Publications by authors named "Bruno Sousa"

93 Publications

Easy Access to Biomedicine and Knowledge about Medicinal Plants: A Case Study in a Semiarid Region of Brazil.

Evid Based Complement Alternat Med 2022 21;2022:5073625. Epub 2022 Jul 21.

Programa de Pós-Graduação Em Botânica, Universidade Federal Rural de Pernambuco, Rua Dom Manuel de Medeiros, S/n-Dois Irmãos, Recife, PE 52171-900, Brazil.

We aimed to evaluate how proximity to urban areas interferes with the relationship between socioeconomic variables and various aspects of medicinal plant knowledge. The study was conducted in six communities of the Catimbau National Park (PARNA Catimbau) in the state of Pernambuco. Eighty participants were interviewed. The communities were divided into two groups according to their distance from the nearest urban center. Socioeconomic data and information on medicinal plants were collected through semistructured interviews. Subsequently, generalized linear models were generated to verify the influence of the interaction between the variables on medicinal knowledge. We observed that proximity to the urban center influenced the relationship between the level of education and the knowledge of body systems treated by medicinal plants. We concluded that environmental variables can generate a differentiated effect on the influence of socioeconomic factors on one's knowledge of medicinal plants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2022/5073625DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9334072PMC
July 2022

An open-source, ready-to-use and validated ripple detector plugin for the Open Ephys GUI.

J Neural Eng 2022 Aug 12;19(4). Epub 2022 Aug 12.

Laboratory of Molecular and Behavioral Neuroscience (LANEC), Federal University of Minas Gerais, Belo Horizonte, Brazil.

. Sharp wave-ripples (SWRs, 100-250 Hz) are oscillatory events extracellularly recorded in the CA1 subfield of the hippocampus during sleep and quiet wakefulness. Many studies employed closed-loop strategies to either detect and abolish SWRs within the hippocampus or manipulate other relevant areas upon ripple detection. However, the code and schematics necessary to replicate the detection system are not always available, which hinders the reproducibility of experiments among different research groups. Furthermore, information about performance is not usually reported. Here, we sought to provide an open-source, validated ripple detector for the scientific community.. We developed and validated a ripple detection plugin integrated into the Open Ephys graphical user's interface. It contains a built-in movement detector based on accelerometer or electromyogram data that prevents false ripple events (due to chewing, grooming, or moving, for instance) from triggering the stimulation/manipulation device.. To determine the accuracy of the detection algorithm, we first carried out simulations in MATLAB with real ripple recordings. Using a specific combination of detection parameters (amplitude threshold of 5 standard deviations above the mean, time threshold of 10 ms, and root mean square block size of 7 samples), we obtained a 97% true positive rate and 2.48 false positives per minute. Next, an Open Ephys plugin based on the same detection algorithm was developed, and a closed-loop system was set up to evaluate the round trip (ripple onset-to-stimulation) latency over synthetic data. The lowest latency obtained was 34.5 ± 0.5 ms. The embedded movement monitoring was effective in reducing false positives and the plugin's flexibility to detect pathological events was also verified.. Besides contributing to increased reproducibility, we anticipate that the developed ripple detector plugin will be helpful for many closed-loop applications in the field of systems neuroscience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1741-2552/ac857bDOI Listing
August 2022

Post-emergence herbicidal activity of nanoatrazine against Colla plants compared to other weed species.

Heliyon 2022 Jul 8;8(7):e09902. Epub 2022 Jul 8.

Department of Agronomy, Londrina State University (UEL), PR 445, km 380, 86057-970 Londrina, PR, Brazil.

The encapsulation of atrazine into poly(epsilon-caprolactone) nanocapsules has been shown to improve the efficiency of the herbicide and decrease its environmental impacts. In the current work, we evaluated the efficiency of nanoatrazine in the post-emergence control of Colla plants and performed a meta-analysis to compare the results with studies already published with other weeds. The first experiment was carried out in the field, where we observed that nanoatrazine (at 200 g a. i. ha) induced higher inhibition of the maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (up to 39%) than conventional atrazine at the same concentration. However, nanoencapsulation did not improve the visually-determined weed control by atrazine. To better understand the response of plants to nanoatrazine, a second experiment was carried out in a greenhouse with four-leaf stage plants treated with nano and conventional atrazine at 200, 500, 1000, and 2000 g a. i. ha. Nanoatrazine showed higher efficiency (up to 33%) than commercial atrazine in inhibiting photosystem II activity at all doses until 48 h after application. Again, weed control and plant dry mass did not differ between formulations. From the meta-analysis, it was observed that plants showed a response to nanoatrazine that differs from other target species, as the gain in efficiency resulting from the nanoencapsulation was restricted to the short-term analysis, and did not result in better weed control. These results reinforce that the efficiency of nanoatrazine is dependent on the studied species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2022.e09902DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9305345PMC
July 2022

Is age at menopause decreasing? - The consequences of not completing the generational cohort.

BMC Med Res Methodol 2022 07 11;22(1):187. Epub 2022 Jul 11.

Faculty of Medicine, University of Coimbra, Rua Larga, Coimbra, 3004-504, Portugal.

Background: Due to contradictory results in current research, whether age at menopause is increasing or decreasing in Western countries remains an open question, yet worth studying as later ages at menopause are likely to be related to an increased risk of breast cancer. Using data from breast cancer screening programs to study the temporal trend of age at menopause is difficult since especially younger women in the same generational cohort have often not yet reached menopause. Deleting these younger women in a breast cancer risk analyses may bias the results. The aim of this study is therefore to recover missing menopause ages as a covariate by comparing methods for handling missing data. Additionally, the study makes a contribution to understanding the evolution of age at menopause for several generations born in Portugal between 1920 and 1970.

Methods: Data from a breast cancer screening program in Portugal including 278,282 women aged 45-69 and collected between 1990 and 2010 are used to compare two approaches of imputing age at menopause: (i) a multiple imputation methodology based on a truncated distribution but ignoring the mechanism of missingness; (ii) a copula-based multiple imputation method that simultaneously handles the age at menopause and the missing mechanism. The linear predictors considered in both cases have a semiparametric additive structure accommodating linear and non-linear effects defined via splines or Markov random fields smoothers in the case of spatial variables.

