Publications by authors named "Bruno Garcia Del Blanco"

135 Publications

Impact of diabetes in patients waiting for invasive cardiac procedures during COVID-19 pandemic.

Cardiovasc Diabetol 2021 03 23;20(1):69. Epub 2021 Mar 23.

Hospital Vall D´Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic, elective invasive cardiac procedures (ICP) have been frequently cancelled or postponed. Consequences may be more evident in patients with diabetes.

Objectives: The objective was to identify the peculiarities of patients with DM among those in whom ICP were cancelled or postponed due to the COVID-19 pandemic, as well as to identify subgroups in which the influence of DM has higher impact on the clinical outcome.

Methods: We included 2,158 patients in whom an elective ICP was cancelled or postponed during COVID-19 pandemic in 37 hospitals in Spain. Among them, 700 (32.4%) were diabetics. Patients with and without diabetes were compared.

Results: Patients with diabetes were older and had a higher prevalence of other cardiovascular risk factors, previous cardiovascular history and co-morbidities. Diabetics had a higher mortality (3.0% vs. 1.0%; p = 0.001) and cardiovascular mortality (1.9% vs. 0.4%; p = 0.001). Differences were especially important in patients with valvular heart disease (mortality 6.9% vs 1.7% [p < 0.001] and cardiovascular mortality 4.9% vs 0.9% [p = 0.002] in patients with and without diabetes, respectively). In the multivariable analysis, diabetes remained as an independent risk factor both for overall and cardiovascular mortality. No significant interaction was found with other clinical variables.

Conclusion: Among patients in whom an elective invasive cardiac procedure is cancelled or postponed during COVID-19 pandemic, mortality and cardiovascular mortality is higher in patients with diabetes, irrespectively on other clinical conditions. These procedures should not be cancelled in patients with diabetes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12933-021-01261-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7986134PMC
March 2021

Clinical Impact of Crossover Techniques for Primary Access Hemostasis in Transfemoral Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement Procedures.

J Invasive Cardiol 2021 Apr 18;33(4):E302-E311. Epub 2021 Feb 18.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, 2725, Chemin Sainte-Foy, Québec, Canada G1V 4G5.

Objectives: To determine the occurrence of vascular complications (VCs) following transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR) with new-generation devices according to the use of a crossover technique (COT).

Background: The use of a COT (with/without balloon) has been associated with a reduction of VCs in TAVR patients. However, scarce data support its use with second-generation devices. Also, its potential benefit in obese patients (at high-risk of VCs) has not been elucidated.

Methods: A multicenter study including 2214 patients who underwent full percutaneous transfemoral TAVR (COT, 1522 patients; no COT, 692 patients). Thirty-day events were evaluated according to the use of a COT using a multivariate logistic regression model. A subanalysis was performed in obese patients.

Results: Primary access major VCs (3.5% COT vs 3.9% no COT; P=.19), major/life-threatening bleeding (3.4% COT vs 2.0% no COT; P=.33), and mortality rates (2.4% COT vs 2.6% no COT; P=.23) were similar between groups. However, minor VCs (11.7% COT vs 5.9% no COT; P<.001) and postprocedural acute renal failure (8.9% COT vs 3.9% no COT; P<.001) were higher in patients undergoing the COT. In the overall cohort, percutaneous closure device failure was more frequent in obese patients (4.0% in the obese group vs 1.9% in the non-obese group; P<.01), but these differences were no longer significant in those undergoing a COT (3.4% in the obese group vs 2.0% in the non-obese group; P=.12). Indeed, in the subset of obese patients, the COT tended to be associated with fewer VCs (3.4% COT vs 5.9% no COT; P=.09).

Conclusions: The use of a COT was not associated with a reduction of major VCs or improved outcomes. However, some patient subsets, such as those with higher body mass index, may benefit from the use of a COT. These findings would suggest the application of a tailored strategy, following a risk-benefit assessment in each TAVR candidate.
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April 2021

Effect of COMBinAtion therapy with remote ischemic conditioning and exenatide on the Myocardial Infarct size: a two-by-two factorial randomized trial (COMBAT-MI).

Basic Res Cardiol 2021 Jan 25;116(1). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Cardiology Department, Vall D'Hebron Institut de Recerca (VHIR), Vall D'Hebron Hospital Universitari, Vall D'Hebron Barcelona Hospital Campus, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Passeig Vall d'Hebron 119-129, 08035, Barcelona, Spain.

