Publications by authors named "Brynjolfur Y Jonsson"

10 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

[Review of epidemiology of fractures in the Icelandic Heart Association cohort].

Laeknabladid 2017 Oktober;103(10):423-428

IIn recent years, scientific papers have been published in Osteoporosis International on the epidemiology of fractures in Iceland based on the Icelandic Heart Association cohort. We report the main results with emphasis on the major osteoporotic fractures (MOF), distal forearm, upper arm, clinical vertebral and hip. Those four types of fractures have been reported to cause about 90% of the total burden of all osteoporotic fractures. The incidence of those four fractures in the Icelandic Heart Association cohort have been used as the basis for the international fracture risk calculator "FRAX "in Iceland. "FRAX" assesses the risk of those fractures for the next 10 years in both sexes in the age group 40-90 years. FRAX Iceland was opened on the internet in the year 2013. We emphasize the importance of previous fracture history as almost 40% of all major osteoporotic fractures occur after first MOF according to our cohort. The results demonstrate the importance of time from the first fracture as the risk of the second fracture is greater in the first two years although increased risk remains during the next 20 years. This indicates the importance of secondary prevention early after the first fracture especially amongst elderly people. These results give a good overall view about the epidemiology of fractures in Iceland in comparison with foreign studies and shows that age standardized incidence of the most important osteoporotic fracture, the hip fracture, reached a maximum around the millennium but has decreased among women until 2008 similar to what has been observed in Sweden and Denmark.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.17992/lbl.2017.10.154DOI Listing
July 2019

Fracture risk assessment in older adults using a combination of selected quantitative computed tomography bone measures: a subanalysis of the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study.

J Clin Densitom 2014 Jan-Mar;17(1):25-31. Epub 2013 Apr 2.

LEDB, National Institute on Aging, Bethesda, MD, USA.

Bone mineral density (BMD) and geometric bone measures are individually associated with prevalent osteoporotic fractures. Whether an aggregate of these measures would better associate with fractures has not been examined. We examined relationships between self-reported fractures and selected bone measures acquired by quantitative computerized tomography (QCT), a composite bone score, and QCT-acquired dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry-like total femur BMD in 2110 men and 2682 women in the Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility-Reykjavik Study. The combined bone score was generated by summing gender-specific Z-scores for 4 QCT measures: vertebral trabecular BMD, femur neck cortical thickness, femur neck trabecular BMD, and femur neck minimal cross-sectional area. Except for the latter measure, lower scores for QCT measures, singly and combined, showed positive (p < 0.05) associations with fractures. Results remained the same in stratified models for participants not taking bone-promoting medication. In women on bone-promoting medication, greater femur neck cortical thickness and trabecular BMD were significantly associated with fracture status. However, the association between fracture and combined bone score was not stronger than the associations between fracture and individual measures or total femur BMD. Thus, the selected measures did not all similarly associate with fracture status and did not appear to have an additive effect on fracture status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jocd.2013.03.005DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948945PMC
April 2014

Mid-thigh cortical bone structural parameters, muscle mass and strength, and association with lower limb fractures in older men and women (AGES-Reykjavik Study).

Calcif Tissue Int 2012 May 27;90(5):354-64. Epub 2012 Mar 27.

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

In a cross-sectional study we investigated the relationship between muscle and bone parameters in the mid-thigh in older people using data from a single axial computed tomographic section through the mid-thigh. Additionally, we studied the association of these variables with incident low-trauma lower limb fractures. A total of 3,762 older individuals (1,838 men and 1,924 women), aged 66-96 years, participants in the AGES-Reykjavik study, were studied. The total cross-sectional muscular area and knee extensor strength declined with age similarly in both sexes. Muscle parameters correlated most strongly with cortical area and total shaft area (adjusted for age, height, and weight) but explained <10 % of variability in those bone parameters. The increment in medullary area (MA) and buckling ratio (BR) with age was almost fourfold greater in women than men. The association between MA and muscle parameters was nonsignificant. During a median follow-up of 5.3 years, 113 women and 66 men sustained incident lower limb fractures. Small muscular area, low knee extensor strength, large MA, low cortical thickness, and high BR were significantly associated with fractures in both sexes. Our results show that bone and muscle loss proceed at different rates and with different gender patterns.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00223-012-9585-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5111551PMC
May 2012

Effect of vertebral fractures on function, quality of life and hospitalisation the AGES-Reykjavik study.

Age Ageing 2012 May 23;41(3):351-7. Epub 2012 Feb 23.

Icelandic Heart Association Research Institute, Kopavogur, Iceland.

Background: understanding the determinants of health burden after a fracture in ageing populations is important.

Objective: assess the effect of clinical vertebral and other osteoporotic fractures on function and the subsequent risk of hospitalisation.

