Publications by authors named "Bruno Mendes"

80 Publications

In-Season Internal and External Workload Variations between Starters and Non-Starters-A Case Study of a Top Elite European Soccer Team.

Medicina (Kaunas) 2021 Jun 23;57(7). Epub 2021 Jun 23.

Escola Superior Desporto e Lazer, Instituto Politécnico de Viana do Castelo, Rua Escola Industrial e Comercial de Nun'Álvares, 4900-347 Viana do Castelo, Portugal.

Interpretation of the load variations across a period seems important to control the weekly progression or variation of the load, or to identify in-micro- and mesocycle variations. Thus, the aims of this study were twofold: (a) to describe the in-season variations of training monotony, training strain and acute:chronic workload ratio (ACWR) through session ratings of perceived exertion (s-RPE), total distance and high-speed running (HSR); and (b) to compare those variations between starters and non-starters. Seventeen professional players from a European First League team participated in this study. They were divided in two groups: starters ( = 9) and non-starters ( = 8). The players were monitored daily over a 41-week period of competition where 52 matches occurred during the 2015-2016 in-season. Through the collection of s-RPE, total distance and HSR, training monotony, training strain and ACWR were calculated for each measure, respectively. Data were analyzed across ten mesocycles (M: 1 to 10). Repeated measures ANOVA was used with the Bonferroni post hoc test to compare M and player status. The results revealed no differences between starters vs. non-starters ( > 0.05). M6 had a greater number of matches and displayed higher values for monotony (s-RPE, total distance and HSR), strain (only for total distance) and ACWR (s-RPE, TD and HSR). However, the variation patterns for all indexes displayed some differences. The values of both starters and non-starters showed small differences, thus suggesting that the adjustments of training workloads that had been applied over the season helped to reduce differences according to the player status. Even so, there were some variations over the season (microcycles and mesocycles) for the whole team. This study could be used as a reference for future coaches, staff and scientists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/medicina57070645DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8306595PMC
June 2021

Three-Dimensional Analysis of the Skull Base of Individuals With Cleft Lip and Palate.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jun 28. Epub 2021 Jun 28.

Department of Diagnosis and Surgery, Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University, Aracatuba, Sao Paulo School of Medicine, Federal University of Amazonas, Manaus, Amazonas Department of Dentistry, Cuiabá University, Cuiaba, Mato Grosso Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, General Hospital of Cuiaba Integrated Dental Sciences, Faculty of Dentistry of the University of Cuiaba, Cuiaba Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Sao Paulo University, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

Aims: Identify variations of skull base measurements in individuals with dentofacial deformities associated or not with cleft lip and palate and compare the results with individuals without dentofacial deformities.

Methods And Results: The individuals were categorized into three different groups: dentofacial deformity without cleft malformation, dentofacial deformity associated with cleft lip and palate, and without facial deformity. The inclusion criteria were individuals over 18 years of age, without any intervention involving facial bones or structures of interest for the study and field of view encompassing from the glabella to the hyoid bone. Poor quality CT scans or lack of adequate medical records were considered exclusion criteria. In the analysis by computerized tomography using the Dolphin Imaging Software, the length determined by the Ba-S and S-N lines was evaluated, as well as the Ba-S-N angle formed by landmarks.

Results: The length of S-N was not statistically different between the groups, the Ba-S length and the Ba-S-N angle demonstrated statistical difference.

Conclusion: There was statistically significant difference in the morphometry of the (Ba-S) between groups (FS) and (C). This suggests that the standard values for cephalometric analyzes involving these structures, especially to determine the treatment planning, should be used with caution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007731DOI Listing
June 2021

Dissection of phospholipases A reveals multifaceted peptides targeting cancer cells, Leishmania and bacteria.

Bioorg Chem 2021 May 31;114:105041. Epub 2021 May 31.

Biomolecules Discovery Group, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Km 7 Via Muyuna, Tena, Napo, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Cationic peptides bio-inspired by natural toxins have been recognized as an efficient strategy for the treatment of different health problems. Due to the specific interaction with substrates from biological membranes, snake venom phospholipases (PLAs) represent valuable scaffolds for the research and development of short peptides targeting parasites, bacteria, and cancer cells. Considering this, we evaluated the in vitro therapeutic potential of three biomimetic peptides (pCergo, pBmTxJ and pBmje) based on three different amino acid sequences from Asp49 PLAs. First, short amino acid sequences (12-17 in length) derived from these membranolytic toxins were selected using a combination of bioinformatics tools, including AntiCP, AMPA, PepDraw, ToxinPred, and HemoPI. The peptide, from each polypeptide sequence, with the greatest average antimicrobial index, no toxicity, and no hemolysis predicted was synthesized, purified, and characterized. According to in vitro assays performed, pBmje showed moderate cytotoxicity specifically against MCF-7 (breast cancer cells) with an EC of 464.85 µM, whereas pBmTxJ showed an antimicrobial effect against Staphylococcus aureus (ATCC 25923) with an MIC of 37.5 µM, and pCergo against E. coli (ATCC 25922) with an MIC of 75 µM. In addition, pCergo showed antileishmanial activity with an EC of 93.69 µM and 110.40 µM against promastigotes of Leishmania braziliensis and L. amazonensis, respectively. Altogether, these results confirmed the versatility of PLA-derived synthetic peptides, highlighting the relevance of the use of these membrane-interacting toxins as specific archetypes for drug design focused on public health problems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bioorg.2021.105041DOI Listing
May 2021

Will Next Match Location Influence External and Internal Training Load of a Top-Class Elite Professional European Soccer Team?