Remote ischemic conditioning (RIC) and the GLP-1 analog exenatide activate different cardioprotective pathways and may have additive effects on infarct size (IS). Here, we aimed to assess the efficacy of RIC as compared with sham procedure, and of exenatide, as compared with placebo, and the interaction between both, to reduce IS in humans. We designed a two-by-two factorial, randomized controlled, blinded, multicenter, clinical trial. Patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction receiving primary percutaneous coronary intervention (PPCI) within 6 h of symptoms were randomized to RIC or sham procedure and exenatide or matching placebo. The primary outcome was IS measured by late gadolinium enhancement in cardiac magnetic resonance performed 3-7 days after PPCI. The secondary outcomes were myocardial salvage index, transmurality index, left ventricular ejection fraction and relative microvascular obstruction volume. A total of 378 patients were randomly allocated, and after applying exclusion criteria, 222 patients were available for analysis. There were no significant interactions between the two randomization factors on the primary or secondary outcomes. IS was similar between groups for the RIC (24 ± 11.8% in the RIC group vs 23.7 ± 10.9% in the sham group, P = 0.827) and the exenatide hypotheses (25.1 ± 11.5% in the exenatide group vs 22.5 ± 10.9% in the placebo group, P = 0.092). There were no effects with either RIC or exenatide on the secondary outcomes. Unexpected adverse events or side effects of RIC and exenatide were not observed. In conclusion, neither RIC nor exenatide, or its combination, were able to reduce IS in STEMI patients when administered as an adjunct to PPCI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00395-021-00842-2DOI Listing
January 2021

Efficacy of Thin- Versus Thick-Strut Polymer-Free Biolimus-Eluting Stents: the Biofreedom QCA Randomized Trial.

EuroIntervention 2021 Jan 12. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Interventional Cardiology, Cardiovascular Institute, Hospital Clinic IDIBAPS, Barcelona, Spain.

Aims: To evaluate the efficacy of the new BioFreedom Ultra™ drug-coated stent with a thin-strut cobalt-chromium platform (BF-CoCr) compared to the BioFreedom™ drug-coated stent with a stainless-steel platform (BF-SS) in an all-comers population undergoing percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI).

Methods And Results: This was a prospective, multi-center, non-inferiority trial. The primary endpoint was in-stent late lumen loss (LLL) as determined by quantitative coronary angiographic at 9-month follow-up. Clinical evaluation was performed at 1 year. A total of 200 patients were randomized (1:1) to either the BF-CoCr or the BF-SS stent at 8 centers in Spain and Denmark. Baseline clinical and lesion characteristics were similar among the groups. Mean age was 66 years and 23% were females. The mean number of stents implanted per patient was 1.5. At 9-month follow-up, mean in-stent LLL was 0.34±0.49mm in BF-CoCr versus 0.29±0.37mm in the BF-SS, p=0.005 for non-inferiority. At 1-year, target lesion failure was similar between groups (7.3% in Bf-CoCr vs 9.3% in the BF-SS group; p=0.60).

Conclusions: The BF-CoCr was non-inferior to the BF-SS in terms of in-stent LLL at 9 months. Larger studies powered for clinical endpoints are warranted to compare the efficacy of this new platform with currently available DES.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-01162DOI Listing
January 2021

First in man evaluation of a sirolimus-eluting stent with abluminal fluoropolymeric/triflusal coating with ultrathin struts by OCT at 9 months follow up. The PROMETHEUS study.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 Dec 29. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

Hospital Marques de Valdecilla, IDIVAL, Santander, Spain.

Objectives: We sought to investigate stent healing and neointimal hyperplasia with ihtDEStiny drug-eluting stent (DES) by optical coherence tomography (OCT) examination conducted 9 months after implantation.

Background: The currently used DES present certain features that have been linked separately to their better performance in terms of efficacy and safety.

Methods: First-in-man, prospective and multicenter study including patients treated with ihtDEStiny stent undergoing OCT examination at 9 months follow up. The ihtDEStiny stent is a sirolimus eluting stent with an oval shape ultrathin struts (68 μm) and an abluminal coating of a fluoropolymer containing the antiplatelet agent triflusal. Primary endpoint was the percentage of obstruction of the in-stent volume by the neointima.

