated control group; a group subjected to renal ischemia for 45 min by supra-aortic occlusion followed by 2 h of reperfusion (I/R); and I/R group treated with a continuous i.v. infusion (5 mL/kg/h) of either % 0.9 NaCl (IR+NS) or %10 NaCl (I/R+HS) after releasing the clamp. Systemic and renal hemodynamic, renal cortical (CμPO2), and medullar microcirculatory pO2 (MμPO2) are measured by the oxygen-dependent quenching of the phosphorescence lifetime technique. Renal functional, inflammatory, and tissues damage parameters were also assessed. HS, but not NS, treatment restored I/R-induced reduced mean arterial pressure, CμPO2, renal oxygen deliver (DO2ren), and consumption (VO2ren). HS caused a decrease in tubular sodium reabsorption (TNa) that correlated with an elevation of fractional sodium excretion (EFNa) and urine output. HS had an anti-inflammatory effect by reducing the levels TNF-α, IL-6, and hyaluronic acid in the renal tissue samples as compared with the I/R and I/R+NS groups (P < 0.05). HS treatment was also associated with mild acidosis and an increased renal tubular damage. Despite HS resuscitation improving the systemic hemodynamics, microcirculatory oxygenation, and renal oxygen consumption as well as inflammation, it should be limited or strictly controlled for long-term use because of provoking widespread renal structural damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000001096DOI Listing
December 2018

The macro- and microcirculation of the kidney.

Best Pract Res Clin Anaesthesiol 2017 Sep 2;31(3):315-329. Epub 2017 Nov 2.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Centre, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Centre, Rotterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Acute kidney injury (AKI) remains one of the main causes of morbidity and mortality in the intensive care medicine today. Its pathophysiology and progress to chronic kidney disease is still under investigation. In addition, the lack of techniques to adequately monitor renal function and microcirculation at the bedside makes its therapeutic resolution challenging. In this article, we review current concepts related to renal hemodynamics compromise as being the event underlying AKI. In doing so, we discuss the physiology of the renal circulation and the effects of alterations in systemic hemodynamics that lead to renal injury specifically in the context of reperfusion injury and sepsis. The ultimate key culprit of AKI leading to failure is the dysfunction of the renal microcirculation. The cellular and subcellular components of the renal microcirculation are discussed and how their injury contributes to AKI is described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpa.2017.10.002DOI Listing
September 2017

Assessment of endothelial cell function and physiological microcirculatory reserve by video microscopy using a topical acetylcholine and nitroglycerin challenge.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2017 Dec 18;5(1):26. Epub 2017 May 18.

Medical Intensive Care Unit, University Hospital of Zurich, Rämistrasse 100, 8091, Zurich, Switzerland.

Background: Assessment of the microcirculation is a promising target for the hemodynamic management of critically ill patients. However, just as the sole reliance on macrocirculatory parameters, single static parameters of the microcirculation may not represent a sufficient guide. Our hypothesis was that by serial topical application of acetylcholine (ACH) and nitroglycerin (NG), the sublingual microcirculation can be challenged to determine its endothelial cell-dependent and smooth muscle-dependent physiological reserve capacity.

Methods: In 41 healthy subjects, sublingual capillary microscopy was performed before and after topical application of ACH and NG. Total vessel density (TVD) was assessed in parallel using manual computer-assisted image analysis as well as a fully automated analysis pathway utilizing a newly developed computer algorithm. Flow velocity was assessed using space-time diagrams of the venules as well as the algorithm-based calculation of an average perfused speed indicator (APSI).

Results: No change in all measured parameters was detected after sublingual topical application of ACH. Sublingual topical application of NG however led to an increase in TVD, space-time diagram-derived venular flow velocity and APSI. No difference was detected in heart rate, blood pressure, and cardiac output as measured by echocardiography, as well as in plasma nitric oxide metabolite content before and after the topical application of ACH and NG.

Conclusions: In healthy subjects, the sublingual microcirculatory physiological reserve can be assessed non-invasively by topical application of nitroglycerin without affecting systemic circulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-017-0139-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5436993PMC
December 2017

Microbubble Composition and Preparation for High-Frequency Contrast-Enhanced Ultrasound Imaging: In Vitro and In Vivo Evaluation.