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 05 14;18(10). Epub 2021 May 14.

Faculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisboa, 1649-002 Lisboa, Portugal.

Background: The purpose of this study is to compare training load (TL) preceding a home versus away match in a top-class elite European team during the 2015-2016 season.

Methods: Twenty elite outfield soccer players with a mean ± SD age, height and body mass of 25.9 ± 4.6 years, 183.1 ± 6.6 cm and 78.6 ± 6.6 kg, respectively, participated in this study. Total distance covered, high-speed running distance (HSRD), average speed (AvS), rating of perceived exertion (RPE) multiplied by training duration (s-RPE) and Hooper index (HI) were collected. Data from 24 weeks were analyzed through match-day minus/plus approach (MD-5, -4, -3, -2, -1, MD + 1).

Results: All external TL variables indicated a decrease from MD-5 until MD-1 and then an increase to MD + 1 ( < 0.01). HI decreased from MD-5 to MD-1, but s-RPE increased until MD-3 and then decreased until MD + 1. When comparing TL data that preceded home matches versus away matches, for MD-5, HSRD and muscle soreness exhibited higher values when away match neared ( < 0.05). For MD-4 and MD-3, total distance, HSRD and AvS exhibited higher values closer to an away match than a home match ( < 0.05). For MD-1, total distances covered were higher closer to a home match than an away match ( < 0.01). For MD + 1, all HI items and AvS were higher when an away match was played ( < 0.05).

Conclusions: This study confirms and provides evidence regarding the influence on internal and external TL data preceding home and away matches from a team that played in European competitions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18105229DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8156245PMC
May 2021

Peptides to Tackle Leishmaniasis: Current Status and Future Directions.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Apr 22;22(9). Epub 2021 Apr 22.

Biomolecules Discovery Group, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Tena 150150, Ecuador.

Peptide-based drugs are an attractive class of therapeutic agents, recently recognized by the pharmaceutical industry. These molecules are currently being used in the development of innovative therapies for diverse health conditions, including tropical diseases such as leishmaniasis. Despite its socioeconomic influence on public health, leishmaniasis remains long-neglected and categorized as a poverty-related disease, with limited treatment options. Peptides with antileishmanial effects encountered to date are a structurally heterogeneous group, which can be found in different natural sources-amphibians, reptiles, insects, bacteria, marine organisms, mammals, plants, and others-or inspired by natural toxins or proteins. This review details the biochemical and structural characteristics of over one hundred peptides and their potential use as molecular frameworks for the design of antileishmanial drug leads. Additionally, we detail the main chemical modifications or substitutions of amino acid residues carried out in the peptide sequence, and their implications in the development of antileishmanial candidates for clinical trials. Our bibliographic research highlights that the action of leishmanicidal peptides has been evaluated mainly using in vitro assays, with a special emphasis on the promastigote stage. In light of these findings, and considering the advances in the successful application of peptides in leishmaniasis chemotherapy, possible approaches and future directions are discussed here.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22094400DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8122823PMC
April 2021

Animal Models of Colorectal Cancer: From Spontaneous to Genetically Engineered Models and Their Applications.

Vet Sci 2021 Apr 5;8(4). Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Center for the Research and Technology of Agro-Environmental and Biological Sciences (CITAB), University of Trás-os-Montes and Alto Douro (UTAD), 5000-801 Vila Real, Portugal.

Colorectal cancer is one of the most common gastrointestinal malignancies in humans, affecting approximately 1.8 million people worldwide. This disease has a major social impact and high treatment costs. Animal models allow us to understand and follow the colon cancer progression; thus, in vivo studies are essential to improve and discover new ways of prevention and treatment. Dietary natural products have been under investigation for better and natural prevention, envisioning to show their potential. This manuscript intends to provide the readers a review of rodent colorectal cancer models available in the literature, highlighting their advantages and disadvantages, as well as their potential in the evaluation of several drugs and natural compounds' effects on colorectal cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/vetsci8040059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8067250PMC
April 2021

Semitendinosus and biceps femoris long head active stiffness response until failure in professional footballers with vs. without previous hamstring injury.

Eur J Sport Sci 2021 Mar 31:1-14. Epub 2021 Mar 31.

CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Cruz Quebrada Dafundo, Portugal.

This study sought to examine the active stiffness of semitendinosus (ST) and biceps femoris long head (BFlh) during a knee flexor isometric contraction at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction until failure in elite footballers (n=50, age: 22.3±5.3 years; height: 1.82±0.08 m; body mass: 74.7±9.0 kg). Active stiffness was assessed using ultrasound-based shear wave elastography by means of shear modulus quantification. Comparisons were performed between limbs with (n=11) vs. without (n=89) previous hamstring injury. Similar time until failure in the knee flexor fatigue task was observed between groups (p=0.401). At the start of the task, lower limbs with previous hamstring injury showed a lower BFlh active stiffness (31.0.1±10.4 kPa, p=0.023) and BFlh/ST active stiffness ratio (0.50±0.29), and no differences for ST (72.8±26.8 kPa, p=0.221) compared to lower limbs without previous hamstring injuries (BFlh: 38.0±9.6 kPa; ST: 64.0±18.4 kPa; BFlh/ST: 0.65±0.27). During the task, the ST active stiffness in both groups decreased from 80% of task time (p=0.032), in the absence of changes in BFlh active stiffness (p=0.534), resulting in an increase in BFlh/ST active stiffness from 80% of task time (p=0.029). No differences between limbs were observed during the fatigue task for all parameters (p>0.099). Future research is warranted to verify if the differences found represent an increased risk of hamstring injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17461391.2021.1910347DOI Listing
March 2021

Cardioprotective effects of severe calorie restriction from birth in adult ovariectomized rats.