Results: In 58 patients (63 lesions) in-stent late lumen loss was 0.11 ± 0.23 mm (95% CI 0.05-0.16) with only in 6% of stents being > 0.5 mm and in-segment binary stenosis was 1.6%. In OCT mean neointima volume obstruction was 10.5 ± 6.9% with a mean neointima thickness of 110.9 ± 89.8 μm. The proportion of uncovered struts was 2.5%, malapposed struts 1.1% and malapposed/uncovered struts 0.7% and no subclinical thrombi detected. Mean incomplete stent apposition area was 0.1 ± 0.1 mm. At 12 months target lesion revascularization rate was 3% and no stent thrombosis was reported.

Conclusions: In this study the ihtDEStiny stent has shown a very low degree of neointimal proliferation associated with a low rate of uncovered/malapposed struts and total absence of subclinical thrombi at 9 months follow up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.12.025DOI Listing
December 2020

Consequences of canceling elective invasive cardiac procedures during Covid-19 outbreak.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2021 04 17;97(5):927-937. Epub 2020 Dec 17.

Hospital Vall D´Hebron, Barcelona, Spain.

Background: During COVID-19 pandemic in Spain, elective procedures were canceled or postponed, mainly due to health care systems overwhelming.

Objective: The objective of this study was to evaluate the consequences of interrupting invasive procedures in patients with chronic cardiac diseases due to the COVID-19 outbreak in Spain.

Methods: The study population is comprised of 2,158 patients that were pending on elective cardiac invasive procedures in 37 hospitals in Spain on the 14th of March 2020, when a state of alarm and subsequent lockdown was declared in Spain due to the COVID-19 pandemic. These patients were followed-up until April 31th.

Results: Out of the 2,158 patients, 36 (1.7%) died. Mortality was significantly higher in patients pending on structural procedures (4.5% vs. 0.8%, respectively; p < .001), in those >80 year-old (5.1% vs. 0.7%, p < .001), and in presence of diabetes (2.7% vs. 0.9%, p = .001), hypertension (2.0% vs. 0.6%, p = .014), hypercholesterolemia (2.0% vs. 0.9%, p = .026) [Correction added on December 23, 2020, after first online publication: as per Dr. Moreno's request changes in p-values were made after original publication in Abstract.], chronic renal failure (6.0% vs. 1.2%, p < .001), NYHA > II (3.8% vs. 1.2%, p = .001), and CCS > II (4.2% vs. 1.4%, p = .013), whereas was it was significantly lower in smokers (0.5% vs. 1.9%, p = .013). Multivariable analysis identified age > 80, diabetes, renal failure and CCS > II as independent predictors for mortality.

Conclusion: Mortality at 45 days during COVID-19 outbreak in patients with chronic cardiovascular diseases included in a waiting list due to cancellation of invasive elective procedures was 1.7%. Some clinical characteristics may be of help in patient selection for being promptly treated when similar situations happen in the future.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29433DOI Listing
April 2021

Excimer laser coronary atherectomy for uncrossable coronary lesions. A multicenter registry.

Catheter Cardiovasc Interv 2020 Nov 24. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Division of Interventional Cardiology, Reina Sofia Hospital, University of Córdoba, Maimonides Institute for Research in Biomedicine of Córdoba (IMIBIC), Córdoba, Spain.

Objectives: To assess the efficacy and safety of excimer laser coronary atherectomy (ELCA), as well as, the long-term outcomes and the factors associated with ELCA failure in uncrossable lesions.

Background: Uncrossable lesions constitute a challenge for percutaneous coronary intervention.

Methods: This multicenter registry included 126 patients with 126 uncrossable lesions. Study endpoints were ELCA success, technical success and a composite of cardiac death, myocardial infarction (MI), and target-lesion revascularization (TLR) on follow-up. Predictors of ELCA failure were analyzed.

Results: Moderate or severe calcification was present in 79 (62.7%) of the lesions and 58 (46%) were a chronic total occlusion. ELCA success was obtained in 103 (81.8%) patients. Rotational atherectomy was attempted as bailout in 21 out of 23 ELCA failure (91.3%), being successful in 14 (66.7%) of them. Finally, technical and procedural success were achieved in 114 (90.5%) and 110 (87.3%) of the patients. Severe calcification was independently associated with ELCA failure (OR: 3.73, 95% CI: 1.35-10.32; p = .011). Two (1.6%) patients died (one after a stroke and another patient because of heart failure), 4 (3.2%) developed a non-Q MI without clinical consequences and 1 (0.8%) patient had a Q-MI. Other complications were ventricular tachycardia/fibrillation (n = 2; 1.6%) and flow-limiting dissection (n = 1, 0.8%). At follow-up (median 424 days), 3 (2.4%) patients died (1 (0.8%) from cardiovascular cause) and 15 (11.9%) required TLR.

