Publications by authors named "Bruno Mathieu"

28 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Culicoides imicola (Biting Midge).

Trends Parasitol 2021 Mar 26. Epub 2021 Mar 26.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pt.2021.03.001DOI Listing
March 2021

Update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) species checklist from Algeria with 10 new records.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Sep 10;13(1):463. Epub 2020 Sep 10.

ASTRE, University of Montpellier, CIRAD, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: The Culicoides fauna of Algeria has been historically investigated, leading to the description of many new species by Kieffer in the 1920s, Clastrier in the 1950s or Callot in the 1960s and to a comprehensive inventory by Szadziewski in the 1980s. The emergence of bluetongue in the late 1990s enhanced Culicoides collections made in the country over the last two decades, but information remained mostly unpublished. The aim of this study is therefore to provide a comprehensive and updated checklist of Culicoides biting midge species in Algeria.

Methods: The literature (published and grey, in French and in English) from 1920 to date on Culicoides collections in Algeria was collected and analyzed in the light of the current taxonomic and systematic knowledge and methods. Fresh Culicoides material was also analyzed using light/suction trap collections carried out from November 2015 to September 2018 in nine localities of the 'wilayah' of Tiaret (northwestern Algeria). Slide mounted specimens were identified morphologically using the interactive identification key IIKC and original descriptions. Specimens were then compared with non-type material originating from different countries and partly with type material.

Results: A total of 13,709 Culicoides, belonging to at least 36 species within 10 subgenera, were examined leading to 10 new records in Algeria, including C. chiopterus, C. dewulfi, C. navaiae, C. grisescens, C. paradoxalis, C. shaklawensis, C. simulator, C. univittatus, C. achrayi and C. picturatus. These new records and all previous records provided by the literature review were discussed.

Conclusions: We propose a Culicoides checklist for the Algerian fauna of 59 valid species, including species mainly with a large Palaearctic distribution and a specific Mediterranean distribution, and only a few species from the Afrotropical region. Among them, several species, mainly of the subgenera Avaritia and Culicoides, are confirmed or probable vectors of arboviruses important in animal health.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04335-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7488159PMC
September 2020

The tree that hides the forest: cryptic diversity and phylogenetic relationships in the Palaearctic vector Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) at the European level.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 20;13(1):265. Epub 2020 May 20.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRAE, Montpellier, France.

Background: Culicoides obsoletus is an abundant and widely distributed Holarctic biting midge species, involved in the transmission of bluetongue virus (BTV) and Schmallenberg virus (SBV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Females of this vector species are often reported jointly with two morphologically very close species, C. scoticus and C. montanus, forming the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex. Recently, cryptic diversity within C. obsoletus was reported in geographically distant sites. Clear delineation of species and characterization of genetic variability is mandatory to revise their taxonomic status and assess the vector role of each taxonomic entity. Our objectives were to characterize and map the cryptic diversity within the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Methods: Portion of the cox1 mitochondrial gene of 3763 individuals belonging to the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex was sequenced. Populations from 20 countries along a Palaearctic Mediterranean transect covering Scandinavia to Canary islands (North to South) and Canary islands to Turkey (West to East) were included. Genetic diversity based on cox1 barcoding was supported by 16S rDNA mitochondrial gene sequences and a gene coding for ribosomal 28S rDNA. Species delimitation using a multi-marker methodology was used to revise the current taxonomic scheme of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex.

Results: Our analysis showed the existence of three phylogenetic clades (C. obsoletus clade O2, C. obsoletus clade dark and one not yet named and identified) within C. obsoletus. These analyses also revealed two intra-specific clades within C. scoticus and raised questions about the taxonomic status of C. montanus.

Conclusions: To our knowledge, our study provides the first genetic characterization of the Obsoletus/Scoticus Complex on a large geographical scale and allows a revision of the current taxonomic classification for an important group of vector species of livestock viruses in the Palaearctic region.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04114-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7238629PMC
May 2020

A phylogenetic analysis of the biting midges belonging to Culicoides Latreille (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) subgenus Avaritia using molecular data.

Parasit Vectors 2020 May 12;13(1):243. Epub 2020 May 12.

ASTRE, Univ Montpellier, Cirad, INRA, Montpellier, France.

Background: Within the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), the subgenus Avaritia is of particular interest as it contains a significant number of economically important vector species. Disagreements about the systematic classification of species within this subgenus have resulted in a taxonomic imbroglio.

Methods: A molecular phylogeny of the subgenus Avaritia was conducted to test the existing systematic classification, which is based on phenetic assessment of morphological characters. Three nuclear ribosomal markers, internal transcribed spacer 1 and 2 (ITS1, ITS2), 5.8S, and three mitochondrial markers, cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 and 2, and cytochrome b (cox1, cox2 and cytb), were obtained for 37 species of the subgenus Avaritia from all six biogeographical regions. Phylogenetic reconstructions using these genes independently and in combination were implemented using Bayesian inference analysis and maximum likelihood methods.