Design: individuals from the prospective population-based cohort study Age, Gene/Environment Susceptibility (AGES)-Reykjavik study were examined between 2002 and 2006 and followed up for 5.4 years.

Subjects: a total of 5,764 individuals, 57.7% women, born 1907-35, mean age 77.

Method: four groups with a verified fracture status were used; vertebral fractures, other osteoporotic fractures excluding vertebral, non-osteoporotic fractures and not-fractured were compared and analysed for the effect on mobility, strength, QoL, ADL, co-morbidity and hospitalisation.

Results: worst performance on functional tests was in the vertebral fracture group for women (P < 0.0001) and the other osteoporotic fractures group for men (P < 0.05). Both vertebral and other osteoporotic fractures, showed an increased risk of hospitalisation, HR = 1.4 (95% CI: 1.3-1.7) and 1.2 (95% CI: 1.1-1.2) respectively (P < 0.0001). Individuals with vertebral fractures had 50% (P < 0.0001) longer hospitalisation than not-fractured and 33% (P < 0.002) longer than the other osteoporotic fractures group.

Conclusion: individuals with a history of clinical vertebral fracture seem to carry the greatest health burden compared with other fracture groups, emphasising the attention which should be given to those individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/ageing/afs003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3335370PMC
May 2012

Distribution of cortical bone in the femoral neck and hip fracture: a prospective case-control analysis of 143 incident hip fractures; the AGES-REYKJAVIK Study.

Bone 2011 Jun 5;48(6):1268-76. Epub 2011 Apr 5.

University of Iceland, Reykjavik, Iceland.

In this prospective nested case-control study we analyzed the circumferential differences in estimated cortical thickness (Est CTh) of the mid femoral neck as a risk factor for osteoporotic hip fractures in elderly women and men. Segmental QCT analysis of the mid femoral neck was applied to assess cortical thickness in anatomical quadrants. The superior region of the femoral neck was a stronger predictor for hip fracture than the inferior region, particularly in men. There were significant gender differences in Est CTh measurements in the control group but not in the case group. In multivariable analysis for risk of femoral neck (FN) fracture, Est CTh in the supero-anterior (SA) quadrant was significant in both women and men, and remained a significant predictor after adjustment for FN areal BMD (aBMD, dimensions g/cm², DXA-like), (p=0.05 and p<0.0001, respectively). In conclusion, Est CTh in the SA quadrant best discriminated cases (n=143) from controls (n=298), especially in men. Cortical thinning superiorly in the hip might be of importance in determining resistance to fracture.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bone.2011.03.776DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3129599PMC
June 2011

Early discharge and home intervention reduces unit costs after total hip replacement: results of a cost analysis in a randomized study.

Int J Health Care Finance Econ 2008 Sep 21;8(3):181-92. Epub 2008 Jun 21.

Faculty of Economics and Business Administration, University of Iceland, Gimli v/Saemundargotu, 101 Reykjavik, Iceland.

Total hip replacement (THR) is a common and costly procedure. The number of THR is expected to increase over the coming years. Two pathways of postoperative treatment were compared in a randomized study. Fifty patients from two hospitals were randomized into a study group (SG) of 27 patients receiving preoperative and postoperative education programs, as well as home visits from an outpatient team. A control group (CG) of 23 patients received "conventional" rehabilitation augmented by a stay at a rehabilitation center if needed. All costs for the two groups both in hospitals and after discharge were collected and analyzed. On average total costs for the SG were $8,550 and $11,952 for the CG, a 28% cost reduction. Total inpatient costs were $5,225 for the SG and $6,515 for the CG. In a regression analysis the group difference is statistically significant. Adjusting for changes in the Oxford Hip Score gives effective costs (C/E). The ratio of the SGs C/E to the CGs is 0.60. That is a cost-effectiveness gain of 40%. A shorter hospital stay augmented with better preoperative education and home treatment appears to be more effective and costs less than the traditional in hospital pathway of treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10754-008-9036-0DOI Listing
September 2008

Inaccuracy in self-report of fractures may underestimate association with health outcomes when compared with medical record based fracture registry.

Eur J Epidemiol 2007 25;22(9):631-9. Epub 2007 Jul 25.

Icelandic Heart Association, Holtasmari 1, 201, Kopavogur, Iceland.

Introduction And Objective: Misreporting fractures in questionnaires is known. However, the effect of misreporting on the association of fractures with subsequent health outcomes has not been examined.

Methods: Data from a fracture registry (FR) developed from an extensive review of radiographic and medical records were related to self-report of fracture for 2,255 participants from the AGES Reykjavik Study. This data was used to determine false negative and false positive rates of self-reported fractures, correlates of misreporting, and the potential effect of the misreporting on estimates of health outcomes following fractures.