Conclusions: In our multicenter experience, ELCA use demonstrated to be safe and reasonably effective with a rate of events on follow-up relatively low. Severe calcification was associated with ELCA failure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ccd.29392DOI Listing
November 2020

Aortic valve replacement: validation of the Toronto Aortic Stenosis Quality of Life Questionnaire.

ESC Heart Fail 2021 Feb 18;8(1):270-279. Epub 2020 Nov 18.

Department of Psychiatry, University Health Network, Toronto, Canada.

Aims: There is no quality of life tool specifically developed for patients with severe aortic stenosis (AS) to assess how this chronic condition and its treatment affect patients. The Toronto Aortic Stenosis Quality of Life Questionnaire (TASQ) has been developed to overcome this gap. The results of the validation of the TASQ in patients undergoing treatment for severe AS are presented.

Methods And Results: Prospective study at 10 centres in Europe and Canada, which enrolled 274 patients with severe symptomatic AS undergoing surgical or transcatheter aortic valve replacement. Mean TASQ score at baseline was 71.2 points and increased to 88.9 three months after aortic valve implantation (P < 0.001). Increases were seen for the emotional impact (32.0 to 39.0; P < 0.001), physical limitations (14.8 to 22.0; P < 0.001), and physical symptoms (8.5 vs. 11.0; P < 0.001) domains. Internal consistency was good/excellent for overall TASQ score (α = 0.891) and for the physical limitation, emotional impact, and social limitation domains (α = 0.815-0.950). Test-retest reliability was excellent or strong for the overall TASQ (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.883) and for the physical symptoms, physical limitation, emotional impact, and social limitation domains (intraclass correlation coefficient of 0.791-0.895). Responsiveness was medium overall (Cohen's d = 0.637) and medium/large for physical symptoms, emotional impact, and physical limitations (0.661-0.812). Sensitivity to change was significant for physical symptoms, physical limitations (both P < 0.001), emotional impact (P = 0.003), and social limitations (P = 0.038).

Conclusions: The TASQ is a new, brief, self-administered, and clinically relevant health-specific tool to measure changes in quality of life in patients with AS undergoing an intervention.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ehf2.12961DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7835556PMC
February 2021

Ultrashort 1- to 3-month double antiplatelet therapy after drug-eluting stent implantation or the conquest of the South Pole.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2021 Feb 7;74(2):126-128. Epub 2020 Nov 7.

Unidad de Hemodinámica, Servicio de Cardiología, Hospital Universitari Vall d'Hebron, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red de Enfermedades Cardiovasculares (CIBERCV), Spain.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.08.029DOI Listing
February 2021

[Impact of COVID-19 on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care. The Spanish experience].

Rev Esp Cardiol 2020 Dec 9;73(12):994-1002. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Hospital Universitario de Puerto Real.

Introduction And Objectives: The COVID-19 outbreak has had an unclear impact on the treatment and outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess changes in STEMI management during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods: Using a multicenter, nationwide, retrospective, observational registry of consecutive patients who were managed in 75 specific STEMI care centers in Spain, we compared patient and procedural characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in 2 different cohorts with 30-day follow-up according to whether the patients had been treated before or after COVID-19.

Results: Suspected STEMI patients treated in STEMI networks decreased by 27.6% and patients with confirmed STEMI fell from 1305 to 1009 (22.7%). There were no differences in reperfusion strategy (> 94% treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in both cohorts). Patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention during the COVID-19 outbreak had a longer ischemic time (233 [150-375] vs 200 [140-332] minutes,  < .001) but showed no differences in the time from first medical contact to reperfusion. In-hospital mortality was higher during COVID-19 (7.5% vs 5.1%; unadjusted OR, 1.50; 95%CI, 1.07-2.11; < .001); this association remained after adjustment for confounders (risk-adjusted OR, 1.88; 95%CI, 1.12-3.14;  = .017). In the 2020 cohort, there was a 6.3% incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization.

Conclusions: The number of STEMI patients treated during the current COVID-19 outbreak fell vs the previous year and there was an increase in the median time from symptom onset to reperfusion and a significant 2-fold increase in the rate of in-hospital mortality. No changes in reperfusion strategy were detected, with primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed for the vast majority of patients. The co-existence of STEMI and SARS-CoV-2 infection was relatively infrequent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.recesp.2020.07.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7546233PMC
December 2020

Comparison of one year outcomes between the ihtDEStiny BD stent and the durable polymer everolimus and zotarolimus eluting stents. A propensity score matched analysis.