Results: Phylogenetic reconstructions gave strong support to several monophyletic groups within the subgenus Avaritia. Both C. actoni and C. pusillus formed a single clade with C. grahamii so their respective groups, the Actoni and Pusillus groups, have been merged with the Grahamii group. Some support was provided for the Boophagus and Jacobsoni groups. A group of species currently placed into the Orientalis group clustered in a clade with poor support. The Obsoletus group was defined as a sister clade to all other Avaritia groups. The clade including the Imicola group was well supported based on phylogenetic criteria.

Conclusions: This phylogenetic study combining five distinct molecular markers has provided meaningful insights into the systematic relationships of Culicoides (Avaritia) and highlighted future directions to continue the study of this subgenus. While the cox2 marker appeared to be useful to investigate closely related species, the 5.8S marker was highly conserved and uninformative. Further investigations including species absent from this work are needed to confirm the proposed systematic scheme. However, this systematic scheme can now serve as a foundation to investigate cryptic species affiliation within the subgenus. We advocate that future studies employ a combination of morphological and molecular analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04111-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7216621PMC
May 2020

Modelling the monthly abundance of Culicoides biting midges in nine European countries using Random Forests machine learning.

Parasit Vectors 2020 Apr 15;13(1):194. Epub 2020 Apr 15.

Division for Diagnostics and Scientific Advice, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark.

Background: Culicoides biting midges transmit viruses resulting in disease in ruminants and equids such as bluetongue, Schmallenberg disease and African horse sickness. In the past decades, these diseases have led to important economic losses for farmers in Europe. Vector abundance is a key factor in determining the risk of vector-borne disease spread and it is, therefore, important to predict the abundance of Culicoides species involved in the transmission of these pathogens. The objectives of this study were to model and map the monthly abundances of Culicoides in Europe.

Methods: We obtained entomological data from 904 farms in nine European countries (Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Poland, Denmark, Sweden and Norway) from 2007 to 2013. Using environmental and climatic predictors from satellite imagery and the machine learning technique Random Forests, we predicted the monthly average abundance at a 1 km resolution. We used independent test sets for validation and to assess model performance.

Results: The predictive power of the resulting models varied according to month and the Culicoides species/ensembles predicted. Model performance was lower for winter months. Performance was higher for the Obsoletus ensemble, followed by the Pulicaris ensemble, while the model for Culicoides imicola showed a poor performance. Distribution and abundance patterns corresponded well with the known distributions in Europe. The Random Forests model approach was able to distinguish differences in abundance between countries but was not able to predict vector abundance at individual farm level.

Conclusions: The models and maps presented here represent an initial attempt to capture large scale geographical and temporal variations in Culicoides abundance. The models are a first step towards producing abundance inputs for R modelling of Culicoides-borne infections at a continental scale.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04053-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7161244PMC
April 2020

The Trick of the Hedgehog: Case Report and Short Review About Archaeopsylla erinacei (Siphonaptera: Pulicidae) in Human Health.

J Med Entomol 2020 01;57(1):318-323

Institut de Parasitologie et Pathologie Tropicale, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Fleas are ectoparasites of various animals, including Homo sapiens Linnaeus, 1758 (Primates: Hominidae). Among the species relevant to the human health field, either due to their dermatopathological potential or because of their role as vectors of microorganisms responsible for infectious diseases, such as plague or murine typhus, are the human flea, oriental rat flea, closely related cat and dog fleas, and chigoe flea. However, other species can accidentally infest humans. We have herein reported two unusual cases of humans infested and bitten by Archaeopsylla erinacei, the hedgehog flea. This species has been identified using stereomicroscopy, on the base of key characteristics. Furthermore, a brief literature review has revealed that hedgehog fleas could carry human-infectious agents, such as Rickettsia felis Bouyer et al. 2001 (Rickettsiales: Rickettsiaceae) or Bartonella henselae Regnery et al.1992 (Rhizobiales: Bartonellaceae). Using molecular biology, we thus tested nine A. erinacei specimens taken from these patients, for several bacteria species commonly associated with hematophagous arthropods, implicated in human pathology. However, all our samples were proven negative. The role of A. erinacei in human epidemiology has never been evaluated to date. This report sought to remind us that these fleas can be accidental parasites in humans. In addition, recent findings pertaining to bacteria of medical interest that are present in these insects should be brought to the fore, given that the question of their role as vectors in human infections remains unanswered and deserves further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jme/tjz157DOI Listing
January 2020

Red deer () Did Not Play the Role of Maintenance Host for Bluetongue Virus in France: The Burden of Proof by Long-Term Wildlife Monitoring and Snapshots.

Viruses 2019 09 27;11(10). Epub 2019 Sep 27.

UMR Virologie, INRA, Ecole Nationale Vétérinaire d'Alfort, laboratoire de santé animale d'Alfort, ANSES, Université Paris-Est, 94700 Maisons-Alfort, France, (C.V.).