Results: Both imputation methods unveiled an increasing trend of age at menopause when viewed as a function of the birth year for the youngest generation. This trend is hidden if we model only women with an observed age at menopause.

Conclusion: When studying age at menopause, missing ages must be recovered with an adequate procedure for incomplete data. Imputing these missing ages avoids excluding the younger generation cohort of the screening program in breast cancer risk analyses and hence reduces the bias stemming from this exclusion. In addition, imputing the not yet observed ages of menopause for mostly younger women is also crucial when studying the time trend of age at menopause otherwise the analysis will be biased.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12874-022-01658-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9275053PMC
July 2022

Protein-Losing Enteropathy Resolved by Eradication.

Eur J Case Rep Intern Med 2022 26;9(5):003312. Epub 2022 May 26.

Department of Internal Medicine, Hospital Garcia de Orta, Almada, Lisbon, Portugal.

Protein-losing enteropathy (PLGE) is an uncommon condition with a multifactorial origin, that is characterized by excessive loss of serum proteins into the gastrointestinal tract, resulting in hypoproteinaemia and oedema. The authors present the case of a 24-year-old man admitted to hospital for a 2-month history of lower extremity oedema and diarrhoea with a secretory pattern. Blood analysis revealed hypoalbuminaemia and iron deficiency anaemia. Liver disease and severe proteinuria were excluded as possible aetiologies. Upper gastrointestinal endoscopy revealed signs of chronic gastritis. After completion of eradication, the patient had complete resolution of clinical and laboratory abnormalities. The results suggest the need to consider less frequent aetiologies for peripheral oedema and hypoproteinaemia, such as PLGE, especially those caused by prevalent bacterial agents like .

Learning Points: Protein-losing enteropathy may be related to infection.Protein-losing enteropathy and its associated symptoms may be resolved by eradication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.12890/2022_003312DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9239021PMC
May 2022

Purple grape juice improves performance of recreational runners, but the effect is genotype dependent: a double blind, randomized, controlled trial.

Genes Nutr 2022 Jun 2;17(1). Epub 2022 Jun 2.

Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Nutrição and Laboratório de Estudos do Treinamento Físico Aplicado ao Desempenho e a Saúde, Departamento de Educação Física, Universidade Federal da Paraíba (UFPB), João Pessoa, Paraíba, Brasil.

Background: We examined the influence of superoxide dismutase 3 (SOD3) Arg213Gly and Peroxisome Proliferator-Activated α-Receptor (PPARα) 7G/C polymorphisms to a single dose of purple grape juice supplementation on time-to-exhaustion running test, redox balance and muscle damage in recreational runners.

Methods: Forty-seven male recreational runners performed a running test until exhaustion after supplementation with grape juice or a control drink. Serum total antioxidant capacity (TAC), malondialdehyde (MDA), plasma nitrite (NO), creatine kinase (CK) and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) were measured pre and post exercise. Also, polymorphisms were analyzed in DNA extracted from the oral mucosa.

Results: Grape juice improved the time-to-exhaustion. When analyzed by genotype, the recreational runners with GG+CG genotypes of the SOD3 gene had greater time-to-exhaustion than the CC genotype, but was no different for the PAPRα gene. A slight difference was noted in TAC, since the CC genotype of the SOD3 gene showed higher TAC values in the post-exercise compared to the baseline and with pre-exercise, but these values did not increase compared to the CG+GG group, respectively. The SOD3 and PPARα genes were similar at all times for the other biochemical variables.

Conclusion: The ergogenic effect of grape juice was genotype-dependent for SOD3 Arg213Gly. However, biochemical redox balance markers did not explain this difference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12263-022-00710-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9164373PMC
June 2022

Effects of biogenic silver and iron nanoparticles on soybean seedlings (Glycine max).

BMC Plant Biol 2022 May 24;22(1):255. Epub 2022 May 24.

Laboratory for Evaluation of the Bioactivity and Toxicology of Nanomaterials, University of Sorocaba (UNISO), Rod. Raposo Tavares, km 92.5 - Vila Artura, Sorocaba, São Paulo, 18023-000, Brazil.

Background: Biogenic metallic nanoparticles have been emerging as a promising alternative for the control of phytopathogens and as nanofertilizers. In this way, it is essential to investigate the possible impacts of these new nanomaterials on plants. In this study, the effects of soil contamination with biogenic silver (AgNPs) and iron (FeNPs) with known antifungal potential were investigated on morphological, physiological and biochemical parameters of soybean seedlings.

Results: The exposure of plants/seedlings to AgNPs induced the reduction of root dry weight followed by oxidative stress in this organ, however, adaptive responses such as a decrease in stomatal conductance without impacts on photosynthesis and an increase in intrinsic water use efficiency were also observed. The seedlings exposed to FeNPs had shown an increase in the levels of oxygen peroxide in the leaves not accompanied by lipid peroxidation, and an increase in the expression of POD2 and POD7 genes, indicating a defense mechanism by root lignification.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrated that different metal biogenic nanoparticles cause different effects on soybean seedlings and these findings highlight the importance of investigating possible phytotoxic effects of these nanomaterials for the control of phytopathogens or as nanofertilizers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12870-022-03638-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC9128269PMC
May 2022

Codium isthmocladum lectin 1 (CiL-1): Interaction with N-glycans explains antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in adult zebrafish (Danio rerio).

Int J Biol Macromol 2022 May 2;208:1082-1089. Epub 2022 Apr 2.