Results: In women, the false positive rate decreased with age as the false negative rate increased with no clear trend with age in men. Kappa values for agreement between FR and self-report were generally higher in women than men with the best agreement for forearm fracture (men 0.64 and women 0.82) and the least for rib (men 0.28 and women 0.25). Impaired cognition was a major factor associated with discordant answers between FR and self-report, OR 1.7 (95% CI: 1.3-2.1) (P < 0.0001). We estimated the effect of misreporting on health after fracture by comparison of the association of the self-report of fracture and fracture from the FR, adjusting for those factors associated with discordance. The weighted attenuation factor measured by mobility and muscle strength was 11% (95% CI: 0-24%) when adjusted for age and sex but reduced to 6% (95% CI: -10-22%) when adjusted for cognitive impairment.

Conclusion: Studies of hip fractures should include an independent ascertainment of fracture but for other fractures this study supports the use of self-report.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10654-007-9163-9DOI Listing
January 2008

Short hospital stay augmented with education and home-based rehabilitation improves function and quality of life after hip replacement: randomized study of 50 patients with 6 months of follow-up.

Acta Orthop 2005 Aug;76(4):555-62

Icelandic Heart Association.

Background: Because of current cost restrictions, we studied the effect of a shorter hospital stay on function, pain and quality of life (QOL) after total hip replacement (THR).

Patients And Methods: 50 patients from two hospitals were randomized into a study group (SG) of 27 patients receiving preoperative and postoperative education programs, as well as home visits from an outpatient team, and a control group (CG) of 23 patients receiving "conventional" rehabilitation often augmented by a stay at a rehabilitation center.

Results: Mean hospital stay was shorter for the SG than for the CG (6.4 days and 10 days, respectively; p < 0.001). During the 6-month study period, there were 9 non-fatal complications in the SG and 12 in the CG (p = 0.3). The difference in Oxford Hip Score between the groups was not statistically significant before the operation, but was better for the SG at 2 months (p = 0.03) and this difference remained more or less constant throughout the study. The overall score from the Nottingham Health Profile indicated a better QOL in the SG.

Interpretation: Our preoperative education program, followed by postoperative home-based rehabilitation, appears to be safer and more effective in improving function and QOL after THR than conventional treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17453670510041565DOI Listing
August 2005

Fracture rate in a population-based sample of men in Reykjavik.

Acta Orthop Scand 2004 Apr;75(2):195-200

Department of Orthopedics, University Hospital, Malmö, Sweden.

The population-based Reykjavik Heart Study, started in 1967, aims at finding and evaluating risk factors for cardiovascular diseases. It included 4,137 men born between 1907 and 1934 and we examined all fractures recorded in these subjects from January 1977 until the end of December 2000, or death. Their mean age at the start of this study was 54 (42-69) years and the mean follow-up time 19 years. We examined the patients' records, including those from the Radiological Departments in all Reykjavik hospitals and the only out-patient accident clinic in Reykjavik. Old fractures and those caused by a malignancy were excluded. The intensity of the trauma was estimated from E-numbers. Altogether 1,531 fractures were recorded in 939 (23%) persons. A low-energy trauma caused 53% of all fractures. 612 had a single fracture during this period. 323 had two or more fractures--a 53% risk of sustaining additional fractures. The fracture incidence increased by 40% in each 10-year period. Fractures of the ribs were commonest (246), followed by those of the hand (241). 135 were hip fractures, 75% caused by low-energy trauma. The fracture rate was 20 per 1000 persons year--i.e., similar to that in other studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00016470412331294455DOI Listing
April 2004

A new approach in vocational rehabilitation in Iceland: preliminary report.

Work 2004 ;22(1):3-8

Janus Rehabilitation, Vörduskóla v/Egilsgötu, Reykjavík, Iceland.

The lack of vocational rehabilitation in Iceland inspired the Janus Rehabilitation initiative in the year 2000. The team currently consists of two occupational therapists, a social worker, a physiotherapist, a psychologist, and a physician. Janus uses resources from local education establishments and is located at the Reykjavík Technical School. A client-centred approach is used, enabling a flexible rehabilitation timeframe. The aim is to help the client back to employment/education. Advantage is taken of the facilities of the school where integration between education and rehabilitation takes place. Forty individuals have been admitted, with a mean time from work of 2.9 years, (range: 0-11 years). Seventeen (43%) have returned to employment/education. Twenty-three of those entering the programme are still on invalidity pension. The Canadian Occupational Performance Measurement (COPM) shows improvement in occupational performance and satisfaction. The Icelandic Quality of Life measurement also shows improvement. The results have been promising. However, a larger group is needed in order to draw clear unequivocal conclusions.
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April 2004