Life Sci 2021 Jun 24;275:119411. Epub 2021 Mar 24.

Programa de Pós-graduação Multicêntrico em Ciências Fisiológicas, Universidade Federal dos Vales do Jequitinhonha e Mucuri (UFVJM), Diamantina, Brazil; Faculdade de Medicina, UFVJM, Diamantina, Brazil; Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências da Saúde, UFVJM, Diamantina, Brazil. Electronic address:

Aims: Menopause is a female condition induced by a reduction of ovarian hormone and is related to an increase in cardiovascular diseases in women. We have shown that severe calorie restriction (SCR) from birth reduces the cardiometabolic risk in adult male Wistar rats. In this study, we investigated the effects of SCR from birth to adulthood on cardiovascular function of ovariectomized rats.

Main Methods: From birth to adulthood, rats were daily fed ad libitum (control group - C) or with 50% of the amount consumed by the control group (calorie-restricted group - R). At 90 days, half of the rats in each group underwent bilateral ovariectomy (OVX), totaling 4 groups: C-Sham, C-OVX, R-Sham, R-OVX. Systolic blood pressure (SBP), heart rate (HR) and, double product (DP) index were recorded by tail-cuff plethysmography. Cardiac function was analyzed by the Langendorff technique and cardiomyocyte diameter was accessed by histologic analysis. Additionally, cardiac SERCA2 content and redox status were evaluated.

Key Findings: C-OVX rats exhibited reduced cardiac function and cardiac non-enzymatic total antioxidant capacity (TAC). R-Sham animals showed reduced SBP, DP, HR, improved cardiac function, reduced cardiac protein carbonyl derivatives and increased TAC, catalase, and superoxide dismutase activities. R-OVX rats maintained reduced SBP, DP, HR, and increased contractility and relaxation indexes. R-Sham and R-OVX rats exhibited preserved heart mass and reduced cardiomyocyte diameter. Cardiac SERCA2 content did not differ between the groups.

Significance: Taken together, our findings show cardioprotective effects of SCR from birth in adult ovariectomized rats.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lfs.2021.119411DOI Listing
June 2021

In silico dosimetry of low-dose rate brachytherapy using radioactive nanoparticles.

Phys Med Biol 2021 02 9;66(4):045016. Epub 2021 Feb 9.

Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear-Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais, Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901, Belo Horizonte, MG, Brasil.

Purpose: Nanoparticles (NPs) with radioactive atoms incorporated within the structure of the NP or bound to its surface, functionalized with biomolecules are reported as an alternative to low-dose-rate seed-based brachytherapy. In this study, authors report a mathematical dosimetric study on low-dose rate brachytherapy using radioactive NPs.

Method: Single-cell dosimetry was performed by calculating cellular S-values for spherical cell model using Au-198, Pd-103 and Sm-153 NPs. The cell survival and tumor volume versus time curves were calculated and compared to the experimental studies on radiotherapeutic efficiency of radioactive NPs published in the literature. Finally, the radiotherapeutic efficiency of Au-198, Pd-103 and Sm-153 NPs was tested for variable: administered radioactivity, tumor volume and tumor cell type.

Result: At the cellular level Sm-153 presented the highest S-value, followed by Pd-103 and Au-198. The calculated cell survival and tumor volume curves match very well with the published experimental results. It was found that Au-198 and Sm-153 can effectively treat highly aggressive, large tumor volumes with low radioactivity.

Conclusion: The accurate knowledge of uptake rate, washout rate of NPs, radio-sensitivity and tumor repopulation rate is important for the calculation of cell survival curves. Self-absorption of emitted radiation and dose enhancement due to AuNPs must be considered in the calculations. Selection of radionuclide for radioactive NP must consider size of tumor, repopulation rate and radiosensitivity of tumor cells. Au-198 NPs functionalized with Mangiferin are a suitable choice for treating large, radioresistant and rapidly growing tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abd671DOI Listing
February 2021

Accelerometry-Workload Indices Concerning Different Levels of Participation during Congested Fixture Periods in Professional Soccer: A Pilot Study Conducted over a Full Season.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2021 01 28;18(3). Epub 2021 Jan 28.

Institute of Primary Care, University of Zurich, 8091 Zurich, Switzerland.

The aim of this study was to analyze the variations of acute load (AL), acute: chronic workload ratio (ACWR), training monotony (TM), and training strain (TS) of accelerometry-based GPS measures in players who started in three matches (S3M), two matches (S2M), and one match (S1M) during congested weeks. Nineteen elite professional male players from a Portuguese team (age: 26.5 ± 4.3 years) were monitored daily using global positioning systems (GPSs) over a full season (45 weeks). Accelerometry-derived measures of high metabolic load distance (HMLD), high accelerations (HA), and high decelerations (HD) were collected during each training session and match. Seven congested weeks were classified throughout the season, and the participation of each player in matches played during these weeks was codified. The workload indices of AL (classified as ACWR, TM, and TS) were calculated weekly for each player. The AL of HMLD was significantly greater for S2M than S1M (difference = 42%; = 0.002; d = 0.977) and for S3M than S1M (difference = 44%; = 0.001; d = 1.231). Similarly, the AL of HA was significantly greater for S2M than S1M (difference = 25%; = 0.023; d = 0.735). The TM of HD was significantly greater for S2M than S3M (difference = 25%; = 0.002; d = 0.774). Accelerometry-based measures were dependent on congested fixtures. S2M had the greatest TS values, while S3M had the greatest TM.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph18031137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7908349PMC
January 2021

Bothrops atrox from Ecuadorian Amazon: Initial analyses of venoms from individuals.