Laboratório de Biocristalografia - LABIC, Departamento de Bioquímica e Biologia Molecular, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici s/n, bloco 907, Av. Mister Hull, Fortaleza, Ceará 60440-970, Brazil. Electronic address:

Inflammation and oxidative stress are processes associated with different human diseases. They are treated using drugs that have several side effects. Seaweed are sources of potentially relevant natural compounds for use as treatment of these disorders. Lectins are able to reversibly interact with complex carbohydrates and modulate cell membrane glycosylated receptors through this interaction. This study aimed to determine the antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory potential of CiL-1 in adult zebrafish by modulation of TRPA1 through lectin-glycan binding. Possible neuromodulation by TRPA1 channel was also evaluated by camphor pretreatment. CiL-1 was efficacious at all tested doses, revealing anti-nociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects in adult zebrafish. This galactose-binding lectin was also able to reduce the content of ROS in brain and liver. In silico analyses showed CiL-1 interactions with both ligands tested. LacNac2 presents the most favorable binding energy with the protein. The interaction occurs at 4 subsites as an extended conformation at the site. LacNac2-Sia had a less favorable curved-shape interaction energy. Based on the predictions made for the oligosaccharides, a tetra-antenate putative glycan was schematically constructed, illustrating an interaction between TRPA1 N-glycan and CiL-1. This binding seems to be related to CiL-1 anti-inflammatory activity as result of receptor modulation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijbiomac.2022.03.209DOI Listing
May 2022

Impact of Combined Heat and Salt Stresses on Tomato Plants-Insights into Nutrient Uptake and Redox Homeostasis.

Antioxidants (Basel) 2022 Feb 28;11(3). Epub 2022 Feb 28.

GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre & INOV4AGRO, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences, University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

Currently, salinity and heat are two critical threats to crop production and food security which are being aggravated by the global climatic instability. In this scenario, it is imperative to understand plant responses to simultaneous exposure to different stressors and the cross-talk between underlying functional mechanisms. Thus, in this study, the physiological and biochemical responses of tomato plants ( L.) to the combination of salinity (100 mM NaCl) and heat (42 °C; 4 h/day) stress were evaluated. After 21 days of co-exposure, the accumulation of Na in plant tissues was superior when salt-treated plants were also exposed to high temperatures compared to the individual saline treatment, leading to the depletion of other nutrients and a harsher negative effect on plant growth. Despite that, neither oxidative damage nor a major accumulation of reactive oxygen species took place under stress conditions, mostly due to the accumulation of antioxidant (AOX) metabolites alongside the activation of several AOX enzymes. Nonetheless, the plausible allocation of resources towards the defense pathways related to oxidative and osmotic stress, along with severe Na toxicity, heavily compromised the ability of plants to grow properly when the combination of salinity and heat was imposed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox11030478DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8944476PMC
February 2022

Neuromodulation of Hippocampal-Prefrontal Cortical Synaptic Plasticity and Functional Connectivity: Implications for Neuropsychiatric Disorders.

Front Cell Neurosci 2021 11;15:732360. Epub 2021 Oct 11.

Department of Neuroscience and Behavioral Sciences, Ribeirão Preto Medical School, University of São Paulo, Ribeirão Preto, Brazil.

The hippocampus-prefrontal cortex (HPC-PFC) pathway plays a fundamental role in executive and emotional functions. Neurophysiological studies have begun to unveil the dynamics of HPC-PFC interaction in both immediate demands and long-term adaptations. Disruptions in HPC-PFC functional connectivity can contribute to neuropsychiatric symptoms observed in mental illnesses and neurological conditions, such as schizophrenia, depression, anxiety disorders, and Alzheimer's disease. Given the role in functional and dysfunctional physiology, it is crucial to understand the mechanisms that modulate the dynamics of HPC-PFC communication. Two of the main mechanisms that regulate HPC-PFC interactions are synaptic plasticity and modulatory neurotransmission. Synaptic plasticity can be investigated inducing long-term potentiation or long-term depression, while spontaneous functional connectivity can be inferred by statistical dependencies between the local field potentials of both regions. In turn, several neurotransmitters, such as acetylcholine, dopamine, serotonin, noradrenaline, and endocannabinoids, can regulate the fine-tuning of HPC-PFC connectivity. Despite experimental evidence, the effects of neuromodulation on HPC-PFC neuronal dynamics from cellular to behavioral levels are not fully understood. The current literature lacks a review that focuses on the main neurotransmitter interactions with HPC-PFC activity. Here we reviewed studies showing the effects of the main neurotransmitter systems in long- and short-term HPC-PFC synaptic plasticity. We also looked for the neuromodulatory effects on HPC-PFC oscillatory coordination. Finally, we review the implications of HPC-PFC disruption in synaptic plasticity and functional connectivity on cognition and neuropsychiatric disorders. The comprehensive overview of these impairments could help better understand the role of neuromodulation in HPC-PFC communication and generate insights into the etiology and physiopathology of clinical conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fncel.2021.732360DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8542677PMC
October 2021

Specific glutathione-S-transferases ensure an efficient detoxification of diclofenac in Solanum lycopersicum L. plants.

Plant Physiol Biochem 2021 Nov 15;168:263-271. Epub 2021 Oct 15.

GreenUPorto - Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre and Inov4Agro, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007, Porto, Portugal.

Diclofenac (DCF) is a very common pharmaceutical that, due to its high use and low removal rate, is considered a prominent contaminant in surface and groundwater worldwide. In this study, Solanum lycopersicum L. cv. Micro-Tom (tomato) was used to disclose the role of glutathione (GSH)-related enzymes, as GSH conjugation with DCF is a well reported detoxification mechanism in mammals and some plant species. To achieve this, S. lycopersicum plants were exposed to 0.5 and 5 mg L of DCF for 5 weeks under a semi-hydroponic experiment. The results here obtained point towards an efficient DCF detoxification mechanism that prevents DCF bioaccumulation in fruits, minimizing any concerns for human health. Although a systemic response seems to be present in response to DCF, the current data also shows that its detoxification is mostly a root-specific process. Furthermore, it appears that GSH-mediated DCF detoxification is the main mechanism activated, as glutathione-S-transferase (GST) activity was greatly enhanced in roots of tomato plants treated with 5 mg L DCF, accompanied by increased glutathione reductase activity, responsible for GSH regeneration. By applying a targeted gene expression analysis, we provide evidence, for the first time, that SlGSTF4 and SlGSTF5 genes, coding for GSTs from phi class, were the main players driving the conjugation of this contaminant. In this sense, and even though tomato plants appear to be somewhat tolerant to DCF exposure, research on GST activity can prove to be instrumental in remediating DCF-contaminated environments and improving plant growth under such conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.plaphy.2021.10.019DOI Listing
November 2021

Fucoid Macroalgae Have Distinct Physiological Mechanisms to Face Emersion and Submersion Periods in Their Southern Limit of Distribution.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 14;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 14.

GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre and INOV4AGRO, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences University of Porto (FCUP), Rua do Campo Alegre, 4149-007 Porto, Portugal.

During high tide, macroalgae are submersed, facing adequate environmental conditions, however, at low tide, these species can be exposed to high UV radiation and desiccation, leading to an overproduction of reactive oxygen species, causing oxidative stress. Since intertidal organisms present differential sensitivity to abiotic fluctuations, this study aimed to evaluate the physiological responses [photosynthetic pigments, hydrogen peroxide (HO), lipid peroxidation (LP), and thiols and proline] of three macroalgae, from different intertidal levels, towards tidal regimes. Samples of , , and were collected from beaches located on the southern limit of distribution in periods of potential stress (Summer and Spring), under low and high tide. The photosynthetic pigments of and were generally higher during low tide, and the oxidative damage evidenced by HO and LP increased in the Summer, while showed greater oxidative damage in the Spring. While thiol content did not change, proline levels were species- and tidal-specific among sampling dates. presented higher resilience to unfavorable conditions, while was the most sensitive species. The physiological responses analyzed were species-specific, pointing to the high susceptibility of low intertidal organisms to expected extreme climatic events.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091892DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8467972PMC
September 2021

Foliar Application of Sodium Nitroprusside Boosts L. Tolerance to Glyphosate by Preventing Redox Disorders and Stimulating Herbicide Detoxification Pathways.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Sep 9;10(9). Epub 2021 Sep 9.

GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre & INOV4AGRO, Biology Department, Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

Strategies to minimize the effects of glyphosate (GLY), the most used herbicide worldwide, on non-target plants need to be developed. In this context, the current study was designed to evaluate the potential of nitric oxide (NO), provided as 200 µM sodium nitroprusside (SNP), to ameliorate GLY (10 mg kg soil) phytotoxicity in tomato plants. Upon herbicide exposure, plant development was majorly inhibited in shoots and roots, followed by a decrease in flowering and fruit set; however, the co-application of NO partially prevented these symptoms, improving plant growth. Concerning redox homeostasis, lipid peroxidation (LP) and reactive oxygen species (ROS) levels rose in response to GLY in shoots of tomato plants, but not in roots. Additionally, GLY induced the overaccumulation of proline and glutathione, and altered ascorbate redox state, but resulted in the inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes. Upon co-treatment with NO, the non-enzymatic antioxidants were not particularly changed, but an upregulation of all antioxidant enzymes was found, which helped to keep ROS and LP under control. Overall, data point towards the benefits of NO against GLY in tomato plants by reducing the oxidative damage and stimulating detoxification pathways, while also preventing GLY-induced impairment of flowering and fruit fresh mass.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10091862DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8466062PMC
September 2021

Structural characterization of a galectin isolated from the marine sponge Chondrilla caribensis with leishmanicidal potential.

Biochim Biophys Acta Gen Subj 2021 12 8;1865(12):129992. Epub 2021 Sep 8.

Laboratório de Biotecnologia Marinha - BioMar-Lab, Departamento de Engenharia de Pesca, Universidade Federal do Ceará, Campus do Pici s/n, bloco 871, 60440-970 Fortaleza, Ceará, Brazil. Electronic address:

Background: Solving primary structure of lectins leads to an understanding of the physiological roles within an organism and its biotechnological potential. Only eight sponge lectins have had their primary structure fully determined.

Methods: The primary structure of CCL, Chondrilla caribensis lectin, was determined by tandem mass spectrometry. The three-dimensional structure was predicted and the protein-carbohydrate interaction analysed by molecular docking. Furthermore, the anti-leishmanial activity was observed by assays with Leishmania infantum.

Results: The amino acid sequence consists of 142 amino acids with a calculated molecular mass of 15,443 Da. The lectin has a galectin-like domain architecture. As observed in other sponge galectins, the signature sequence of a highly conserved domain was also identified in CCL with some modifications. CCL exhibits a typical galectin structure consisting of a β-sandwich. Molecular docking showed that the amino acids interacting with CCL ligands at the monosaccharide binding site are mostly the same as those conserved in this family of lectins. Through its interaction with L. infantum glycans, CCL was able to inhibit the development of this parasite. CCL also induced apoptosis after eliciting ROS production and altering the membrane integrity of Leishmania infantum promastigote.

Conclusions: CCL joins the restricted group of sponge lectins with determined primary structure and very high biotechnological potential owing to its promising results against pathogens that cause Leishmaniasis.

General Significance: As the determination of primary structure is important for biological studies, now CCL can become a sponge galectin with an exciting future in the field of human health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbagen.2021.129992DOI Listing
December 2021

Cytomegalovirus infection in Guillain-Barré syndrome: a retrospective study in Brazil.

Arq Neuropsiquiatr 2021 07;79(7):607-611

Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte, Instituto de Medicina Tropical do Rio Grande do Norte, Natal RN, Brazil.

Background: Guillain-Barré syndrome (GBS) is currently the most common cause of acute flaccid paralysis worldwide. Risk factors for GBS include previous viral or bacterial infections or vaccination. Recently, an outbreak of Zika virus led to an outbreak of GBS in Latin America, mostly in Brazil, concomitant to continuous circulation of dengue virus serotypes. However, there is no study about cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection as a risk for GBS in Brazil.

Objectives: In this study, we report a series of cases of GBS with the aim of determining the prevalence of CMV and the characteristics associated with the infection.

Methods: A cohort of 111 GBS cases diagnosed between 2011 and 2017 in Natal, northeastern Brazil, was studied. Presence of CMV IgM antibodies was determined by means of electrochemiluminescence. The analysis was performed considering CMV infection status and the clinical outcome.

Results: We found seroprevalence of 15.3% (n = 17) for CMV. CMV patients were younger (26 vs. 40; p = 0.016), with no apparent gastrointestinal (p = 0.762) or upper respiratory infections (p = 0.779) or sensory loss (p = 0.03). They presented more often with a classic GBS sensorimotor variant (p = 0.02) and with a demyelinating pattern in electrophysiological studies (p < 0.001).

