Publications by authors named "Bruno Pacciardi"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Misperceptions and hallucinatory experiences in ultra-trailer, high-altitude runners.

Riv Psichiatr 2020 May-Jun;55(3):183-190

2nd Psychiatric Unit, Santa Chiara University Hospital, University of Pisa, Italy - Association for the Application of Neuroscientific Knowledge to Social Aims (AU-CNS), Pietrasanta, Lucca, Italy - G. De Lisio Institute of Behavioural Sciences, Pisa, Italy.

Background: The Mountain Activities Neuro-behavioural Research Programme is a research project born in the 2 nd Unit of Psychiatry, Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine at the University of Pisa to investigate the effects of altitude on the mental and neuro-behavioural aspects of people performing activities in mountainous areas.

Methods: In this study, after elaborating a standardised data collection form, based on traditional psychopathology notions, to classify the misperceptions reported by the athletes taking part, we investigated the various types of these misperceptions in 21 athletes (including only one female), with a mean age of 44.90 ± 8.51 (min 33 and max 58).

Results: The athletes reported different kinds of misperceptions. It was possible to highlight three different clusters of athletes, based on the similarities between the kinds of misperceptions reported in each cluster: (a) anomalies in the intrinsic characteristics of perceptions (i.e. depersonalisation and derealisation), (b) illusions and (c) hallucinations.

Conclusions: This study supports the concept that anomalous perceptual experiences may occur independently of the context of psychiatric or neurological disorders. The chance of observing hallucinatory phenomena outside the context of psychiatric disorders and in extreme environmental conditions among ultra-trail runners may offer a unique opportunity to those intending to study psychopathological conditions in a 'para-physiological' context.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1708/3382.33575DOI Listing
June 2021

Inhaled Loxapine for the Management of Acute Agitation in Bipolar Disorder and Schizophrenia: Expert Review and Commentary in an Era of Change.

Drugs R D 2019 Mar;19(1):15-25

Danuvius Klinik GmbH, Pfaffenhofen an Der Ilm, Germany.

Agitation is a common and costly phenomenon associated with a number of psychiatric conditions including schizophrenia and bipolar disorder. Early identification and prompt intervention to relieve the symptoms of agitation are essential to avoid symptomatic escalation and emergence of aggressive behaviour. Recent consensus guidelines emphasise the need for non-coercive management strategies to protect the therapeutic alliance between patients and their healthcare providers-an alliance that is critical for the effective management of chronic psychiatric conditions. Rapid symptom relief and de-escalation of agitation are necessary to avoid the costly and traumatic use of coercive techniques of physical restraint and seclusion, which require admission and prolonged hospitalisation. Inhaled loxapine is approved for the treatment of acute agitation in patients with schizophrenia or bipolar disorder. Clinical studies have confirmed the efficacy, rapid onset of action, and safety and tolerability of this agent in the psychiatric emergency and hospital settings. Emerging data have indicated the potential for inhaled loxapine as a self-administered agent for use in the community setting without the direct supervision of a healthcare professional. We discuss the evolving treatment paradigm and the place of inhaled medications for acutely agitated patients both within and outside the emergency and hospital setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40268-019-0262-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6380965PMC
March 2019

1st International Experts' Meeting on Agitation: Conclusions Regarding the Current and Ideal Management Paradigm of Agitation.

Front Psychiatry 2018 27;9:54. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Agitation is a heterogeneous concept without a uniformly accepted definition, however, it is generally considered as a state of cognitive and motor hyperactivity characterized by excessive or inappropriate motor or verbal activity with marked emotional arousal. Not only the definition but also other aspects of agitated patients' care are still unsolved and need consensus and improvement. To help the discussion about agitation among experts and improve the identification, management, and treatment of agitation, the 1st International Experts' Meeting on Agitation was held in October 2016 in Madrid. It was attended by 20 experts from Europe and Latin America with broad experience in the clinical management of agitated patients. The present document summarizes the key conclusions of this meeting and highlights the need for an updated protocol of agitation management and treatment, the promotion of education and training among healthcare professionals to improve the care of these patients and the necessity to generate clinical data of agitated episodes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2018.00054DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5835036PMC
February 2018

Melatonin and pro-hypnotic effectiveness of the antidepressant Trazodone: A preliminary evaluation in insomniac mood-disorder patients.

Clin Biochem 2016 Oct 30;49(15):1152-1158. Epub 2016 Jun 30.

Department of Clinical and Experimental Medicine, University of Pisa, Via Savi 10, 56126 Pisa, Italy. Electronic address:

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2016.06.014DOI Listing
October 2016

Barrett's esophagus in anorexia nervosa: a case report.

Int J Eat Disord 2015 Jan 22;48(1):147-50. Epub 2014 Apr 22.

Department of Psychiatry, University of Pisa, Pisa, Italy, 56126.

Barrett's esophagus (BE) is a metaplastic lesion that may result from long-lasting gastroesophageal reflux and it is an established precursor of esophageal adenocarcinoma. There are reports of an increased prevalence of BE, and eventually esophageal adenocarcinoma, in patients with eating disorders characterized by purging behaviors like those with bulimia nervosa (BN). Among patients with eating disorders, those affected by anorexia nervosa binging purging subtype (ANBP), are behaviorally very similar to those with BN, but to our knowledge there are no data in literature about BE in patients with ANBP. We present the case of a 37-year-old female with a 20-year history of ANBP in comorbidity with bipolar disorder, who developed a BE requiring multi-specialistic intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/eat.22288DOI Listing
January 2015

Issues in the management of acute agitation: how much current guidelines consider safety?

Front Psychiatry 2013 7;4:26. Epub 2013 May 7.

Psychiatry Division, Department of Psychiatry, Neurobiology, Pharmacology and Biotechnology, University of Pisa Pisa, Italy.

Agitated behavior constitutes up to 10% of emergency psychiatric interventions. Pharmacological tranquilization is often used as a valid treatment for agitation but a strong evidence base does not underpin it. Available literature shows different recommendations, supported by research data, theoretical considerations, or clinical experience. Rapid tranquilization (RT) is mainly based on parenteral drug treatment and the few existing guidelines on this topic, when suggesting the use of first generation antipsychotics and benzodiazepines, include drugs with questionable tolerability profile such as chlorpromazine, haloperidol, midazolam, and lorazepam. In order to systematically evaluate safety concerns related to the adoption of such guidelines, we reviewed them independently from principal diagnosis while examining tolerability data for suggested treatments. There is a growing evidence about safety profile of second generation antipsychotics for RT but further controlled studies providing definitive data in this area are urgently needed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fpsyt.2013.00026DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3646256PMC
May 2013
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