Toxicon 2021 Apr 24;193:63-72. Epub 2021 Jan 24.

Biomolecules Discovery Group, Universidad Regional Amazónica Ikiam, Km 7 Via Muyuna, Tena, Napo, Ecuador. Electronic address:

Bothrops atrox is the most clinically relevant snake species within the Amazon region, which includes Ecuadorian territories. It comprises a large distribution, which could contribute to the genetic and venomic variation identified in the species. The high variability and protein isoform diversity of its venom are of medical interest, since it can influence the clinical manifestations caused by envenomation and its treatment. However, in Ecuador there is insufficient information on the diversity of venomic phenotypes, even of relevant species such as B. atrox. Here, we characterized the biochemical and toxicological profiles of the venom of six B. atrox individuals from the Ecuadorian Amazon. Differences in catalytic activities of toxins, elution profiles in liquid chromatography, electrophoretic patterns, and toxic effects among the analyzed samples were identified. Nonetheless, in the preclinical testing of antivenom, two samples from Mera (Pastaza) required a higher dose to achieve total neutralization of lethality and hemorrhage. Taken together, these data highlight the importance of analyzing individual venoms in studies focused on the outcomes of envenoming.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.toxicon.2021.01.007DOI Listing
April 2021

Algorithm for Treatment of Supernumerary Nasal Tooth.

J Craniofac Surg 2021 Jan-Feb 01;32(1):e38-e41

Department of Surgery, Paraiba Federal University, João Pessoa, Brazil.

Abstract: The presence of a tooth in the nasal cavity is a rare condition. There is an even more rare association, which is the presence with the mineral's deposition and formation of rhinoliths. This report shows a case of rare nasal tooth associated with rhinolithiasis and describes its surgical treatment based on an algorithm. The diagnosis was made by endoscopy with the aid of computed tomography, followed by surgical endoscopy excision. The algorithm and the proposed treatment was successful in its execution and the patient presents no complaints or complications at 3 years after surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006868DOI Listing
June 2021

dosimetry of low-dose rate brachytherapy using radioactive nanoparticles.

Phys Med Biol 2020 Dec 23. Epub 2020 Dec 23.

DEPART. ENG. NUCLEAR, UFMG, CAMPUS, PAMPULHA, Belo Horizonte, MINAS GERAIS, 31270-901, BRAZIL.

Purpose: Nanoparticles (NPs) with radioactive atoms incorporated within the structure of the NP or bound to its surface, functionalized with biomolecules are reported as an alternative to low-dose-rate seed-based brachytherapy. In this study, authors report a mathematical dosimetric study on low-dose rate brachytherapy using radioactive NPs.

Method: Single-cell dosimetry was performed by calculating cellular S-values for spherical cell model using Au-198, Pd-103 and Sm-153 NPs. The cell survival and tumour volume vs time curves were calculated and compared to the experimental studies on radiotherapeutic efficiency of radioactive NPs published in the literature. Finally, the radiotherapeutic efficiency of Au-198, Pd-103 and Sm-153 NPs was tested for variable: administered radioactivity, tumour volume and tumour cell type.

Result: At the cellular level Sm-153 presented the highest S-value, followed by Pd-103 and Au-198. The calculated cell survival and tumour volume curves match very well with the published experimental results. It was found that Au-198 and Sm-153can effectively treat highly aggressive, large tumour volumes with low radioactivity.

Conclusion: The accurate knowledge of uptake rate, washout rate of NPs, radio-sensitivity and tumour repopulation rate is important for the calculation of cell survival curves. The self-absorption of emitted radiation and dose enhancement due to AuNPsmust be considered in the calculations. Selection of radionuclide for radioactive NP must consider size of tumour, repopulation rate and radiosensitivity of tumour cells.Au-198 NPs functionalized with Mangiferin are a suitable choice for treating large, radioresistant and rapidly growing tumours.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6560/abd671DOI Listing
December 2020

Accelerometry-based variables in professional soccer players: comparisons between periods of the season and playing positions.

Biol Sport 2020 Dec 10;37(4):389-403. Epub 2020 Jul 10.

Department of Exercise and Health Sciences, University of Taipei, Taipei 11153, Taiwan.

The aim of this study was to provide reference data of variation in external training loads for weekly periods within the annual season. Specifically, we aimed to compare the weekly acute load, monotony, and training strain of accelerometry-based measures across a professional soccer season (pre-season, first and second halves of the season) according to players' positions. Nineteen professional players were monitored daily for 45 weeks using an 18-Hz global positioning system to obtain measures of high metabolic load distance (HMLD), impacts, and high intensity accelerations and decelerations. Workload indices of acute load, training monotony, and training strain were calculated weekly for each of the measures. The HMLD had greater training strain values in the pre-season than in the first (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.793) and second halves of the season (p ≤ 0.001; d = 0.858). Comparisons between playing positions showed that midfielders had the highest weekly acute load of HMLD (6901 arbitrary units [AU]), while central defenders had the lowest (4986 AU). The pre-season period was associated with the highest acute and strain load of HMLD and number of impacts, with a progressive decrease seen during the season. In conclusion, coaches should consider paying greater attention to variations in HMLD and impacts between periods of the season and between players to individualize training accordingly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.5114/biolsport.2020.96852DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7725036PMC
December 2020

Monte Carlo assessment of low energy electron range in liquid water and dosimetry effects.