Conclusion: In Brazil, the clinical-epidemiological profile of GBS associated with CMV infection is similar to that described in other countries. Better understanding of the relationship between infectious processes and GBS is a key component of the research agenda and assistance strategy for global health initiatives relating to peripheral neuropathic conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1590/0004-282X-ANP-2020-0464DOI Listing
July 2021

Silicon Improves the Redox Homeostasis to Alleviate Glyphosate Toxicity in Tomato Plants-Are Nanomaterials Relevant?

Antioxidants (Basel) 2021 Aug 23;10(8). Epub 2021 Aug 23.

GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre and INOV4AGRO, Biology Department, Rua do Campo Alegre s/n, Faculty of Sciences of University of Porto (FCUP), 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

Given the widespread use of glyphosate (GLY), this agrochemical is becoming a source of contamination in agricultural soils, affecting non-target plants. Therefore, sustainable strategies to increase crop tolerance to GLY are needed. From this perspective and recalling silicon (Si)'s role in alleviating different abiotic stresses, the main goal of this study was to assess if the foliar application of Si, either as bulk or nano forms, is capable of enhancing L. tolerance to GLY (10 mg kg). After 28 day(s), GLY-treated plants exhibited growth-related disorders in both shoots and roots, accompanied by an overproduction of superoxide anion (O) and malondialdehyde (MDA) in shoots. Although plants solely exposed to GLY have activated non-enzymatic antioxidant mechanisms (proline, ascorbate and glutathione), a generalized inhibition of the antioxidant enzymes was found, suggesting the occurrence of great redox disturbances. In response to Si or nano-SiO co-application, most of GLY phytotoxic effects on growth were prevented, accompanied with a better ROS removal, especially by an upregulation of the main antioxidant enzymes, including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT) and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Overall, results pointed towards the potential of both sources of Si to reduce GLY-induced oxidative stress, without major differences between their efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/antiox10081320DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8389300PMC
August 2021

PPAR Gene Is Involved in Body Composition Variation in Response to an Aerobic Training Program in Overweight/Obese.

PPAR Res 2021 9;2021:8880042. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

Laboratory of Applied Studies in Physical Training to Performance and Health-LETFADS, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, CEP: 58059-900 Paraíba, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to investigate the relationship of the polymorphism in Intron 7 G/C (rs 4253778) of the peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor alpha (PPAR) gene with the magnitude of changes in the body composition of an overweight and obese population that underwent an aerobic training program. Fifty-eight previously inactive men and women, body mass index (BMI) 31.5 ± 2.8 kg/m, 46.5% ( = 27) genotyped as CC genotype and 53.5% ( = 31) as CA+AA, underwent a 12-week aerobic training (walking/running). Aerobic capacity (ergospirometry), body composition (DXA), and nutritional assessment were made before and 48 h after the experimental protocol. Two-way ANOVA, chi-square test, and logistic regression were used ( < 0.05). Twenty-seven volunteers (46.5%) were identified as CC genotype and 31 (53.5%) as CA+AA genotype. Time-group interaction showed that there was no difference in these between two allele groups. However, differences in distribution of respondents or nonresponders according to allele A were identified for fat mass ( ≤ 0.003), percentage fat mass ( ≤ 0.002), the waist ( ≤ 0.009), abdomen ( ≤ 0.000), and hip ( ≤ 0.001), this difference being independent for the fat mass. Meanwhile, sex, age, and nutritional management have also been found to be influential factors. It is concluded that the PPAR gene is involved in varying body composition in response to an aerobic training program.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8880042DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8371623PMC
August 2021

Global occurrence of SARS-CoV-2 in environmental aquatic matrices and its implications for sanitation and vulnerabilities in Brazil and developing countries.

Int J Environ Health Res 2021 Jul 26:1-40. Epub 2021 Jul 26.

Department of Hydraulic and Sanitation, São Carlos School of Engineering, University of São Paulo, São Carlos, SP, Brazil.

This paper includes a systematic review of the SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in environmental aquatic matrices and a critical sanitation analysis. We discussed the interconnection of sanitation services (wastewater, water supply, solid waste, and stormwater drainage) functioning as an important network for controlling the spread of SARS-CoV-2 in waters. We collected 98 studies containing data of the SARS-CoV-2 occurrence in aquatic matrices around the world, of which 40% were from developing countries. Alongside a significant number of people infected by the virus, developing countries face socioeconomic deficiencies and insufficient public investment in infrastructure. Therefore, our study focused on highlighting solutions to provide sanitation in developing countries, considering the virus control in waters by disinfection techniques and sanitary measures, including alternatives for the vulnerable communities. The need for multilateral efforts to improve the universal coverage of sanitation services demands urgent attention in a pandemic scenario.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/09603123.2021.1949437DOI Listing
July 2021

Herbicidal Effects and Cellular Targets of Aqueous Extracts from Young Labill. Leaves.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jun 7;10(6). Epub 2021 Jun 7.

GreenUPorto-Sustainable Agrifood Production Research Centre, Departamento de Biologia, Faculdade de Ciências, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre, 4169-007 Porto, Portugal.

Labill. is a widespread exotic species that contributes to the formation of fire-prone environments, a great concern under climate change conditions. Therefore, sustainable practices to help locals managing eucalyptus stands are needed. In this perspective, harnessing eucalyptus' specialized metabolism as a source of allelochemicals can be a promising approach for weed control. Thus, the main goals of this work were to evaluate the herbicidal potential of post-fire regenerated leaves against L. and to unravel the physiological mechanisms behind this phytotoxic action. For this, aqueous extracts of fresh (FLE; 617 g FW L) or oven-dried leaves (DLE; 250 g DW L) were foliar-sprayed at different dilutions in purslane seedlings. After five weeks, results revealed that DLE at the highest dose detained the greatest herbicidal activity, affecting purslane growth and cellular viability. Moreover, biochemical data pointed towards an overproduction of reactive oxygen species, causing harsh oxidative damage in roots, where the upregulation of important cellular players, like sugars, amino acids, and proline, was not able to reestablish redox homeostasis. Overall, this study proved that dried leaves from young had potent herbicidal properties against and can represent a feasible strategy for weed management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10061159DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8273694PMC
June 2021

Spanish-Speaking Therapists Increasingly Switch to Telepsychology During COVID-19: Networked Virtual Reality May Be Next.