IEEE Trans Ultrason Ferroelectr Freq Control 2017 03 15;64(3):555-567. Epub 2016 Dec 15.

Although high-frequency ultrasound imaging is gaining attention in various applications, hardly any ultrasound contrast agents (UCAs) dedicated to such frequencies (>15 MHz) are available for contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) imaging. Moreover, the composition of the limited commercially available UCAs for high-frequency CEUS (hfCEUS) is largely unknown, while shell properties have been shown to be an important factor for their performance. The aim of our study was to produce UCAs in-house for hfCEUS. Twelve different UCA formulations A-L were made by either sonication or mechanical agitation. The gas core consisted of CF and the main coating lipid was either 1,2-distearoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DSPC; A-F formulation) or 1,2-dipalmitoyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine (DPPC; G-L formulation). Mechanical agitation resulted in UCAs with smaller microbubbles (number weighted mean diameter ~1 [Formula: see text]) than sonication (number weighted mean diameter ~2 [Formula: see text]). UCA formulations with similar size distributions but different main lipid components showed that the DPPC-based UCA formulations had higher nonlinear responses at both the fundamental and subharmonic frequencies in vitro for hfCEUS using the Vevo2100 high-frequency preclinical scanner (FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Inc.). In addition, UCA formulations F (DSPC-based) and L (DPPC-based) that were made by mechanical agitation performed similar in vitro to the commercially available Target-Ready MicroMarker (FUJIFILM VisualSonics, Inc.). UCA formulation F also performed similar to Target-Ready MicroMarker in vivo in pigs with similar mean contrast intensity within the kidney ( n = 7 ), but formulation L did not. This is likely due to the lower stability of formulation L in vivo. Our study shows that DSPC-based microbubbles produced by mechanical agitation resulted in small microbubbles with high nonlinear responses suitable for hfCEUS imaging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1109/TUFFC.2016.2640342DOI Listing
March 2017

Blood transfusion improves renal oxygenation and renal function in sepsis-induced acute kidney injury in rats.

Crit Care 2016 Dec 20;20(1):406. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Intensive Care, Erasmus MC, University of Medical Center, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: The effects of blood transfusion on renal microcirculation during sepsis are unknown. This study aimed to investigate the effect of blood transfusion on renal microvascular oxygenation and renal function during sepsis-induced acute kidney injury.

Methods: Twenty-seven Wistar albino rats were randomized into four groups: a sham group (n = 6), a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group (n = 7), a LPS group that received fluid resuscitation (n = 7), and a LPS group that received blood transfusion (n = 7). The mean arterial blood pressure, renal blood flow, and renal microvascular oxygenation within the kidney cortex were recorded. Acute kidney injury was assessed using the serum creatinine levels, metabolic cost, and histopathological lesions. Nitrosative stress (expression of endothelial (eNOS) and inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS)) within the kidney was assessed by immunohistochemistry. Hemoglobin levels, pH, serum lactate levels, and liver enzymes were measured.

Results: Fluid resuscitation and blood transfusion both significantly improved the mean arterial pressure and renal blood flow after LPS infusion. Renal microvascular oxygenation, serum creatinine levels, and tubular damage significantly improved in the LPS group that received blood transfusion compared to the group that received fluids. Moreover, the renal expression of eNOS was markedly suppressed under endotoxin challenge. Blood transfusion, but not fluid resuscitation, was able to restore the renal expression of eNOS. However, there were no significant differences in lactic acidosis or liver function between the two groups.

Conclusions: Blood transfusion significantly improved renal function in endotoxemic rats. The specific beneficial effect of blood transfusion on the kidney could have been mediated in part by the improvements in renal microvascular oxygenation and sepsis-induced endothelial dysfunction via the restoration of eNOS expression within the kidney.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13054-016-1581-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5168817PMC
December 2016

A LED-based phosphorimeter for measurement of microcirculatory oxygen pressure.