Bluetongue virus (BTV) is a -borne pathogen infecting both domestic and wild ruminants. In Europe, the Red Deer () (RD) is considered a potential BTV reservoir, but persistent sylvatic cycle has not yet been demonstrated. In this paper, we explored the dynamics of BTV1 and BTV8 serotypes in the RD in France, and the potential role of that species in the re-emergence of BTV8 in livestock by 2015 (i.e., 5 years after the former last domestic cases). We performed 8 years of longitudinal monitoring (2008-2015) among 15 RD populations and 3065 individuals. We compared communities and feeding habits within domestic and wild animal environments (51,380 samples). diversity (>30 species) varied between them, but bridge-species able to feed on both wild and domestic hosts were abundant in both situations. Despite the presence of competent vectors in natural environments, BTV1 and BTV8 strains never spread in RD along the green corridors out of the domestic outbreak range. Decreasing antibody trends with no PCR results two years after the last domestic outbreak suggests that seropositive young RD were not recently infected but carried maternal antibodies. We conclude that RD did not play a role in spreading or maintaining BTV in France.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/v11100903DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832957PMC
September 2019

Monthly variation in the probability of presence of adult Culicoides populations in nine European countries and the implications for targeted surveillance.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Nov 29;11(1):608. Epub 2018 Nov 29.

Division for Diagnostics and Scientific Advice, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Lyngby, Denmark.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are small hematophagous insects responsible for the transmission of bluetongue virus, Schmallenberg virus and African horse sickness virus to wild and domestic ruminants and equids. Outbreaks of these viruses have caused economic damage within the European Union. The spatio-temporal distribution of biting midges is a key factor in identifying areas with the potential for disease spread. The aim of this study was to identify and map areas of neglectable adult activity for each month in an average year. Average monthly risk maps can be used as a tool when allocating resources for surveillance and control programs within Europe.

Methods: We modelled the occurrence of C. imicola and the Obsoletus and Pulicaris ensembles using existing entomological surveillance data from Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Poland. The monthly probability of each vector species and ensembles being present in Europe based on climatic and environmental input variables was estimated with the machine learning technique Random Forest. Subsequently, the monthly probability was classified into three classes: Absence, Presence and Uncertain status. These three classes are useful for mapping areas of no risk, areas of high-risk targeted for animal movement restrictions, and areas with an uncertain status that need active entomological surveillance to determine whether or not vectors are present.

Results: The distribution of Culicoides species ensembles were in agreement with their previously reported distribution in Europe. The Random Forest models were very accurate in predicting the probability of presence for C. imicola (mean AUC = 0.95), less accurate for the Obsoletus ensemble (mean AUC = 0.84), while the lowest accuracy was found for the Pulicaris ensemble (mean AUC = 0.71). The most important environmental variables in the models were related to temperature and precipitation for all three groups.

Conclusions: The duration periods with low or null adult activity can be derived from the associated monthly distribution maps, and it was also possible to identify and map areas with uncertain predictions. In the absence of ongoing vector surveillance, these maps can be used by veterinary authorities to classify areas as likely vector-free or as likely risk areas from southern Spain to northern Sweden with acceptable precision. The maps can also focus costly entomological surveillance to seasons and areas where the predictions and vector-free status remain uncertain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3182-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267925PMC
November 2018

An update of the Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) checklist for the Balkans.

Parasit Vectors 2018 Aug 13;11(1):462. Epub 2018 Aug 13.

CIRAD, UMR ASTRE, F-34398, Montpellier, France.

Background: The prime significance of species belonging to the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) is their ability to transmit viruses such as bluetongue virus (BTV) to wild and domestic ruminants. Prior to 1998, BTV was considered exotic in Europe, but according to recent history of its outbreaks, it has become endemic in southern and eastern European countries circulating beyond its expected historical limits, into the Balkan region. The wind-borne long-distance dispersal of Culicoides spp. over water bodies and local spreading between farms emphasize the necessity of filling in the information gaps regarding vector species distribution. In most Balkan countries, data on Culicoides fauna and species distribution are lacking, or information is old and scarce.

Results: During this study, 8586 specimens belonging to 41 species were collected. We present the first faunistic data on Culicoides species in the former Yugoslav Republic of Macedonia (FYROM), Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia. For other countries (Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Croatia), all historical records were compiled for the first time and then expanded with our findings to various extents. In all countries, confirmed or suspected BTV vector species belonging to the subgenera Avaritia and Culicoides were collected. The total number of species sampled during our field collections was 20 in Bosnia and Herzegovina (15 new records), 10 in Bulgaria (2 new records), 10 in Croatia (5 new records), 13 in FYROM, 9 in Kosovo, 15 in Montenegro, and 28 in Serbia. Of these, 14 species were registered for the first time in this part of the Balkans.

Conclusions: This paper provides the first data about Culicoides fauna in FYROM, Kosovo, Montenegro and Serbia, as well as new records and an update on the checklists for Bosnia and Herzegovina, Bulgaria and Croatia. These findings provide preliminary insights into the routes of BTV introduction and spreading within the Balkans, and present a valuable contribution to further research related to Culicoides-borne diseases in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-3051-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6088421PMC
August 2018

Spatial and temporal variation in the abundance of Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in nine European countries.

Parasit Vectors 2018 02 27;11(1):112. Epub 2018 Feb 27.

Division for Diagnostics and Scientific Advice, National Veterinary Institute, Technical University of Denmark (DTU), Copenhagen, Denmark.