Telemed J E Health 2021 08 28;27(8):919-928. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of Washington, Seattle, Washington, USA.

Social distancing restrictions imposed due to the Novel Coronavirus 2019 (COVID-19) pandemic resulted in a rapid shift in the delivery of psychological interventions from in-person to telehealth. Much of the research on this transition has been conducted with English-speaking mental health providers, leaving a gap in understanding related to how this shift has impacted Spanish-speaking treatment providers. Fifty non-U.S. Spanish-speaking therapists completed a survey related to their use of telecommunication modalities; client population characteristics; professional, ethical, and legal/regulatory issues; and telehealth training and practice. Participants completed the survey at one time point and retrospectively described their use of telehealth both pre-pandemic and during the pandemic. Most of the 50 Spanish-speaking therapists surveyed reported using telepsychology 58% before COVID-19 versus 84% during the COVID-19 pandemic (χ = 5.76, < 0.05). Compared with pre-pandemic, the number of hours therapists spent using telepsychology per week increased significantly for early adopter therapists (those who began using telehealth before the pandemic began) ( = -3.18,  = 0.001) and also for late adopter therapists who only began using telehealth during the pandemic ( = -3.74,  < 0.001). Many therapists reported equity issues. Most participants also reported ethical and regulatory concerns regarding security/confidentiality or Health Insurance Porability and Accountability Act. The rapid adoption of technology to deliver therapy during COVID-19 has spurred growing pains for Spanish-speaking therapists and their underserved clients, and more research is needed to better understand and improve the therapists' adoption of these technologies with diverse patient populations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/tmj.2021.0124DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380799PMC
August 2021

Foliar absorption and field herbicidal studies of atrazine-loaded polymeric nanoparticles.

J Hazard Mater 2021 09 7;418:126350. Epub 2021 Jun 7.

Institute of Science and Technology, São Paulo State University (UNESP), Av. Três de Março 511, 18087-180 Sorocaba, SP, Brazil. Electronic address:

Nanoparticles loaded with atrazine show weed control efficacy even with lower application doses of the active ingredient. Changes in the mode of action of the herbicide through the nanoformulation are key to understanding the efficiency of post-emergence activity of nanoatrazine. Here, we report the leaf absorption and translocation of nanoatrazine and atrazine employing radiometric techniques and compare their herbicidal effects in greenhouse and field conditions. Compared to the commercial formulation, nanoatrazine showed greater and faster absorption rates in mustard leaves (40% increment in the absorbed herbicide 24 h after application), inducing higher inhibition of photosystem II activity. Assays with fusicoccin-treated leaves indicated that the stomatal uptake of nanoparticles might be involved in the improved activity of nanoatrazine. Nanoencapsulation potentiated the post-emergent herbicidal activity of atrazine and the gain provided by nanoencapsulation was higher in the field compared to greenhouse conditions. Regardless of the dose, nanoatrazine provided two-fold higher weed control in the field compared to commercial atrazine. Thus, the design of this carrier system enables improvements in the performance of the herbicide in the field with less risk of environmental losses of the active ingredients due to faster absorption.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhazmat.2021.126350DOI Listing
September 2021

Therapists Make the Switch to Telepsychology to Safely Continue Treating Their Patients During the COVID-19 Pandemic. Virtual Reality Telepsychology May Be Next.

Front Virtual Real 2021 Jan 15;1. Epub 2021 Jan 15.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, Radiology and Psychology, University of Washington, Seattle, WA, United States.

Before COVID-19, most therapists had concerns about telepsychology, and only treated patients in person. During the COVID-19 lockdown, patients still needed therapy, but in-person therapy sessions became unsafe. The current study measured how many therapists are using online therapy before vs. during COVID-19, how much training they have received, and their knowledge about legal restrictions on using telepsychology. A sample of 768 U.S.A. mental health professionals completed a 29-item online survey. Results show that before COVID-19, most therapists only saw their patients in person (e.g., at the therapists office), but during the COVID-19 pandemic, nearly all therapists used a wide range of telecommunication technologies to communicate with their quarantined patients, including texting, telephones, video conferences, and even virtual reality. According to within-subject related samples comparisons, 39% of survey respondents used telepsychology before COVID-19, vs. 98% during COVID-19 (χ = 450.02, < 0.001). Therapists reported high treatment effectiveness using telepsychology (7.45 on 0-10 scale). However, overall, on a 0-10 scale, therapists reported a significant increase in feeling burned out during the COVID-19 pandemic, Mean = 3.93 (SD = 1.93) before vs. 6.22 (SD = 2.27) during the pandemic ( = -18.57, < 0.001). Although the APA ethics guidelines encourage therapists to use telepsychology with their patients during the crisis, gaps in respondents' knowledge identify a need for increased specialized training and education. Although the current study showed that virtual reality is rarely used by the therapists surveyed, virtual reality is a promising new telepsychology technology. Billions of dollars are currently being invested in mass producing immersive virtual reality systems. In the future, as networked immersive Virtual Reality becomes more widely available, therapists and patients in physically different locations will be able to "meet" in a shared computer-generated world designed for therapy sessions, potentially including group sessions. Telepsychology and virtual reality have the potential to be increasingly valuable tools to help therapists mitigate the consequences of COVID-19. Research, development and training is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/frvir.2020.576421DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7880047PMC
January 2021

Development and validation of a framework for the assessment of school curricula on the presence of evolutionary concepts (FACE).

Evolution (N Y) 2021 26;14(1). Epub 2021 Feb 26.

Faculty of Primary Education, National and Kapodistrian University of Athens, Navarinou 13A, 10680 Athens, Greece.

