Publications by authors named "Bryn Pitt"

4 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Patient-specific, touch-based registration during robotic, image-guided partial nephrectomy.

World J Urol 2021 Jun 16. Epub 2021 Jun 16.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt Institute for Surgery and Engineering (VISE), Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Image-guidance during partial nephrectomy enables navigation within the operative field alongside a 3-dimensional roadmap of renal anatomy generated from patient-specific imaging. Once a process is performed by the human mind, the technology will allow standardization of the task for the benefit of all patients undergoing robot-assisted partial nephrectomy. Any surgeon will be able to visualize the kidney and key subsurface landmarks in real-time within a 3-dimensional simulation, with the goals of improving operative efficiency, decreasing surgical complications, and improving oncologic outcomes. For similar purposes, image-guidance has already been adopted as a standard of care in other surgical fields; we are now at the brink of this in urology. This review summarizes touch-based approaches to image-guidance during partial nephrectomy, as the technology begins to enter in vivo human evaluation. The processes of segmentation, localization, registration, and re-registration are all described with seamless integration into the da Vinci surgical system; this will facilitate clinical adoption sooner.
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June 2021

Accuracy of Touch-Based Registration During Robotic Image-Guided Partial Nephrectomy Before and After Tumor Resection in Validated Phantoms.

J Endourol 2021 03 11;35(3):362-368. Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Department of Urology, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Image-guided surgery (IGS) allows for accurate, real-time localization of subsurface critical structures during surgery. No prior IGS systems have described a feasible method of intraoperative reregistration after manipulation of the kidney during robotic partial nephrectomy (PN). We present a method for seamless reregistration during IGS and evaluate accuracy before and after tumor resection in two validated kidney phantoms. We performed robotic PN on two validated kidney phantoms-one with an endophytic tumor and one with an exophytic tumor-with our IGS system utilizing the da Vinci Xi robot. Intraoperatively, the kidney phantoms' surfaces were digitized with the da Vinci robotic manipulator via a touch-based method and registered to a three-dimensional segmented model created from cross-sectional CT imaging of the phantoms. Fiducial points were marked with a surgical marking pen and identified after the initial registration using the robotic manipulator. Segmented images were displayed via picture-in-picture in the surgeon console as tumor resection was performed. After resection, reregistration was performed by reidentifying the fiducial points. The accuracy of the initial registration and reregistration was compared. The root mean square (RMS) averages of target registration error (TRE) were 2.53 and 4.88 mm for the endophytic and exophytic phantoms, respectively. IGS enabled resection along preplanned contours. Specifically, the RMS averages of the normal TRE over the entire resection surface were 0.75 and 2.15 mm for the endophytic and exophytic phantoms, respectively. Both tumors were resected with grossly negative margins. Point-based reregistration enabled instantaneous reregistration with minimal impact on RMS TRE compared with the initial registration (from 1.34 to 1.70 mm preresection and from 1.60 to 2.10 mm postresection). We present a novel and accurate registration and reregistration framework for use during IGS for PN with the da Vinci Xi surgical system. The technology is easily integrated into the surgical workflow and does not require additional hardware.
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March 2021

Comparing the accuracy of the da Vinci Xi and da Vinci Si for image guidance and automation.

Int J Med Robot 2020 Dec 1;16(6):1-10. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee, USA.

Background: Current laparoscopic surgical robots are teleoperated, which requires high fidelity differential motions but does not require absolute accuracy. Emerging applications, including image guidance and automation, require absolute accuracy. The absolute accuracy of the da Vinci Xi robot has not yet been characterized or compared to the Si system, which is now being phased out. This study compares the accuracy of the two.

Methods: We measure robot tip positions and encoder values assessing accuracy with and without robot calibration.

Results: The Si is accurate if the setup joints are not moved but loses accuracy otherwise. The Xi is always accurate.

Conclusion: The Xi can achieve submillimetric average error. Calibration improves accuracy, but excellent baseline accuracy of the Xi means that calibration may not be needed for some applications. Importantly, the external tracking systems needed to account for setup joint error in the Si are no longer required with the Xi.
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December 2020

Optimization of Curvilinear Needle Trajectories for Transforamenal Hippocampotomy.

Oper Neurosurg (Hagerstown) 2017 02 25;13(1):15-22. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Vanderbilt University, Nashville, Tennessee.

Background: The recent development of MRI-guided laser-induced thermal therapy (LITT) offers a minimally invasive alternative to craniotomies performed for tumor resection or for amygdalohippocampectomy to control seizure disorders. Current LITT therapies rely on linear stereotactic trajectories that mandate twist-drill entry into the skull and potentially long approaches traversing healthy brain. The use of robotically-driven, telescoping, curved needles has the potential to reduce procedure invasiveness by tailoring trajectories to the curved shape of the ablated structure and by enabling access through natural orifices.

Objective: To investigate the feasibility of using a concentric tube robot to access the hippocampus through the foramen ovale to deliver thermal therapy and thereby provide a percutaneous treatment for epilepsy without drilling the skull.

Methods: The skull and both hippocampi were segmented from dual CT/MR image volumes for 10 patients. For each of the 20 hippocampi, a concentric tube robot was designed and optimized to traverse a trajectory from the foramen ovale to and through the hippocampus from head to tail.

Results: Across all 20 cases, the mean distances (error) between hippocampus medial axis and backbone of the needle were 0.55 mm, 1.11 mm, and 1.66 mm for best, mean, and worst case, respectively.

Conclusion: These curvilinear trajectories would provide accurate transforamenal delivery of an ablation probe to typical hippocampus volumes. This strategy has the potential to both decrease the invasiveness of the procedure and increase the completeness of hippocampal ablation.
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February 2017