Background: Biting midges of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are vectors of bluetongue virus (BTV), African horse sickness virus and Schmallenberg virus (SBV). Outbreaks of both BTV and SBV have affected large parts of Europe. The spread of these diseases depends largely on vector distribution and abundance. The aim of this analysis was to identify and quantify major spatial patterns and temporal trends in the distribution and seasonal variation of observed Culicoides abundance in nine countries in Europe.

Methods: We gathered existing Culicoides data from Spain, France, Germany, Switzerland, Austria, Denmark, Sweden, Norway and Poland. In total, 31,429 Culicoides trap collections were available from 904 ruminant farms across these countries between 2007 and 2013.

Results: The Obsoletus ensemble was distributed widely in Europe and accounted for 83% of all 8,842,998 Culicoides specimens in the dataset, with the highest mean monthly abundance recorded in France, Germany and southern Norway. The Pulicaris ensemble accounted for only 12% of the specimens and had a relatively southerly and easterly spatial distribution compared to the Obsoletus ensemble. Culicoides imicola Kieffer was only found in Spain and the southernmost part of France. There was a clear spatial trend in the accumulated annual abundance from southern to northern Europe, with the Obsoletus ensemble steadily increasing from 4000 per year in southern Europe to 500,000 in Scandinavia. The Pulicaris ensemble showed a very different pattern, with an increase in the accumulated annual abundance from 1600 in Spain, peaking at 41,000 in northern Germany and then decreasing again toward northern latitudes. For the two species ensembles and C. imicola, the season began between January and April, with later start dates and increasingly shorter vector seasons at more northerly latitudes.

Conclusion: We present the first maps of seasonal Culicoides abundance in large parts of Europe covering a gradient from southern Spain to northern Scandinavia. The identified temporal trends and spatial patterns are useful for planning the allocation of resources for international prevention and surveillance programmes in the European Union.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-018-2706-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5828119PMC
February 2018

Molecular phylogeny of 42 species of Culicoides (Diptera, Ceratopogonidae) from three continents.

Parasite 2017 22;24:23. Epub 2017 Jun 22.

USC Vecpar, ANSES-LSA, Université de Reims Champagne-Ardenne, SFR Cap Santé, Faculté de Pharmacie, 51 rue Cognacq-Jay, EA 4688, Reims 51096, France.

The genus Culicoides includes vectors of important animal diseases such as bluetongue and Schmallenberg virus (BTV and SBV). This genus includes 1300 species classified in 32 subgenera and 38 unclassified species. However, the phylogenetic relationships between different subgenera of Culicoides have never been studied. Phylogenetic analyses of 42 species belonging to 12 subgenera and 8 ungrouped species of genus Culicoides from Ecuador, France, Gabon, Madagascar and Tunisia were carried out using two molecular markers (28S rDNA D1 and D2 domains and COI mtDNA). Sequences were subjected to non-probabilistic (maximum parsimony) and probabilistic (Bayesian inference (BI)) approaches. The subgenera Monoculicoides, Culicoides, Haematomyidium, Hoffmania, Remmia and Avaritia (including the main vectors of bluetongue disease) were monophyletic, whereas the subgenus Oecacta was paraphyletic. Our study validates the subgenus Remmia (= Schultzei group) as a valid subgenus, outside of the subgenus Oecacta. In Europe, Culicoides obsoletus, Culicoides scoticus and Culicoides chiopterus should be part of the Obsoletus complex whereas Culicoides dewulfi should be excluded from this complex. Our study suggests that the current Culicoides classification needs to be revisited with modern tools.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/parasite/2017020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5482051PMC
March 2018

Description of Culicoides (Culicoides) bysta n. sp., a new member of the Pulicaris group (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) from Slovakia.

Parasit Vectors 2017 Jun 2;10(1):279. Epub 2017 Jun 2.

Medicine Faculty, Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology (IPPTS), EA7292, 3 rue Koeberlé, F-67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background: Species of the genus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) are mainly known as vectors of arboviruses such as bluetongue (BTV) and Schmallenberg (SBV). Among the known vectors, few species within the subgenus Culicoides Latreille, 1809 have been implicated in the transmission of BTV and SBV. Nevertheless, phylogenetic studies had revealed the presence of cryptic and undescribed species in Europe, raising questions about their vectorial role. A previous integrative study, associating morphology and barcode data, raised the hypothesis of the presence of undescribed species in Slovakia. The present study, combining morphological and molecular approaches, is aimed to support the hypothesis and a description of Culicoides bysta n. sp. is provided.

Methods: Series of male and female specimens were dissected and several of them were sequenced for the barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase subunit 1 gene (cox1). Bayesian inference phylogenetic analyses based on 72 cox1 sequences of the species belonging to the Pulicaris group of the subgenus Culicoides, were carried out and the frequencies of intra/interspecific variations were analyzed. The morphology of abundant material of the new species (31 females and 12 males) was examined and compared with the paratypes of Culicoides boyi Nielsen, Kristensen & Pape, 2015 and with specimens of Culicoides pulicaris Linnaeus, 1758. For females, suture distances on the eyes were newly evaluated as a diagnostic character and for males we assessed a new measurement on the ninth tergite and on the apicolateral processes.