Evolution is a key concept of biology, fundamental to understand the world and address important societal problems, but research studies show that it is still not widely understood and accepted. Several factors are known to influence evolution acceptance and understanding, but little information is available regarding the impacts of the curriculum on these aspects. Very few curricula have been examined to assess the coverage of biological evolution. The available studies do not allow comparative analyses, due to the different methodologies employed by the authors. However, such an analysis would be useful for research purposes and for the development of appropriate educational policies to address the problem of a lack of evolution acceptance in some countries. In this paper we describe the steps through which we developed a valid and reliable instrument for curricula analysis known as FACE: "Framework to Assess the Coverage of biological Evolution by school curricula." This framework was developed based on the "Understanding Evolution Conceptual Framework" (UECF). After an initial pilot study, our framework was reformulated based on identified issues and experts' opinions. To generate validity and reliability evidence in support of the framework, it was applied to four European countries' curricula. For each country, a team of a minimum of two national and two foreign coders worked independently to assess the curriculum using this framework for content analysis. Reliability evidence was estimated using Krippendorf's alpha and resulted in appropriate values for coding the examined curricula. Some issues that coders faced during the analysis were discussed and, to ensure better reliability for future researchers, additional guidelines and one extra category were included in the framework. The final version of the framework includes six categories and 34 subcategories. FACE is a useful tool for the analysis and the comparison of curricula and school textbooks regarding the coverage of evolution, and such results can guide curricula development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12052-021-00142-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8827349PMC
February 2021

Burnout among Portuguese healthcare workers during the COVID-19 pandemic.

BMC Public Health 2020 Dec 7;20(1):1885. Epub 2020 Dec 7.

School of Education of Polytechnic of Porto, Centre for Research and Innovation in Education (inED), Porto, Portugal.

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, healthcare workers (HCWs) have had high workload and have been exposed to multiple psychosocial stressors. The aim of this study was to evaluate HCWs in terms of the relative contributions of socio-demographic and mental health variables on three burnout dimensions: personal, work-related, and client-related burnout.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was performed using an online questionnaire spread via social networks. A snowball technique supported by health care institutions and professional organizations was applied.

Results: A total of 2008 subjects completed the survey. Gender, parental status, marriage status, and salary reduction were found to be significant factors for personal burnout. Health problems and direct contact with infected people were significantly associated with more susceptibility to high personal and work-related burnout. Frontline working positions were associated with all three dimensions. Higher levels of stress and depression in HCWs were significantly associated with increased levels of all burnout dimensions. Higher levels of satisfaction with life and resilience were significantly associated with lower levels of all burnout dimensions.

Conclusions: All three burnout dimensions were associated with a specific set of covariates. Consideration of these three dimensions is important when designing future burnout prevention programs for HCWs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12889-020-09980-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7720923PMC
December 2020

Eating behavior: The influence of age, nutrition knowledge, and Mediterranean diet.

Nutr Health 2020 Dec 11;26(4):303-309. Epub 2020 Aug 11.

CBIOS Lusófona's Research Center for Biosciences and Health Technologies, Portugal.

Background: Student life during the university period is characterized by many changes in eating behaviors and dietary patterns due to adaptation to a new environment, study stress, lack of proper time management, and busy class schedules. These unhealthy actions may be detrimental to cognitive processing and influence academic performance, which is related to professional success.

Aim: To assess different eating patterns in Portuguese university students and relate them to several sociodemographic variables.

Methods: Cross-sectional information about eating behavior was assessed using the Dutch Eating Behavior Questionnaire in 169 students between 18 and 50 years of age, from the and from different academic courses, some related to health sciences. Mediterranean diet adherence was also assessed using a validated 14-item questionnaire.

Results: According to the analyses of the 169 participants included in the sample, 33 presented restrained eating behavior, with 73 presenting external and 63 emotional. In the same line of thought, 62.10% of nutrition sciences students presented emotional eating behavior and overall it was observed that these students were more likely to have emotional eating behavior. Otherwise, presenting restrained eating behavior was statistically associated with being older and having higher Mediterranean diet adherence.

Conclusions: Studying nutrition sciences was associated with having emotional eating behavior. Older students and those who adhere more closely to the Mediterranean diet were associated with having restrained eating behavior.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0260106020945076DOI Listing
December 2020

Bioactive Surfaces vs. Conventional Surfaces in Titanium Dental Implants: A Comparative Systematic Review.

J Clin Med 2020 Jun 29;9(7). Epub 2020 Jun 29.

Department of Surgery, University of Salamanca, Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca (IBSAL), 37007 Salamanca, Spain.

Animal studies and the scarce clinical trials available that have been conducted suggest that bioactive surfaces on dental implants could improve the osseointegration of such implants. The purpose of this systematic review was to compare the effectiveness of osseointegration of titanium (Ti) dental implants using bioactive surfaces with that of Ti implants using conventional surfaces such as sandblasted large-grit acid-etched (SLA) or similar surfaces. Applying the guidelines of the Preferred Reporting Items for Systematic Reviews and Meta-analyses (PRISMA) statement, the MEDLINE, PubMed Central and Web of Science databases were searched for scientific articles in April 2020. The keywords used were "dental implants", "bioactive surfaces", "biofunctionalized surfaces", and "osseointegration", according to the question: "Do bioactive dental implant surfaces have greater osseointegration capacity compared with conventional implant surfaces?" Risk of bias was assessed using the Cochrane Collaboration tool. 128 studies were identified, of which only 30 met the inclusion criteria: 3 clinical trials and 27 animal studies. The average STROBE (STrengthening the Reporting of OBservational studies in Epidemiology) and ARRIVE (Animal Research: Reporting of In Vivo Experiments) scores were 15.13 ± 2.08 and 17.7±1.4, respectively. Implant stability quotient (ISQ) was reported in 3 studies; removal torque test (RTT)-in 1 study; intraoral periapical X-ray and microcomputed tomography radiological evaluation (RE)-in 4 studies; shear force (SF)-in 1 study; bone-to-implant contact (BIC)-in 12 studies; and BIC and bone area (BA) jointly-in 5 studies. All animal studies reported better bone-to-implant contact surface for bioactive surfaces as compared to control implants with a statistical significance of < 0.05. Regarding the bioactive surfaces investigated, the best results were yielded by the one where mechanical and chemical treatment methods of the Ti surfaces were combined. Hydroxyapatite (HA) and calcium-phosphate (Ca-Ph) were the most frequently used bioactive surfaces. According to the results of this systematic review, certain bioactive surfaces have a positive effect on osseointegration, although certain coating biomolecules seem to influence early peri-implant bone formation. Further and more in-depth research in this field is required to reduce the time needed for osseointegration of dental implants.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/jcm9072047DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7408888PMC
June 2020

Detection of anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii antibodies in human serum using a recombinant synthetic multi-epitope kexin-based antigen.