Phys Med 2020 Dec 4;80:363-372. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Departamento de Engenharia Nuclear (DEN/UFMG) & Programa de Pós-graduação em Ciências e Técnicas Nucleares (PCTN), Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Av. Antônio Carlos, 6627, Pampulha, 31270-901 Belo Horizonte, MG, Brazil. Electronic address:

The effects of low energy electrons in biological tissues have proved to lead to severe damages at the cellular and sub-cellular level. It is due to an increase in the relative biological effectiveness (RBE) of these electrons with a decrease in their penetration range. That is, lower the range higher will be its RBE.Therefore, accurate determination of low energy electron range becomes a key issue for radiation dosimetry. This work reports on in-water electron tracks evaluated at low kinetic energy (1-50 keV) using isotropic mono-energetic point source approach suitably implemented by different general-purpose Monte Carlo codes. For this aim, simulations were performed using PENELOPE, EGSnrc, MCNP6, FLUKA and Geant4-DNA Monte Carlo codes to obtain the particle range, R,R,R. Finally, evaluation of dose point kernel (DPK), as used for internal dosimetry, was carried out as an application example. Scaled dose point kernels (sDPK) were estimated for a range of mono-energetic low energy electron sources. The non-negligible differences among the calculated sDPK using different codes were obtained for energy electrons up to 5 keV. It was also observed that differences of in-water range for low-energy electrons, due to the different general-purpose Monte Carlo codes, affected the DPKs used for dosimetry by convolution approach. Finally, the 3D dosimetry was found to be almost not affected at macroscopic clinical scale, whereas non-negligible differences appeared at the microscopic level. Hence, a thorough validation of the used sDPKs have to be performed before they could be used in applications to derive any conclusions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejmp.2020.11.013DOI Listing
December 2020

A Simple Method of Transoperative Maxillomandibular Fixation in Pediatric Facial Fractures.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Piracicaba School of Dentistry, University of Campinas- UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Maxillomandibular fixation in pediatric facial fractures is quite challenging to be achieved, especially in mid-mixed dentition. Traditional well established intermaxillary devices have a lot of limitations in these patients. This article presents a case of a 9-year-old female patient with a displaced mandibular fracture in which orthodontic buttons were used for transoperative maxillomandibular fixation followed by internal fixation after adequate occlusion reestablishment and fracture reduction. The method showed high efficacy and celerity, allowing the success of treatment, with satisfactory evolution of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007279DOI Listing
November 2020

A Simple Method of Transoperative Maxillomandibular Fixation in Pediatric Facial Fractures.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 25. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Piracicaba School of Dentistry, University of Campinas- UNICAMP, Piracicaba, Brazil.

Maxillomandibular fixation in pediatric facial fractures is quite challenging to be achieved, especially in mid-mixed dentition. Traditional well established intermaxillary devices have a lot of limitations in these patients. This article presents a case of a 9-year-old female patient with a displaced mandibular fracture in which orthodontic buttons were used for transoperative maxillomandibular fixation followed by internal fixation after adequate occlusion reestablishment and fracture reduction. The method showed high efficacy and celerity, allowing the success of treatment, with satisfactory evolution of the patient.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007279DOI Listing
November 2020

Management of Unicistic Ameloblastoma in Young Patient: Reducing Social Consequences.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Nov 4. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, General Hospital of Cuiaba.

Ameloblastoma is an odontogenic tumor of significant clinical relevance, aggressive and locally invasive. Although the posterior region of the mandible is more frequently affected, lesions observed in the maxilla should receive special attention due to the risk of expansion to the nasal, paranasal and orbital structures. This report shows a successful case of a maxillary ameloblastoma treated by combining therapies in a young patient. The treatment strategy adopted to reduce and redefine the lesion dimensions enabled enucleation in a safe way, without destruction of adjacent noble structures. It also allowed complementary approach with peripheral ostectomy and sclerosing agent, efficiently, without evidence of recurrence or complications after 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000007001DOI Listing
November 2020

Physical exercise protocols in animal models of Alzheimer's disease: a systematic review.

Metab Brain Dis 2021 01 23;36(1):85-95. Epub 2020 Oct 23.

Multicenter Post Graduation Program in Physiological Sciences, Brazilian Society of Physiology, Federal University of the Valleys of Jequitinhonha and Mucuri, Diamantina, Minas Gerais, Brazil.