Results: Both phylogenetic analysis and barcode distances supported the distinct status of the new species, Culicoides bysta n. sp. described as a member of the Pulicaris group based on the morphology of males and females. The new species is closely related to C. boyi and C. pulicaris but can be distinguished on the basis of the wing pattern and the ratio between the two eye sutures. Both newly evaluated characters, i.e. eyes in females and male genitalia appeared to be diagnostic for distinguishing the new species described herein.

Conclusions: The vector potential of the recently described species C. boyi and C. bysta n. sp. to transmit arboviruses, such as BTV and SBV, is unknown. When considering these two species as being close to C. pulicaris, the previous data, such as the vector implication for C. pulicaris in BTV transmission, should be revaluated in future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-017-2195-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5457568PMC
June 2017

First insights into indoor and outdoor Culicoides activity related to the risk period for Bluetongue virus transmission in Eastern Slovakia.

Acta Parasitol 2016 Dec;61(4):743-755

The epizootic of Bluetongue virus (BTV) throughout Europe in 2006 revealed insufficient knowledge regarding seasonal activities, endo/exophilic and endo/exophagic behaviour of the species of the Culicoides genus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Although several studies have been carried out in Western Europe, bringing new knowledge of the above mentioned topics, there was still a gap to fill in Central Europe. Therefore, this study investigated seasonal variations in the indoor/outdoor Culicoides activity observed in the south-eastern Slovakia from 2012 to 2014, using a light-trapping method. In total, 52,741 Culicoides were collected and identified; majority of them were caught outdoors (82.6%), with the highest activity period being mid-June. The C. obsoletus/C. scoticus and C.punctatus species predominated, altogether representing 88.8 and 94.1% of the total indoor and outdoor collections, respectively. Positive correlation was observed between the temperature and the abundance, whereas no correlation with other studied factors was detected. In autumn, Culicoides activity was observed outdoors at temperatures ranging between-1.5°C and 9.3°C, whereas the indoor activity was detected at temperatures ranging between-3.9°C and 0°C. This demonstrated that the most significant BTV vectors in the studied area are C. obsoletus/C. scoticus. The C. dewulfi and C. chiopterus vectors appeared to be of lower significance. The period with the highest risk of the BTV transmission in Eastern Slovakia appeared to be mid-June. The autumnal Culicoides activity inside the cowsheds may be important for the assessment of virus overwintering. This study is the first to provide the data on indoor/outdoor behaviour of biting midges in Slovakia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1515/ap-2016-0103DOI Listing
December 2016

DNA barcoding and surveillance sampling strategies for Culicoides biting midges (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in southern India.

Parasit Vectors 2016 08 22;9:461. Epub 2016 Aug 22.

Vector-borne Viral Diseases Programme, The Pirbright Institute, Ash Road, Woking, Surrey, GU24 0NF, UK.

Background: Culicoides spp. biting midges transmit bluetongue virus (BTV), the aetiological agent of bluetongue (BT), an economically important disease of ruminants. In southern India, hyperendemic outbreaks of BT exert high cost to subsistence farmers in the region, impacting on sheep production. Effective Culicoides spp. monitoring methods coupled with accurate species identification can accelerate responses for minimising BT outbreaks. Here, we assessed the utility of sampling methods and DNA barcoding for detection and identification of Culicoides spp. in southern India, in order to provide an informed basis for future monitoring of their populations in the region.

Methods: Culicoides spp. collected from Tamil Nadu and Karnataka were used to construct a framework for future morphological identification in surveillance, based on sequence comparison of the DNA barcode region of the mitochondrial cytochrome c oxidase I (COI) gene and achieving quality standards defined by the Barcode of Life initiative. Pairwise catches of Culicoides spp. were compared in diversity and abundance between green (570 nm) and ultraviolet (UV) (390 nm) light emitting diode (LED) suction traps at a single site in Chennai, Tamil Nadu over 20 nights of sampling in November 2013.

Results: DNA barcode sequences of Culicoides spp. were mostly congruent both with existing DNA barcode data from other countries and with morphological identification of major vector species. However, sequence differences symptomatic of cryptic species diversity were present in some groups which require further investigation. While the diversity of species collected by the UV LED Center for Disease Control (CDC) trap did not significantly vary from that collected by the green LED CDC trap, the UV CDC significantly outperformed the green LED CDC trap with regard to the number of Culicoides individuals collected.

Conclusions: Morphological identification of the majority of potential vector species of Culicoides spp. samples within southern India appears relatively robust; however, potential cryptic species diversity was present in some groups requiring further investigation. The UV LED CDC trap is recommended for surveillance of Culicoides in southern India.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-016-1722-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4994320PMC
August 2016

[Anxiety disorders in older adults].

Geriatr Psychol Neuropsychiatr Vieil 2015 Jun;13(2):205-13

Liaison/consultation psychiatrique, Équipe mobile maladie d'Alzheimer, Hôpital des Charpennes, Hospices civils de Lyon, Villeurbanne, France.