Cardiovasc Revasc Med 2020 Oct 3. Epub 2020 Oct 3.

Clinica Universitaria de Navarra, Madrid, Spain.

Objectives: We sought to evaluate clinical outcomes in patients treated with the drug-eluting stent ihtDEStiny BD.

Background: The ihtDEStiny BD stent is a metallic sirolimus eluting stent with a biodegradable polymer with both drug and polymer coating the abluminal surface of the stent and balloon.

Methods: In this study, the clinical outcomes of a multicenter prospective registry of patients treated with this stent (DEStiny group) were analyzed and compared with those of a control group of patients treated with durable polymer everolimus or zotarolimus eluting stents (CONTROL group) paired by propensity score matching. Primary outcome was the target vessel failure (TVF) at 12 months defined as a composite of cardiac death, target vessel myocardial infarction (TV-MI) and target vessel revascularization (TVR).

Results: A total of 350 patients were included in the DESTtiny group. The control group consisted initially of 1368 patients, but after matching (1:1) 350 patients were selected as CONTROL group. The baseline clinical, angiographic and procedural characteristics were quite comparable in both groups. At 12 months follow up the TVF was 6.6% in DEStiny group and 6.3% in CONTROL group (p = 0.8). No differences were observed for any of the individual components of the primary endpoint: cardiac death 1.1% vs. 1.4%, TV-MI 3.4% vs. 3.7% and TVR 2.6% vs. 2.3% respectively.

Conclusions: The use of ihtDEStiny stent in real practice is associated with a clinical performance at 12 months follow up that appears to be non-inferior to the most widely used and largely evidence supported durable polymer drug eluting stents. A longer follow up is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.carrev.2020.09.046DOI Listing
October 2020

Impact of COVID-19 on ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction care. The Spanish experience.

Rev Esp Cardiol (Engl Ed) 2020 Dec 8;73(12):994-1002. Epub 2020 Sep 8.

Hospital Universitario de Puerto Real.

Introduction And Objectives: The COVID-19 outbreak has had an unclear impact on the treatment and outcomes of patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI). The aim of this study was to assess changes in STEMI management during the COVID-19 outbreak.

Methods: Using a multicenter, nationwide, retrospective, observational registry of consecutive patients who were managed in 75 specific STEMI care centers in Spain, we compared patient and procedural characteristics and in-hospital outcomes in 2 different cohorts with 30-day follow-up according to whether the patients had been treated before or after COVID-19.

Results: Suspected STEMI patients treated in STEMI networks decreased by 27.6% and patients with confirmed STEMI fell from 1305 to 1009 (22.7%). There were no differences in reperfusion strategy (> 94% treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention in both cohorts). Patients treated with primary percutaneous coronary intervention during the COVID-19 outbreak had a longer ischemic time (233 [150-375] vs 200 [140-332] minutes, P<.001) but showed no differences in the time from first medical contact to reperfusion. In-hospital mortality was higher during COVID-19 (7.5% vs 5.1%; unadjusted OR, 1.50; 95%CI, 1.07-2.11; P <.001); this association remained after adjustment for confounders (risk-adjusted OR, 1.88; 95%CI, 1.12-3.14; P=.017). In the 2020 cohort, there was a 6.3% incidence of confirmed SARS-CoV-2 infection during hospitalization.

Conclusions: The number of STEMI patients treated during the current COVID-19 outbreak fell vs the previous year and there was an increase in the median time from symptom onset to reperfusion and a significant 2-fold increase in the rate of in-hospital mortality. No changes in reperfusion strategy were detected, with primary percutaneous coronary intervention performed for the vast majority of patients. The co-existence of STEMI and SARS-CoV-2 infection was relatively infrequent.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.rec.2020.08.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7834732PMC
December 2020

Transradial Crossover Balloon Occlusion Technique for Primary Access Hemostasis During Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement: Initial Experience With the Oceanus 140 cm and 200 cm Balloon Catheters.

J Invasive Cardiol 2020 Aug;32(8):283-288

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University 2725 Chemin Ste-Foy, G1V 4GS Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: The crossover balloon occlusion technique (CBOT) facilitates primary access hemostasis in patients undergoing transfemoral transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). The CBOT is usually performed through the contralateral femoral artery. The aim of this study was to evaluate, in patients undergoing TAVR, the safety and feasibility of transradial CBOT using the new Oceanus balloon dilatation catheter (iVascular).