J Appl Physiol (1985) 2017 Feb 8;122(2):307-316. Epub 2016 Dec 8.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Quantitative measurements of microcirculatory and tissue oxygenation are of prime importance in experimental research. The noninvasive phosphorescence quenching method has given further insight into the fundamental mechanisms of oxygen transport to healthy tissues and in models of disease. Phosphorimeters are devices dedicated to the study of phosphorescence quenching. The experimental applications of phosphorimeters range from measuring a specific oxygen partial pressure (Po) in cellular organelles such as mitochondria, finding values of Po distributed over an organ or capillaries, to measuring microcirculatory Po changes simultaneously in several organ systems. Most of the current phosphorimeters use flash lamps as a light excitation source. However, a major drawback of flash lamps is their inherent plasma glow that persists for tens of microseconds after the primary discharge. This complex distributed excitation pattern generated by the flash lamp can lead to inaccurate Po readings unless a deconvolution analysis is performed. Using light-emitting diode (LED), a rectangular shaped light pulse can be generated that provides a more uniformly distributed excitation signal. This study presents the design and calibration process of an LED-based phosphorimeter (LED-P). The in vitro calibration of the LED-P using palladium(II)-meso-tetra(4-carboxyphenyl)-porphyrin (Pd-TCCP) as a phosphorescent dye is presented. The pH and temperature were altered to assess whether the decay times of the Pd-TCCP measured by the LED-P were significantly influenced. An in vivo validation experiment was undertaken to measure renal cortical Po in a rat subjected to hypoxic ventilation conditions and ischemia/reperfusion. The benefits of using LEDs as a light excitation source are presented.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/japplphysiol.00316.2016DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of a human recombinant alkaline phosphatase on renal hemodynamics, oxygenation and inflammation in two models of acute kidney injury.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2016 Dec 17;313:88-96. Epub 2016 Oct 17.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Two small clinical trials indicated that administration of bovine intestinal alkaline phosphatase (AP) improves renal function in critically ill patients with sepsis-associated acute kidney injury (AKI), for which the mechanism of action is not completely understood. Here, we investigated the effects of a newly developed human recombinant AP (recAP) on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics and prevention of kidney damage and inflammation in two in vivo AKI models. To induce AKI, male Wistar rats (n=18) were subjected to renal ischemia (30min) and reperfusion (I/R), or sham-operated. In a second model, rats (n=18) received a 30min infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS; 2.5mg/kg), or saline, and fluid resuscitation. In both models, recAP (1000U/kg) was administered intravenously (15min before reperfusion, or 90min after LPS). Following recAP treatment, I/R-induced changes in renal blood flow, renal vascular resistance and oxygen delivery at early, and cortical microvascular oxygen tension at late reperfusion were no longer significantly affected. RecAP did not influence I/R-induced effects on mean arterial pressure. During endotoxemia, recAP treatment did not modulate the LPS-induced changes in systemic hemodynamics and renal oxygenation. In both models, recAP did exert a clear renal protective anti-inflammatory effect, demonstrated by attenuated immunostaining of inflammatory, tubular injury and pro-apoptosis markers. Whether this renal protective effect is sufficient to improve outcome of patients suffering from sepsis-associated AKI is being investigated in a large clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2016.10.015DOI Listing
December 2016

Mycophenolate mofetil improves renal haemodynamics, microvascular oxygenation, and inflammation in a rat model of supra-renal aortic clamping-mediated renal ischaemia reperfusion injury.