Prevalence of anxiety disorders is high in the elderly (between 3.2 and 14.2% of the subjects) with, by order of frequency, phobic disorders and generalized anxiety disorder rank ahead of panic disorders, obsessive-compulsive disorder or post-traumatic stress disorder. Anxiety disorders very often start in adulthood and become chronic thereafter. It should be pointed out that each anxiety disorder has clinical characteristics that are modified with aging. Among the psychiatric comorbidity, depressive disorders and addictions, mainly to alcohol, especially stand out. Very few studies on anxiety disorders were specifically performed in the elderly. Drug treatments are mainly based on antidepressants (selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors or serotonin-norepinephrine reuptake inhibitors) and there is little consensus over the duration of the treatment. On the other hand, non-pharmacological treatments are proposed, such as supportive psychotherapy and cognitive-behavioural therapies, with specific programs to improve anxiety disorders in the elderly.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1684/pnv.2015.0534DOI Listing
June 2015

First Case of Human Cerebral Taenia martis Cysticercosis.

J Clin Microbiol 2015 Aug 27;53(8):2756-9. Epub 2015 May 27.

Laboratoire de Parasitologie et de Mycologie Médicale, Plateau Technique de Microbiologie, Hôpitaux Universitaires de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France Institut de Parasitologie et Pathologie Tropicale, Fédération de Médecine Translationelle, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Taenia martis is a tapeworm affecting mustelids, with rodents serving as intermediate hosts. The larval stage (cysticercus) has been found before only rarely in humans or primates. We hereby describe a case of cerebral T. martis cysticercosis in a French immunocompetent patient, confirmed by DNA analyses of biopsy material.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/JCM.01033-15DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4508436PMC
August 2015

Serromyia diabolica, a new biting midge species from Lebanon (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

Zootaxa 2015 Apr 10;3946(3):436-44. Epub 2015 Apr 10.

Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology, EA7292, Faculty of Medicine, University of Strasbourg, 3 rue Koeberlé, 67000 Strasbourg, France; Email: unknown.

A new darkly-pigmented species of Serromyia, closely related to S. subinermis Kieffer, is described from both sexes based on morphological characters and COI gene sequence analyses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3946.3.10DOI Listing
April 2015

Morphological and molecular analysis of the genus Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) in Slovakia with five new records.

Zootaxa 2014 Oct 13;3872(5):541-60. Epub 2014 Oct 13.

Institute of Parasitology and Tropical Pathology (IPPTS), Medicine faculty, EA7292, 3 rue Koeberlé, F-67000 Strasbourg, France. EID Méditerranée, 165 av Paul Rimbaud, F-34184 Montpellier, France; Email: unknown.

The biodiversity of Culicoides from eastern Slovakia was investigated by light trapping. An integrative taxonomy approach combining DNA barcode sequence and morphological analyses was used to accurately identify specimens. Five species were newly recorded from Slovakia: Culicoides picturatus Kremer & Deduit, C. gejgelensis Dzhafarov, C. clastrieri Callot et al., C. griseidorsum Kieffer and C. odiatus Austen. The checklist of the Culicoides species recorded from SK has been updated to 63 species and barcode sequence data is provided for 8 species not previously available on GenBank. Conflict between results from molecular and morphological analyses resulted in the discovery of some potentially new cryptic species and the inability of DNA barcodes to distinguish C. festivipennis Kieffer from C. clastrieri, C. salinarius Kieffer from C. manchuriensis Tokunaga and C. pallidicornis Kieffer from C. subfasciipennis Kieffer. These conflicts suggest further study is required to clarify the status of these species. 
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3872.5.6DOI Listing
October 2014

Description of Culicoides paradoxalis sp. nov. from France and Portugal (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae).

Zootaxa 2013 Dec 4;3745:243-56. Epub 2013 Dec 4.

Institut de Parasitologie et de Pathologie Tropicale de Strasbourg (IPPTS) EA7292, 3 rue Koeberlé, F-67000 Strasbourg, France; Email: unknown.

A new species, Culicoides paradoxalis Ramilo and Delécolle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), is described from specimens collected in France (Corsica and southeast region) and Portugal. This species resembles Culicoides lupicaris Downes and Kettle, and can be distinguished from this species and from Culicoides newsteadi Austen by its wing pattern, in addition to the absence of spines on the tarsomere 4 of female mid leg. In male, the presence of two appendices on the sternite 9 together with the absence of sensilla coeloconica on the flagellomere 11 is also useful to distinguish these three species. Separation from other members of the Culicoides subgenus is confirmed by the analysis of the Cytochrome Oxidase I (COI) mitochondrial marker. 
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.3745.2.4DOI Listing
December 2013

Development and validation of IIKC: an interactive identification key for Culicoides (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) females from the Western Palaearctic region.

Parasit Vectors 2012 Jul 9;5:137. Epub 2012 Jul 9.

IPPTS, Université de Strasbourg, EA 4438, 67000, Strasbourg, France.

Background And Methods: The appearance of bluetongue virus (BTV) in 2006 within northern Europe exposed a lack of expertise and resources available across this region to enable the accurate morphological identification of species of Culicoides Latreille biting midges, some of which are the major vectors of this pathogen. This work aims to organise extant Culicoides taxonomic knowledge into a database and to produce an interactive identification key for females of Culicoides in the Western Palaearctic (IIKC: Interactive identification key for Culicoides). We then validated IIKC using a trial carried out by six entomologists based in this region with variable degrees of experience in identifying Culicoides.