Methods: This multicenter study included 104 patients (mean age, 81 ± 7 years; 43% women) undergoing transfemoral TAVR. A modified CBOT through the radial artery was performed in all patients with the Oceanus balloon catheter. Data regarding transradial CBOT, balloon performance, vascular complications, and 30-day clinical events were recorded.

Results: Up to 21% of patients had a height >170 cm and 17% presented with severe aortic/iliofemoral tortuosity. The transradial CBOT (left radial 74%, right radial 26%) was performed using either the 140 cm Oceanus (37.5%) or the 200 cm Oceanus (62.5%) balloon catheter. The balloon reached the femoral artery in all patients, and balloon inflation achieved an appropriate vessel closure in 98%. There were no complications related to the balloon catheter, and only 1 patient (1.0%) suffered a minor vascular complication related to the secondary radial access. The 30-day rates of primary access major vascular complications and death were 3.8% and 1.9%, respectively.

Conclusion: In patients undergoing transfemoral TAVR, transradial CBOT with the Oceanus balloon dilatation catheter was feasible and safe. A balloon length up to 200 cm allowed the use of this technique (from right or left radial access) in all patients regardless of patient height or the presence of a challenging vascular anatomy.
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August 2020

Scoring balloon predilation before bioresorbable vascular scaffold implantation in patients with in-stent restenosis: the RIBS VI 'scoring' study.

Coron Artery Dis 2021 Mar;32(2):96-104

Hospital Universitario Clinico San Carlos, Madrid, Spain.

Background: Currently drug-eluting stents (DES) and drug-eluting balloons are recommended in patients with in-stent restenosis (ISR). However, the efficacy of bioresorbable vascular scaffolds (BVS) after scoring balloon (SCB) predilation in these patients is unknown.

Methods: RIBS VI (NCT02672878) and RIBS VI 'Scoring' (NCT03069066) are prospective multicentre studies assessing the value of BVS in patients with ISR. Inclusion and exclusion criteria were identical in both studies. Results of conventional BVS implantation (112 patients) were compared with those obtained with systematic SCB therapy before BVS (108 patients). Angiographic follow-up was scheduled for all patients.

Results: On late angiography (93% of eligible patients) the in-segment minimal lumen diameter (primary end-point) (1.88 ± 0.5 vs. 1.90 ± 0.4 mm, P = 0.81), % diameter stenosis (28 ± 17 vs. 29 ± 15%), late lumen loss (0.23 ± 0.4 vs. 0.22 ± 0.4 mm) and binary restenosis rate (8.5 vs. 9.3%) were similar in the conventional BVS and SCB + BVS groups, respectively. At 1-year follow-up (100% of patients) target lesion revascularization (TLR) requirement (9.8 vs. 11.1%) was similar with the two strategies. Freedom from cardiac death, myocardial infarction and TLR was 88% and 87%, respectively. Results remained unchanged after adjusting for potential baseline confounders and were consistent in 10 prespecified subgroups.

Conclusion: This study suggests that results of conventional BVS implantation in patients with ISR are not improved by systematic predilation with SCB. ClinicalTrials.gov ID: NCT02672878 (RIBS VI) and NCT03069066 (RIBS VI 'Scoring').
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MCA.0000000000000904DOI Listing
March 2021

Longitudinal strain in remote non-infarcted myocardium by tissue tracking CMR: characterization, dynamics, structural and prognostic implications.

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2021 Jan 2;37(1):241-253. Epub 2020 Jun 2.

Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia, Department of Cardiology, Instituto de Investigación Sanitaria del Hospital Clínico Universitario de Valencia (INCLIVA), University of Valencia, Blasco Ibanez 17, 46010, Valencia, Spain.

Purpose: In ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) patients, longitudinal strain (LS) in remote non-infarcted myocardium (RNM) has not yet been characterized by tissue tracking (TT) cardiovascular magnetic resonance (CMR). In STEMI patients, we aimed to characterize RNM-LS by TT-CMR and to assess both its dynamics and its structural and prognostic implications.

Methods: We recruited 271 patients with a first STEMI studied with TT-CMR 1 week after infarction. Of these patients, 145 underwent 1-week and 6-month TT-CMR and were used to characterize both the dynamics and the short-term and long-term structural implications of RNM-LS. Based on previously validated data, RNM areas were defined depending on the culprit coronary artery.