Several animal studies have showed the beneficial effects of physical exercise (PE) on brain function and health. Alzheimer's Disease (AD) is the most common type of dementia, characterized by the presence of aggregated extracellular amyloid-beta (Aβ) and neurofibrillary tangles, with progressive cognitive decline. Therapeutic approaches such as PE showed to be effective in halting AD progression. Here, we present a systematic review about PE and AD. The search was carried out using the PubMed and LILACS databases. The following keywords were used: Alzheimer; PE; animal model. All found studies adopted aerobic exercise training as the PE protocol (100%). We identified running on treadmill as the most commonly used PE routine (62.5%). The duration of each session, intensity, frequency, and period of training most used were 60 min/day (62.5%), moderate intensity (87.5%), 5 days/week (62.5%), and 4 (37.5%) or 12 (37.5%) weeks, respectively. The AD animal models most used were the Tg APP/PS1ΔE9 (25%), models based on i.c.v. infusion of AβOs (25%) and streptozotocin (25%). All protocols used rodents to their experiments (100%), but mice were the most common (62.5%). Finally, the main results presented in all studies were capable to reduce significantly AD consequences, such as reducing Aβ or pro-inflammatory proteins levels (100%). The lack of resistance training protocols in animal models of AD indicates a huge gap that should be investigated in future studies. We suggest that PE protocols must be adapted according to the specie, lineage and life span of the animal.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11011-020-00633-zDOI Listing
January 2021

Effects of knee flexor submaximal isometric contraction until exhaustion on semitendinosus and biceps femoris long head shear modulus in healthy individuals.

Sci Rep 2020 10 2;10(1):16433. Epub 2020 Oct 2.

Desporto e Saúde, CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002, Cruz Quebrada Dafundo, Portugal.

This study examined whether a knee flexor isometric contraction at 20% of maximal voluntary isometric contraction until exhaustion would alter the biceps femoris long head (BFlh) and semitendinosus (ST) active stiffness, assessed using ultrasound-based shear wave elastography. Twelve healthy individuals participated in 2 sessions separated by 7 days. Time to exhaustion was similar in both sessions (day 1: 443.8 ± 192.5 s; day 2: 474.6 ± 131.7 s; p = 0.323). At the start of the fatigue task, the ST showed greater active stiffness than the BFlh (p < 0.001), with no differences between days (p = 0.08). The ST active stiffness then decreased from 40% of the task time to exhaustion (- 2.2 to - 13.3%, p = 0.027) until the end of the task (- 16.1 to - 22.9%, p = 0.012), while no significant changes were noted in the BFlh (p = 0.771). Immediately after the fatigue task, a decrease in active stiffness was observed in the ST (- 11.8 to - 17.8%, p < 0.001), but not in the BFlh (p = 0.551). Results were consistent between the 2 testing sessions (p = 0.07-0.959). The present results indicate that fatigue alters the hamstring active stiffness pattern.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-73433-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7532170PMC
October 2020

Cruzioseptins, antibacterial peptides from Cruziohyla calcarifer skin, as promising leishmanicidal agents.

Pathog Dis 2020 09;78(6)

Departamento de Biologia Animal, Instituto de Biologia, Universidade Estadual de Campinas (UNICAMP), Campinas, São Paulo, Brasil. CEP 13083-862.

Screenings of natural products have significantly contributed to the discovery of novel leishmanicidal agents. In this study, three known cruzioseptins-antibacterial peptides from Cruziohyla calcarifer skin-were synthesized and evaluated against promastigotes and amastigotes stages of Leishmania (L.) amazonensis and L. (V.) braziliensis. EC50 ranged from 9.17 to 74.82 μM, being cruzioseptin-1 the most active and selective compound, with selectivity index > 10 for both promastigotes and amastigotes of L. (V.) braziliensis. In vitro infections incubated with cruzioseptins at 50 μM showed up to ∼86% reduction in the amastigote number. Cruzioseptins were able to destabilize the parasite's cell membrane, allowing the incorporation of a DNA-fluorescent dye. Our data also demonstrated that hydrophobicity and charge appear to be advantageous features for enhancing parasiticidal activity. Antimicrobial cruzioseptins are suitable candidates and alternative molecules that deserve further in vivo investigation focusing on the development of novel antileishmanial therapies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femspd/ftaa053DOI Listing
September 2020

Perception of sleep duration in adult patients with suspected obstructive sleep apnea.

PLoS One 2020 27;15(8):e0238083. Epub 2020 Aug 27.

Department of Child Health and Child Health Research Institute, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, Missouri, United States of America.

Purpose: Discrepancies between subjective and objective measures of total sleep time (TST) are frequent among insomnia patients, but this issue remains scarcely investigated in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA). We aimed to evaluate if sleep perception is affected by the severity of OSA.

Methods: We performed a 3-month cross-sectional study of Brazilian adults undergoing overnight polysomnography (PSG). TST was objectively assessed from PSG and by a self-reported questionnaire (subjective measurement). Sleep perception index (SPI) was defined by the ratio of subjective and objective values. Diagnosis of OSA was based on an apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) ≥ 5.0/h, being its severity classified according to AHI thresholds: 5.0-14.9/h (mild OSA), 15.0-29.9/h (moderate OSA), and ≥ 30.0/h (severe OSA).

Results: Overall, 727 patients were included (58.0% males). A significant difference was found in SPI between non-OSA and OSA groups (p = 0.014). Mean SPI values significantly decreased as the OSA severity increased: without OSA (100.1 ± 40.9%), mild OSA (95.1 ± 24.6%), moderate OSA (93.5 ± 25.2%), and severe OSA (90.6 ± 28.2%), p = 0.036. Using logistic regression, increasing SPI was associated with a reduction in the likelihood of presenting any OSA (p = 0.018), moderate/severe OSA (p = 0.019), and severe OSA (p = 0.028). However, insomnia was not considered as an independent variable for the presence of any OSA, moderate/severe OSA, and severe OSA (all p-values > 0.05).

Conclusion: In a clinical referral cohort, SPI significantly decreases with increasing OSA severity, but is not modified by the presence of insomnia symptoms.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0238083PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7451567PMC
October 2020

Does the distribution of the weekly training load account for the match results of elite professional soccer players?