Results: The current version of the key includes 98 Culicoides species with 10 morphological variants, 61 descriptors and 837 pictures and schemes. Validation was carried out by six entomologists as a blind trial with two users allocated to three classes of expertise (beginner, intermediate and advanced). Slides were identified using a median of seven steps and seven minutes and user confidence in the identification varied from 60% for failed identifications to a maximum of 80% for successful ones. By user class, the beginner group successfully identified 44.6% of slides, the intermediate 56.8% and the advanced 74.3%.

Conclusions: Structured as a multi-entry key, IIKC is a powerful database for the morphological identification of female Culicoides from the Western Palaearctic region. First developed for use as an interactive identification key, it was revealed to be a powerful back-up tool for training new taxonomists and to maintain expertise level. The development of tools for arthropod involvement in pathogen transmission will allow clearer insights into the ecology and dynamics of Culicoides and in turn assist in understanding arbovirus epidemiology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1756-3305-5-137DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3483010PMC
July 2012

Simultaneous quantification of the relative abundance of species complex members: application to Culicoides obsoletus and Culicoides scoticus (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), potential vectors of bluetongue virus.

Vet Parasitol 2011 Dec 12;182(2-4):297-306. Epub 2011 Jun 12.

Institut de Parasitologie et de Pathologie Tropicale, Université de Strasbourg, EA 4438, 67000 Strasbourg, France.

The two sympatric sibling species Culicoides obsoletus (Meigen) and Culicoides scoticus Downes and Kettle (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae), are known to be competent vectors for bluetongue virus in the Palaearctic region. However, morphological identification of constituent species is only readily applicable to adult males and these two species distinguishing traits have overlapping character states. As their vector competence may differ in space and time, the correct identification and quantification of specimens of both species are essential for understanding bluetongue epidemiology. However, no molecular tools are available for high-throughput identification of the two species. We therefore developed a quantitative duplex real-time PCR assay to determine the relative abundance of each sibling species in a sample using TaqMan probes. For each species, standard curves were constructed from serial dilutions of purified plasmid DNA containing ITS1-5.8S-ITS2 (rDNA) in the range of 10(-1) to 10(-5)ng/μL. Standard curves were used to quantify samples of mixed C. obsoletus/C. scoticus specimens. Specificity was evaluated with 5156 specimens representing 62 species. Based on the DNA quantities detected according to the standard curves, a quadratic model developed on 1100 males and validated on 555 females was able to predict the relative abundance of each species simultaneously in a one-shot reaction (Pearson coefficient of 0.999). Our assay showed a requirement of two specimens or less for 95% of the predictions, making it highly applicable to field collections. Extensive use of this real-time PCR assay will provide a better understanding of geographical distribution, dynamics, and bionomics on a species level, which is essential for risk assessment. This approach is an important contribution to medical entomology for investigating the vector role of arthropod sibling species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.vetpar.2011.05.052DOI Listing
December 2011

Suggesting synonymies? Comments on Kiehl et al. (2009) "the European vectors of Bluetongue virus: are there species complexes, single species or races in Culicoides obsoletus and C. pulicaris detectable by sequencing ITS-1, ITS-2 and 18S-rDNA?".

Parasitol Res 2010 Aug 30;107(3):731-4. Epub 2010 May 30.

UMR CMAEE CIRAD-INRA, Contrôle des maladies animales exotiques et émergentes, Campus International de Baillarguet TA-A15/A, bureau A210, Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Species recognition and identification are crucial in any biological studies, especially when dealing with insect species involved in pathogen transmission. In recent years, molecular approaches have helped the clarification of systematic schemes and taxonomic status. Kiehl et al. (Parasitol Res 105:331-336, 2009) used molecular data to discuss the taxonomic status of biting midge species in the Palaearctic region. In the present work, the statements that "[Thus] there is no molecular support for the existence of a separate species C. montanus" and "[Therefore] probably C. scoticus should be considered only as a race of C. obsoletus" are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00436-010-1921-zDOI Listing
August 2010

Development and evaluation of a real-time quantitative PCR assay for Culicoides imicola, one of the main vectors of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe.

Res Vet Sci 2008 Oct 28;85(2):372-82. Epub 2008 Jan 28.

CIRAD, Centre International de Recherche Agronomique pour le Développement, UPR Contrôle des maladies, F-34398 Montpellier cedex 05, France.

The current microscopy method for identifying the Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913 species can be time and labour intensive. There is a need for the development of a rapid and quantitative tool to quantify the biting midges C. imicola ss in light trap catches. A reproducible and sensitive real-time polymerase chain reaction method that targets the internal transcribed spacer (ITS-1) of ribosomal DNA of C. imicola ss species was developed. This real-time PCR assay was first performed on 10-fold serial dilutions of purified plasmid DNA containing specific C. imicola ss ITS-1. It was then possible to construct standard curves with a high correlation coefficient (r2=0.99) in the range of 10(-2)-10(-8) ng of purified DNA. The performances of this PCR were evaluated in comparison with morphological determination on Culicoides trapped along the Mediterranean coastal mainland France. ROC statistical analysis was carried out using morphology as gold standard and the area under the ROC curve had a satisfactory value of 0.9752. The results indicated that this real-time PCR assay holds promise for monitoring C. imicola ss population in both surveillance and research programmes because of its good specificity (92%) and sensitivity (95%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rvsc.2007.12.001DOI Listing
October 2008

Molecular identification of Western European species of obsoletus complex (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae) by an internal transcribed spacer-1 rDNA multiplex polymerase chain reaction assay.