Results: Reduced RNM-LS at 1 week (n = 70, 48%) was associated with larger infarct size and more depressed left ventricular ejection fraction (LVEF) at both the 1-week and 6-month TT-CMR (p value < 0.001). Late normalization of RNM-LS was frequent (28/70, 40%) and independently related to late recovery of LVEF (p value = 0.002). Patients with reduced RNM-LS at 1-week TT-CMR had more major adverse cardiac events (death, heart failure or re-infarction) in both the 271 patients included in the study group (26% vs. 11%, p value = 0.002) and in an external validation cohort made up of 177 STEMI patients (57% vs. 13%, p value < 0.001).

Conclusion: After STEMI, reduced RNM-LS by TT-CMR is common and is associated with more severe short- and long-term structural damage. There is a beneficial tendency towards recovery of RNM-LS that parallels late recovery of LVEF. More events occur in patients with reduced RNM-LS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01890-wDOI Listing
January 2021

Health-related qualify of life, angina type and coronary artery disease in patients with stable chest pain.

Health Qual Life Outcomes 2020 05 14;18(1):140. Epub 2020 May 14.

Department of Cardiology, Hospital of Lithuanian University of Health Sciences Kaunas Clinics, Kaunas, Lithuania.

Background: Health-related quality of life (HRQoL) is impaired in patients with stable angina but patients often present with other forms of chest pain. The aim of this study was to compare the pre-diagnostic HRQoL in patients with suspected coronary artery disease (CAD) according to angina type, gender, and presence of obstructive CAD.

Methods: From the pilot study for the European DISCHARGE trial, we analysed data from 24 sites including 1263 patients (45.9% women, 61.1 ± 11.3 years) who were clinically referred for invasive coronary angiography (ICA; 617 patients) or coronary computed tomography angiography (CTA; 646 patients). Prior to the procedures, patients completed HRQoL questionnaires: the Short Form (SF)-12v2, the EuroQoL (EQ-5D-3 L) and the Hospital Anxiety and Depression Scale.

Results: Fifty-five percent of ICA and 35% of CTA patients had typical angina, 23 and 33% had atypical angina, 18 and 28% had non-anginal chest discomfort and 5 and 5% had other chest discomfort, respectively. Patients with typical angina had the poorest physical functioning compared to the other angina groups (SF-12 physical component score; 41.2 ± 8.8, 43.3 ± 9.1, 46.2 ± 9.0, 46.4 ± 11.4, respectively, all age and gender-adjusted p < 0.01), and highest anxiety levels (8.3 ± 4.1, 7.5 ± 4.1, 6.5 ± 4.0, 4.7 ± 4.5, respectively, all adjusted p < 0.01). On all other measures, patients with typical or atypical angina had lower HRQoL compared to the two other groups (all adjusted p < 0.05). HRQoL did not differ between patients with and without obstructive CAD while women had worse HRQoL compared with men, irrespective of age and angina type.

Conclusions: Prior to a diagnostic procedure for stable chest pain, HRQoL is associated with chest pain characteristics, but not with obstructive CAD, and is significantly lower in women.

Trial Registration: Clinicaltrials.gov, NCT02400229.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12955-020-01312-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7222590PMC
May 2020

Bioresorbable scaffolds versus permanent sirolimus-eluting stents in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction: vascular healing outcomes from the MAGSTEMI trial.

EuroIntervention 2020 12 4;16(11):e913-e921. Epub 2020 Dec 4.

Hospital Universitari de Bellvitge, Institut d'Investigació Biomèdica de Bellvitge (IDIBELL), L'Hospitalet de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain.

Aims: The MAGSTEMI trial showed larger endothelium-independent vasodilatation with magnesium-based bioresorbable scaffolds (MgBRS) than with sirolimus-eluting stents (SES). However, restenosis was more frequent with MgBRS. The aims of this study were to compare the healing pattern between MgBRS and SES and to describe the main causes of restenosis, as assessed by optical coherence tomography (OCT).

Methods And Results: Ninety-five consecutive patients from the randomised MAGSTEMI trial (MgBRS=48, SES=47) underwent OCT imaging at one year. Healing and bioresorption pattern were categorised into four groups: 1) indiscernible struts were observed in 33.3% versus 0% of patients (p<0.001); 2) struts integrated into the vessel wall in 22.9% versus 63.8% (p<0.001); 3) protruding struts in 37.5% versus 31.9% (p=0.568); and 4) protruding and malapposed struts in 6.3% versus 4.3% (p=0.663), respectively. MgBRS were not suitable for strut coverage analysis; SES presented with 5.6% uncovered struts. Scaffold discontinuities were observed in 10.4% and 0%, respectively (p=0.023). MgBRS presented smaller minimal lumen area (3.92±2.02 vs 6.31±1.71 mm²; p<0.001) and larger area stenosis (52.84±18.05 vs 25.02±14.58%; p<0.001). Scaffold measurements were only feasible in 50% of MgBRS, with the expansion index being smaller than in SES (0.58±0.16 vs 0.86±0.19; p<0.001). Scaffold collapse was observed in at least 50% of cases with MgBRS restenosis.