Clin Exp Pharmacol Physiol 2017 02;44(2):294-304

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Ischaemia/reperfusion (I/R) is one of the main causes of acute kidney injury (AKI), which is characterized by sterile inflammation and oxidative stress. Immune cell activation can provoke overproduction of inflammatory mediators and reactive oxygen species (ROS), leading to perturbation of the microcirculation and tissue oxygenation associated with local and remote tissue injury. This study investigated whether the clinically employed immunosuppressant mycophenolate mofetil (MMF) was able to reduce I/R-induced renal oxygenation defects and oxidative stress by preventing sterile inflammation. Rats were divided into three groups (n=6/group): (1) a sham-operated control group; (2) a group subjected to renal I/R alone (I/R); and (3) a group subjected to I/R and MMF treatment (20 mg/kg prior to I/R) (I/R+MMF). Ischaemia was induced by a vascular occluder placed on the abdominal aorta for 30 minutes, followed by 120 minutes of reperfusion. Renal I/R deteriorated renal oxygenation (P<.001) and oxygen delivery (P<.01), reduced creatinine clearance (P<.01) and tubular sodium reabsorption (P<.001), and increased iNOS, renal tissue injury markers (P<.001), and IL-6 (P<.001). Oral MMF administration prior to insult restored renal cortical oxygenation (P<.05) and iNOS, renal injury markers, and inflammation parameters (P<.001) to near-baseline levels without affecting renal function. MMF exerted a prophylactic effect on renal microvascular oxygenation and abrogated tissue inflammation and renal injury following lower body I/R-induced AKI. These findings may have clinical implications during major vascular or renal transplant surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/1440-1681.12687DOI Listing
February 2017

Effects of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) supplementation in resuscitation fluids on renal microcirculatory oxygenation, inflammation, and function in a rat model of endotoxemia.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2016 Dec 26;4(1):29. Epub 2016 Sep 26.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Modulation of inflammation and oxidative stress appears to limit sepsis-induced damage in experimental models. The kidney is one of the most sensitive organs to injury during septic shock. In this study, we evaluated the effect of N-acetylcysteine (NAC) administration in conjunction with fluid resuscitation on renal oxygenation and function. We hypothesized that reducing inflammation would improve the microcirculatory oxygenation in the kidney and limit the onset of acute kidney injury (AKI).

Methods: Rats were randomized into five groups (n = 8 per group): (1) control group, (2) control + NAC, (3) endotoxemic shock with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) without fluids, (4) LPS + fluid resuscitation, and (5) LPS + fluid resuscitation + NAC (150 mg/kg/h). Fluid resuscitation was initiated at 120 min and maintained at fixed volume for 2 h with hydroxyethyl starch (HES 130/0.4) dissolved in acetate-balanced Ringer's solution (Volulyte) with or without supplementation with NAC (150 mg/kg/h). Oxygen tension in the renal cortex (CμPO2), outer medulla (MμPO2), and renal vein was measured using phosphorimetry. Biomarkers of renal injury, inflammation, and oxidative stress were assessed in kidney tissues.

Results: Fluid resuscitation significantly improved the systemic and renal macrohemodynamic parameters after LPS. However, the addition of NAC further improved cortical renal oxygenation, oxygen delivery, and oxygen consumption (p < 0.05). NAC supplementation dampened the accumulation of NGAL or L-FABP, hyaluronic acid, and nitric oxide in kidney tissue (p < 0.01).

Conclusion: The addition of NAC to fluid resuscitation may improve renal oxygenation and attenuate microvascular dysfunction and AKI. Decreases in renal NO and hyaluronic acid levels may be involved in this beneficial effect. A therapeutic strategy combining initial fluid resuscitation with antioxidant therapies may prevent sepsis-induced AKI.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5037099PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-016-0106-1DOI Listing
December 2016

Fully Balanced Fluids do not Improve Microvascular Oxygenation, Acidosis and Renal Function in a Rat Model of Endotoxemia.

Shock 2016 07;46(1):83-91

*Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, Amsterdam, The Netherlands †Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, University of Istanbul, Istanbul, Turkey ‡Fresenius Kabi Deutschland GmbH, Bad Homburg §Department of Anesthesiology, Pain Medicine and Intensive Care, University Hospital of Muenster, Muenster, Germany ||Department of Intensive Care Medicine, Erasmus MC, University Medical Center Rotterdam, Rotterdam, The Netherlands.