J Med Entomol 2007 Nov;44(6):1019-25

Entente InterDépartementale pour la démoustication, 165 Avenue Paul Rimbaud, 34184 Montpellier Cedex 4, France.

In southern Europe, orbiviral diseases such as bluetongue (BT) have been assumed to have been largely transmitted by the classical Afro-Asian vector Culicoides imicola Kieffer (Diptera: Ceratopogonidae). Recent outbreaks have occurred in regions where C. imicola is normally absent, supporting the theory that other species belonging to the Obsoletus or Pulicaris complexes may play a role in BT virus transmission. Investigations of the ecology of the species within the former group are hampered by females of member species being extremely difficult to separate by classical morphology. To allow straightforward separation of these species in France, a multiplex polymerase chain reaction-based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS)-1 rDNA was developed to distinguish between Culicoides chiopterus Meigen, Culicoides dewulfi Goetghebuer, Culicoides montanus Shakirjanova, Culicoides obsoletus Meigen, and Culicoides scoticus Downes & Kettle. This tool will be useful in defining both the vector role and larval biotopes of these species in Europe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1603/0022-2585(2007)44[1019:miowes]2.0.co;2DOI Listing
November 2007

Molecular detection of Culicoides spp. and Culicoides imicola, the principal vector of bluetongue (BT) and African horse sickness (AHS) in Africa and Europe.

Vet Res 2004 May-Jun;35(3):325-37

CIRAD-EMVT, Campus international de Baillarguet, TA30/G, 34398 Montpellier Cedex 5, France.

Bluetongue (BT) and African Horse Sickness (AHS) are infectious arthropod-borne viral diseases affecting ruminants and horses, respectively. Culicoides imicola Kieffer, 1913, a biting midge, is the principal vector of these livestock diseases in Africa and Europe. Recently bluetongue disease has re-emerged in the Mediterranean Basin and has had a devastating effect on the sheep industry in Italy and on the islands of Sicily, Sardinia, Corsica and the Balearics, but fortunately, has not penetrated onto mainland France and Spain. To survey for the presence of C. imicola, an extensive light-trap network for the collection of Culicoides, was implemented in 2002 in southern mainland France. The morphological identification of Culicoides can be both tedious and time-consuming because its size ranges from 1.5 to 3 mm. Therefore, an ITS1 rDNA polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-based diagnostic assay was developed to rapidly and reliably identify Culicoides spp. and C. imicola. The aim of this work was to set up a rapid test for the detection of C. imicola amongst a pool of insects collected in areas at risk for BT. The sequence similarity of the rDNA (nuclear ribosomal DNA), which is greater within species than between species, is the foundation of its utilisation in species-diagnostic assays. The alignment of the 11 ITS1 sequences of Culicoides obtained from Genbank and EMBL databases helped us to identify one region in the 5' end and one in the 3' end that appear highly conserved. PCR primers were designed within these regions to amplify genus-specific fragments. In order to set up a C. imicola-specific PCR, another forward primer was designed and used in combination with the previously designed reverse primer. These primers proved to be highly specific and sensitive and permitted a rapid diagnostic separation of C. imicola from Culicoides spp.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1051/vetres:2004015DOI Listing
August 2004

Alteration in membrane fluidity and lipid composition, and modulation of H(+)-ATPase activity in Saccharomyces cerevisiae caused by decanoic acid.

Microbiology (Reading) 1996 Mar;142 ( Pt 3):469-475

Laboratoire d'Oenologie, Institut Universitaire de la Vigne et du Vin, Université de Bourgogne, 21004 Dijon, France.

Decanoic acid, a lipophilic agent, inhibited in vitro the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase of Saccharomyces cerevisiae grown in YPD medium. Conversely, when decanoic acid (35 microM) was present in the growth medium, the measured H(+)-ATPase activity was four times higher than that of control cells. Km, and pH and orthovanadate sensitivity were the same for the two growth conditions, which indicated that H(+)-ATPase activation was not due to conformational changes in the enzyme. The activation process was not entirely reversible which showed that plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation is due to several mechanisms. 1,6-diphenyl-1,3,5-hexatriene anisotropy performed on protoplasts from cells grown in YPD revealed that as decanoic acid concentration was increased, anisotropy significantly decreased, i.e. membrance fluidity increased. Cells grown in media containing decanoic acid exhibited greater membrane fluidity compared with control cells. Furthermore, these cells did not show any fluidifying effect when increased concentrations of decanoic acid were added. Chemical analysis of cell membrane lipid composition revealed a modification in the distribution of the phospholipid fatty acids and sterols in cells grown in the presence of 35 microM decanoic acid compared with control cells. Our results support the view that the plasma membrane H(+)-ATPase activation induced by decanoic acid is correlated with an alteration in membrane lipid constituents.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/13500872-142-3-469DOI Listing
March 1996