Physiol Behav 2020 10 1;225:113118. Epub 2020 Aug 1.

Falculty of Human Kinetics, University of Lisboa, Lisboa, Portugal.

Purpose: The aim of the study was to compare training load (TL) of the days preceding a win, draw or defeat in a sample of elite professional soccer players across the in-season 2015/16.

Methods: Twenty elite soccer players participated in this study. Total distance covered, high-speed running distance (HSRD), average speed, session rate of perceived exertion (s-RPE) and Hooper index scores (HI) were collected. Data from 24 weeks with one match were analysed through the match-day (MD-5, 4, 3, 2, 1) and MD+1.

Results: The main finding emerges in MD-1, where a longer training duration preceding draws (95.1 ± 1.5 min) > defeats (91.5 ± 1.6 min) > wins (84.7 ± 0.5 min) was found, while total distance and average speed were higher in wins (3628.6 ± 57.2 m) > draws (3391.3 ± 153.3 m) > defeats (3236.1 ± 113.7 m) and draws (130.7 ± 17.6 m/min) > wins (86.0 ± 6.9 m/min) > defeats (54.8 ± 7.1 m/min), respectively. HSRD was higher in draws (42.8 ± 0.6 m) > wins (36.1 ± 1.7 m) > defeats (35.8 ± 1.7 m). In MD+1, there were differences in HI between wins vs draws (p<0.01).

Conclusions: The results are drawn from one team that participated in UEFA Champions League. It was observed that different TL applied in training sessions can influence match result. Our findings can be considered in future soccer planning and periodization to win matches. This study emphasizes the use of HI especially in the day following the match.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.physbeh.2020.113118DOI Listing
October 2020

Nasal versus oronasal mask in patients under auto-adjusting continuous positive airway pressure titration: a real-life study.

Eur Arch Otorhinolaryngol 2020 Dec 28;277(12):3507-3512. Epub 2020 Jul 28.

Department of Child Health, University of Missouri School of Medicine, Columbia, USA.

Purpose: Mask type (nasal versus oronasal) can affect the optimal pressure required to correct the apnea/hypopnea index (AHI) in obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) subjects treated with CPAP. Our objective was to evaluate if mask type influenced CPAP titration outcomes in OSA patients.

Methods: A retrospective study of individuals with a baseline AHI ≥ 15.0/h, who received an auto-adjusting CPAP titrating device (S9 AutoSet ResMed) in a sleep-lab setting. The mask type oronasal (OM) or nasal (NM) was always selected by the patients. Optimal pressure requirements, leak, and residual AHI were compared based on mask type.

Results: Overall, 436 patients were included: 283 with NM (64.9%) and 153 with OM (35.1%). At baseline, NM and OM cohorts had similar AHI (p = 0.160). Patients allocated to the OM cohort had a higher 95th percentile pressure, a higher 95th percentile leak, and a higher residual AHI than those with a NM: pressure requirement: 12.9 cm HO (IQR: 10.6-15.0) versus 10.7 cm HO (IQR: 9.2-12.3); leak: 21.6 L/min (IQR: 9.6-37.2) versus 9.6 L/min (IQR: 3.6-19.2); and residual AHI: 4.9/h (IQR: 2.4-10.2) versus 2.2/h (IQR: 1.0-4.4), respectively (p < 0.001 for all).

Conclusions: CPAP mask type based on individual preferences exerts profound effects on optimal CPAP pressures and efficacy. Patients titrated with OM showed higher pressure requirements, had higher a leak, and higher residual AHI when compared to NM, which may adversely impact treatment adherence and other health outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00405-020-06242-xDOI Listing
December 2020

Lip Synechia Resulting From Toxic Epidermal Necrolysis: A Rare Condition.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Sep;31(6):e593-e595

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery and Anesthesiology, Franca University, Franca, Brazil.

Toxic epidermal necrolyses represent a severe epidermolytic reaction characterized by cutaneous erythema and target lesions affecting >30% of the body surface, skin, and mucous membranes. Ulcerative lesions on the labial mucosa may evolve during healing, resulting in rare complications, such as lip adhesions. This report shows the successful treatment of a lip synechia resulting from the healing of mucosal lesions in a patient with toxic epidermal necrolysis caused by the use of Lamotrigine and Ibuprofen. Although the treatment of the presented lip synechia was simple, this sequela can be avoided by measures such as hydration, hygiene and lip lubrication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006662DOI Listing
September 2020

Comparative Evaluation of Bone Repair with Four Different Bone Substitutes in Critical Size Defects.

Int J Biomater 2020 23;2020:5182845. Epub 2020 May 23.

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Diagnostic and Surgery, Aracatuba School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Aracatuba, Sao Paulo, Brazil.

This study evaluated the osteoconductive potential of four biomaterials used to fill bone defects. For this, 24 male Albino rabbits were submitted to the creation of a bilateral 8 mm calvarial bone defect. The animals were divided into four groups-bovine hydroxyapatite, Bio-Oss® (BIO); Lumina-Bone Porous® (LBP); Bonefill® (BFL); and an alloplastic material, Clonos® (CLN)-and were euthanized at 14 and 40 days. The samples were subjected to histological and histometric analysis for newly formed bone area. Immunohistochemical analysis for Runt-related transcription factor 2 (Runx2), vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF), and osteocalcin (OC) was performed. After statistical analysis, the CLN group showed greater new bone formation (NB) in both periods analyzed ( < 0.05). At 14 days, the NB showed greater values in BIO in relation to LBP and BFL groups; however, after 40 days, the LBP group surpassed the results of BIO ( < 0.001). The immunostaining showed a decrease in Runx2 intensity in BIO after 40 days, while it increased for LBP ( < 0.05). The CLN showed increased OC compared to the other groups in both periods analyzed ( < 0.05). Therefore, CLN showed the best osteoconductive behavior in critical defects in rabbit calvaria, and BFL showed the lowest osteoconductive property.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/5182845DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7262656PMC
May 2020

Firearm Projectile in the Preauricular Region: Why Remove It?