The expectation of fluid therapy in patients with septic shock is that it corrects hypovolemia, with the aim of restoring tissue perfusion and oxygenation and organ function. This study investigated whether different types of resuscitation fluids were effective in improving renal microcirculatory oxygenation, acidosis, oxidative stress, and renal function in a rat model of endotoxemic shock. Five groups of rats were used: a sham group, a lipopolysaccharide (LPS) group, and three LPS groups that received 30 mL/kg/h of 0.9% sodium chloride (0.9% NaCl), a new bicarbonate buffered crystalloid solution closely resembling the composition of plasma (FB-Cxt) or a hydroxyethyl starch-ringer acetate solution. Systemic hemodynamic variables, renal blood flow, microvascular oxygenation, oxidative/nitrosative stress, and renal function were measured. LPS-induced shock was only partially resolved by fluid administration. Animals became arterially hypotensive despite adequate central venous pressure. Hydroxyethyl starch-ringer acetate was more effective at improving arterial pressures and renal blood flow than 0.9% NaCl or FB-Cxt. Fluids had marginal effects on pH and HCO3 levels irrespective of the buffer, or on renal μPO2 and dysfunction. Colloids increased the markers of renal oxidative stress (P < 0.001), whereas unbalanced crystalloids increased the markers of nitrosative stress during sepsis (P < 0.01). Endotoxemia-induced acidosis and decreases in renal μPO2 or renal injury were not corrected solely by fluid resuscitation, irrespective of the buffer of the fluid. Our study supported the idea that fluids must be supplemented by other compounds that specifically correct renal inflammation and oxygenation to be effective in resolving septic shock-induced renal failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SHK.0000000000000573DOI Listing
July 2016

TEMPOL has limited protective effects on renal oxygenation and hemodynamics but reduces kidney damage and inflammation in a rat model of renal ischemia/reperfusion by aortic clamping.

J Clin Transl Res 2015 Sep 30;1(2):1-13. Epub 2015 Sep 30.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Background: Renal ischemia-reperfusion (I/R) is a common clinical complication in critically ill patients that is associated with considerable morbidity and mortality. Renal I/R is a major cause of acute kidney injury (AKI) resulting from I/R-induced oxidative stress, sterile inflammation, and microcirculatory perfusion defects, which can be ameliorated with the superoxide scavenger TEMPOL. The most common cause of AKI in the clinical setting is aortic surgery with suprarenal aortic clamping. The protective effect of TEMPOL in aortic clamping-induced renal I/R has not been studied before.

Aim: To evaluate the protective effects of TEMPOL on oxidative stress, inflammation, tissue injury, and renal hemodynamics and oxygenation in a clinically representative rat model of I/R using aortic cross-clamping.

Methods: Animals (N = 24) were either sham-operated or subjected to ischemia (30 min) and 90-min reperfusion, with or without TEMPOL treatment (15 min before ischemia and during entire reperfusion phase, 200 μmol/kg/h). Systemic and renal hemodynamics, renal oxygenation, and blood gas values were determined at 15 min and 90 min of reperfusion. At 90-min reperfusion, iNOS, inflammation (IL-6, MPO), oxidative stress (MDA), and tissue damage (NGAL, L-FABP) were determined in tissue biopsies.

Results: TEMPOL administration at a cumulative dose of 400 μmol/kg conferred a protective effect on AKI in terms of reducing renal damage, inflammation, and iNOS activation. With respect to renal hemodynamics and oxygenation, TEMPOL only reduced renal vascular resistance to near-baseline levels at both reperfusion time points and partially ameliorated the I/R-induced drop microvascular partial tension of oxygen at 90 min reperfusion. Also, TEMPOL alleviated the I/R-induced metabolic acidosis. However, TEMPOL exerted no restorative effect in terms of the severely reduced mean arterial pressure, renal blood flow, and renal oxygen delivery and consumption. The renal oxygen extraction ratio remained unchanged during the 90-min reperfusion phase. Kidneys in all groups were anuric throughout the experiment.

Conclusions: This clinically representative renal I/R model, which entails both renal I/R and hind limb I/R as opposed to the standardly used renal I/R model that employs renal artery clamping, resulted in relatively moderate AKI. The damage was exacerbated by the perturbed systemic hemodynamics and metabolic acidosis as a result of the hind limb I/R. TEMPOL partially intervened in the factors that led to AKI as well as renal microvascular partial tension of oxygen and metabolic acidosis. However, more effective interventions should be devised for the mean arterial pressure drop (i.e., anuria) associated with aortic clamping and for restoring other critical renal hemodynamic and oxygenation parameters in order to improve post-I/R renal function.