Eur J Clin Microbiol Infect Dis 2020 Nov 16;39(11):2205-2209. Epub 2020 Jun 16.

Medical Parasitology Unit, Group of Opportunistic Protozoa/HIV and Other Protozoa, Global Health and Tropical Medicine, Instituto de Higiene e Medicina Tropical, Universidade Nova de Lisboa, Lisbon, Portugal.

Interest in the detection of specific anti-Pneumocystis jirovecii antibodies has emerged as less-invasive alternative diagnostic approaches. Here is presented the performance of an ELISA based on a recombinant synthetic multi-epitope kexin 1 (Kex1) antigen of P. jirovecii, previously developed. Results showed that IgM anti-Kex1 levels were found significantly increased in patients with Pneumocystis pneumonia (PcP) compared with non-PcP cases (p < 0.001), allowing a diagnostic performance of PcP with a 70.8% sensitivity and a 75.0% specificity. These results suggest that this Kex1-based ELISA is a promising tool toward the serodiagnosis of PcP when the standard methods are difficult to perform.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10096-020-03936-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7561569PMC
November 2020

Oxidative stress does not influence weight loss induced by aerobic training in adults: randomized clinical trials.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2020 Jun;60(6):875-882

Laboratory of Applied Studies in Physical Training to Performance and Health - LETFADS, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, PB, Brazil -

Background: High levels of oxidative stress promote degradation of the cell membrane impairing cellular function in fat oxidation. However, the influence of oxidative stress on exercise-induced weight-loss has not yet been investigated. Therefore, the aim of this study was to verify the influence of a lipidic peroxidation marker (malondialdehyde, MDA) and antioxidant status (total antioxidant capacity marker, TAC) on the magnitude of weight-loss by aerobic-induced exercise in previously sedentary overweight or obese individuals.

Methods: Seventy-five physically inactive adults were randomized into experimental (N.=58) and control (N.=17) groups, who engaged in a 12-week program of aerobic training walking and/or running (3 to 5 days/week) or stretching (1 day/week), respectively. Body composition (DXA), aerobic capacity (ergospirometric) and blood collections for oxidative stress analysis (MDA and TAC) were determined before and after the experimental protocol. Two-way ANOVA for repeated measures or Friedman's test were used to evaluate differences in time/group interaction. Pearson correlation was used to verify the relationship between the variables of oxidative stress and of body composition.

Results: Significant reduction was found in fat body mass of experimental when compared to control group (-1.3±1.9 kg versus -0.3±1.3, P=0.04). Experimental group also altered significantly the total body mass (-1.2±4.7 kg; effect size 0.44), body mass index - BMI (-0.3±1.1 effect size 0.37), fat percentage (1.3±1.6%; effect size 0.50) and lean body mass (0.6±1.5 kg; effect size 0.32).There was increase in MDA of 2.3 μmol/L to 2.7 μmol/L (P=0.00), without changes to TAC (25.6±13.9% to 28.0±10.4%). No correlation was found between these variations in body composition with either the initial values of MDA and TAC or delta variation of these indicators of oxidative stress in response to the training program.

Conclusions: Indicators of oxidative stress (MDA and TAC) does not influence the magnitude of weight-loss induced by aerobic training.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.20.10528-0DOI Listing
June 2020

Pro12Ala Polymorphism on the PPAR2 Gene and Weight Loss After Aerobic Training: A Randomized Controlled Trial.

Front Physiol 2020 8;11:385. Epub 2020 May 8.

Laboratory of Applied Studies in Physical Training to Performance and Health - LETFADS, Department of Physical Education, Federal University of Paraíba, João Pessoa, Brazil.

The objective of this study was to verify the influence of the Pro12Ala polymorphism of the PPARγ2 gene in response of a training program on the body composition. Sixty-nine previously inactive men and women (32.8 ± 8.2 years) were genotyped and underwent a 12-week aerobic (running/walking) training program (3-5 sessions, 40 - 60 min per session, and intensity between the aerobic and anaerobic threshold) (experimental group = 53) or were part of the control group ( = 16). They were tested for aerobic capacity (ergospirometry), body composition (DXA), abdomen, waist and hip circumferences and nutritional assessment before and 48 h after the experimental protocol. Two-way repeated measures ANOVA test was used to verify possible differences in variables between the experimental vs. control groups or Pro/Pro vs. Pro/Ala groups, and the Chi-squared test was used to verify the distribution of responders and non-responders according to genotype ( < 0.05). Frequencies of 75.5% Pro/Pro ( = 40) and 24.5% Pro/Ala ( = 13) were found, without any occurrence of the recessive homozygote. Body fat reduction was initially confirmed compared to a control group which did not exercise ( = 16; 29.1 ± 8.8 years), so that the exercise group obtained a reduction of -1.3 kg vs. -0.3 kg in the control group ( = 0.03). When they were divided by genotype, there were significant changes in fat mass (-1.3 ± 2.1 kg; = 0.00), lean mass (0.6 ± 1.5 kg; = 0.02), fat percentage (-1.3 ± 1.6; = 0.00), waist circumference (-2.2 ± 2.9 cm; = 0.00), abdomen circumference (-3.3 ± 3.6 cm; = 0.00) and hip circumference (-2.7 ± 2.7 cm; = 0.00) for Pro/Pro genotypes; and fat mass (-1.1 ± 1.7 kg; = 0.04), fat percentage (-0.9 ± 1.5; = 0.04), abdomen circumference (-3.9 ± 3.5 cm; = 0.00) and hip circumference (-1.8 ± 1.8 cm; = 0.00) for Pro/Ala genotypes, without any group interaction differences. The Chi squared test revealed no differences in the distribution of responders or non-responders according to genotype. It is concluded that an aerobic training program promotes weight loss, but the Pro12Ala polymorphism in the PPARγ2 gene does not influence the variability of aerobic-induced exercise weight loss.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fphys.2020.00385DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7227424PMC
May 2020
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