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):1495-1496

Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos (UNIFESO), Teresópolis Araçatuba Dental School--Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araçatuba Centro Universitário Serra dos Órgãos (UNIFESO), Teresópolis Araraquara Dental School--Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araçatuba General Hospital of Nova Iguaçu, Nova Iguaçu, Brazil.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006562DOI Listing
May 2020

Weekly Load Variations of Distance-Based Variables in Professional Soccer Players: A Full-Season Study.

Int J Environ Res Public Health 2020 05 9;17(9). Epub 2020 May 9.

Centre for Research, Education, Innovation and Intervention in Sport, Faculty of Sport, University of Porto, R. Dr. Plácido da Costa 91, 4200-450 Porto, Portugal.

The aim of this study was two-fold: (1) to analyze the variations of acute load, training monotony, and training strain among early (pre-season), mid (first half of season), and end season (second half of season) periods; (2) to compare these training indicators for playing positions in different moments of the season. Nineteen professional players (age: 26.5 ± 4.3 years; experience as professional: 7.5 ± 4.3 years) from a European First League team participated in this study. The players were monitored daily over a 45-week period for the total distance (TD), distance covered (DC) at 14 km/h or above (DC > 14 km/h), high-speed running above 19.8 km/h (HSR) distance, and number of sprints above 25.2 km/h. The acute load (sum of load during a week), training monotony (mean of training load during the seven days of the week divided by the standard deviation of the training load of the seven days), and training strain (sum of the training load for all training sessions and matches during a week multiplied by training monotony) workload indices were calculated weekly for each measure and per player. Results revealed that training monotony and training strain for HSR were meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of the in-season ( ≤ 0.001; d = 0.883 and ≤ 0.001; d = 0.712, respectively) and greater than the second half of the in-season ( ≤ 0.001; d = 0.718 and ≤ 0.001; d = 0.717). The training monotony for the sprints was meaningfully greater in pre-season than in the first half of in-season ( < 0.001; d = 0.953) and greater than the second half of in-season ( ≤ 0.001; d = 0.916). Comparisons between playing positions revealed that small-to-moderate effect sizes differences mainly for the number of sprints in acute load, training monotony, and training strain. In conclusion, the study revealed that greater acute load, training monotony, and training strain occurred in the pre-season and progressively decreased across the season. Moreover, external defenders and wingers were subjected to meaningfully greater acute load and training strain for HSR and number of sprints during the season compared to the remaining positions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijerph17093300DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7246436PMC
May 2020

Is Biceps Femoris Aponeurosis Size an Independent Risk Factor for Strain Injury?

Int J Sports Med 2020 Jul 14;41(8):552-557. Epub 2020 Apr 14.

CIPER, Faculdade de Motricidade Humana, Universidade de Lisboa, Estrada da Costa, 1499-002, Cruz Quebrada, Dafundo, Portugal.

This study examined whether professional footballers with previous biceps femoris long head (BF) injury in the last 3-years present a smaller proximal aponeurosis (Apo-BF) size compared to footballers with no previous injury. We examined the Apo-BF and BF size using magnetic resonance imaging and tested the knee flexor maximal isometric strength in 80 thighs of 40 footballers. Apo-BF size parameters were processed using a semi-automated procedure. Outcomes were compared between thighs with (n=9) vs. without (n=71) previous BF injury. No differences were observed between injured and non-injured thighs for the Apo-BF and BF size parameters (p>0.05) except for Apo-BF volume, which was higher in the non-injured thighs of athletes with previous injury (3692.1±2638.4 mm3, p<0.006) compared to the left (2274.1±798.7 mm3) thighs of athletes without previous injury. A higher knee flexor isometric strength was observed in the injured limb of athletes with previous BF injury (196.5±31.9 Nm, p<0.003) compared to the left (156.2±31.4 Nm) and right (160.0±31.4 Nm) thighs of non-injured athletes. The present results suggest that BF proximal aponeurosis size should not be considered as an independent risk factor for strain injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/a-1028-7322DOI Listing
July 2020

Orbital Trapdoor Facture in Child: More Predictable Outcomes and Less Consequences.

J Craniofac Surg 2020 Jul-Aug;31(5):e469-e471

Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Department of Diagnostic and Surgery, Araraquara School of Dentistry, Sao Paulo State University (UNESP), Araraquara.

Orbital trapdoor fractures are characterized by tissue entrapment between the fractured bone fragment and the remnant of the orbital floor. This entrapment can result in immediate local and systemic complications and poor outcomes when approached late. This article presents the case of an orbital floor fracture in a child with dystopia, pain, edema and entrapment of the inferior rectus muscle and consequent limitation of ocular motility. The strategy proposed in the early approach to orbital floor reconstruction and release of incarcerated tissue allowed the patient to achieve satisfactory results without morbidity, as compared to the outcomes of corrective sequel surgery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SCS.0000000000006438DOI Listing
November 2020
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