Relevance For Patients: TEMPOL is a promising compound that has been shown to protect kidneys from I/R damage, which is relevant in kidney transplantation, pancreas transplantation, and aortic aneurysm repair in kidney transplant patients. This study suggests that intervening with TEMPOL is not sufficient to ensure optimal clinical outcome in patients that have undergone aortic clamping and that more effective interventions should be investigated.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6410622PMC
September 2015

Scavenging reactive oxygen species using tempol in the acute phase of renal ischemia/reperfusion and its effects on kidney oxygenation and nitric oxide levels.

Intensive Care Med Exp 2015 Dec 4;3(1):57. Epub 2015 Jul 4.

Department of Translational Physiology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, 1105 AZ, Amsterdam, The Netherlands,

Background: Renal ischemia/reperfusion (I/R) injury is commonly seen in kidney transplantation and affects the allograft survival rates. We aimed to test our hypothesis that scavenging reactive oxygen species (ROS) with tempol would protect renal oxygenation and nitric oxide (NO) levels in the acute phase of renal I/R.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided: (1) no I/R, no tempol; (2) no I/R, but with tempol; (3) I/R without tempol; and (4) I/R with tempol. I/R was induced by 30-min clamping of the renal artery. Tempol (200 μmol/kg/h/i.v) was administered 15 min prior to I/R.

Results: I/R without tempol led to a significant decrease in renal oxygen delivery and microvascular oxygenation. Tempol, however, protected renal oxygenation after I/R. At R90, the creatinine clearance rate was lower in the I/R-subjected group that did not receive tempol compared to that in the other groups. I/R injury without tempol treatment led to a significant increase in tissue malondialdehyde levels and a significant decrease in tissue NO levels. Tempol administration before I/R could prevent oxidative stress and altered tissue NO levels.

Conclusions: This underscores that unbalance between oxygen, NO, and ROS forms an important component of the pathogenesis of I/R-induced AKI and should therefore be taken into account when designing a prevention/treatment strategy for renal I/R injury in transplantation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40635-015-0057-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4491093PMC
December 2015

Barnidipine ameliorates the vascular and renal injury in L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats.

Eur J Pharmacol 2015 Oct 14;764:433-442. Epub 2015 Jul 14.

Istanbul University, Faculty of Pharmacy, Department of Pharmacology, 34116 Beyazıt, Istanbul, Turkey.

The present study was aimed to investigate the influence of Barnidipine treatment on early stage hypertension by determining the function and morphology of the mesenteric and renal arteries as well as the kidney in N(ω)-Nitro-L-Arginine Methyl Ester (L-NAME)-induced hypertensive rats. Barnidipine (3 mg/kg/day p.o) was applied to rats after 2 weeks of L-NAME (60 mg/kg/day) administration, and continued for the next 3 weeks concomitantly with L-NAME. The systolic blood pressure (SBP) of rats was determined to decrease significantly in Barnidipine treated hypertensive group when compared to that of rats received L-NAME alone. Myograph studies demonstrated that the contractile reactivity to noradrenaline were significantly reduced in both of the resistance arteries while endothelium-dependent relaxations to acethylcholine were significantly diminished particularly in the mesenteric arteries of L-NAME-induced hypertensive rats. The impaired contractile and endothelial responses were completely restored by concomitant treatment of Barnidipine with L-NAME. Histopathological examinations verified structural alterations in the arteries as well as the kidney. Moreover, a decrease in endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS) expression was presented both in the arteries and kidney of hypertensive rats which were increased following Barnidipine treatment. Elevated plasma levels of malondialdehyde (MDA) and myeloperoxidase (MPO) were also reduced in Barnidipine treated hypertensive rats. In conclusion, besides to its efficacy in reducing the elevated SBP, amelioration of vascular function, modulation of arterial and renal eNOS expressions as well as reduction of the plasma levels of oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers are possible supportive mechanisms mediating the favorable implications of Barnidipine in L-NAME-induced hypertension model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejphar.2015.07.033DOI Listing
October 2015