Conclusions: Both MgBRS and SES exhibited a low degree of neointima healing, but lumen dimensions were smaller with MgBRS at one year. Although the advanced bioresorption state of MgBRS hampers the assessment of scaffold collapse, this seems to be the main mechanism of restenosis. Future generations of MgBRS should increase and prolong the radial force.

Clinical Trial Registration: NCT03234348 Visual summary. Bioresorption and neointima patterns of Mg-based bioresorbabable scaffolds versus permanent sirolimus-eluting stents in STEMI patients at one year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4244/EIJ-D-20-00198DOI Listing
December 2020

Real-World Dual Antiplatelet Therapy Following Polymer-Free Sirolimus-Eluting Stent Implantations to Treat Coronary Artery Disease.

Cardiovasc Drugs Ther 2020 06;34(3):335-344

Centre Hospitalier d'Avignon, Avignon, France.

Objectives: The objective of this post hoc analysis was to analyze real-world dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens following polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent (PF-SES) implantations in an unselected patient population.

Methods: Patient-level data from two all-comers observational studies (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were pooled and analyzed in terms of their primary endpoint. During the data verification process, we observed substantial deviations from DAPT guideline recommendations. To illuminate this gap between clinical practice and guideline recommendations, we conducted a post hoc analysis of DAPT regimens and clinical event rates for which we defined the net adverse event rate (NACE) consisting of target lesion revascularization (TLR, primary endpoint of all-comers observational studies) all-cause death, myocardial infarction (MI), stent thrombosis (ST), and bleeding events. A logistic regression was utilized to determine predictors why ticagrelor was used in stable coronary artery disease (CAD) patients instead of the guideline-recommended clopidogrel.

Results: For stable CAD, the composite endpoint of clinical, bleeding, and stent thrombosis, i.e., NACE, between the clopidogrel and ticagrelor treatment groups was not different (5.4% vs. 5.1%, p = 0.745). Likewise, in the acute coronary syndrome (ACS) cohort, the NACE rates were not different between both DAPT strategies (9.2% vs. 9.3%, p = 0.927). There were also no differences in the accumulated rates for TLR, myocardial infarction ([MI], mortality, bleeding events, and stent thrombosis in elective and ACS patients. The main predictors for ticagrelor use in stable CAD patients were age < 65 years, smaller vessels, treatment of ostial and calcified lesions, and in-stent restenosis.

Conclusion: Within the framework of a post hoc analysis based on a real-world, large cohort study, there were no differences in the combined endpoint of major adverse cardiac events (MACE), bleeding and thrombotic events for clopidogrel and ticagrelor in stable CAD or ACS patients. Despite the recommendation for clopidogrel by the European Society of Cardiology (ESC), real-world ticagrelor use was observed in subgroups of stable CAD patients that ought to be explored in future trials.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10557-020-06963-5DOI Listing
June 2020

Late Cerebrovascular Events Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 04 11;13(7):872-881. Epub 2020 Mar 11.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada. Electronic address:

Objectives: This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical characteristics, associated factors, and outcomes of late cerebrovascular events (LCVEs) (>30 days post-procedure) following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: Scarce data exist on LCVEs following TAVR.

Methods: This was a multicenter study including 3,750 consecutive patients (mean age, 80 ± 8 years; 50.5% of women) who underwent TAVR and survived beyond 30 days. LCVEs were defined according to the Valve Academic Research Consortium 2 (VARC 2) criteria.

Results: LCVEs occurred in 192 (5.1%) patients (stroke, 80.2%; transient ischemic attack, 19.8%) after a median follow-up of 2 (1 to 4) years. Late stroke was of ischemic, hemorrhagic, and undetermined origin in 80.5%, 18.8%, and 0.7% of patients, respectively. Older age, previous cerebrovascular disease, higher mean aortic gradient at baseline, the occurrence of stroke during the periprocedural TAVR period, and the lack of anticoagulation (novel oral anticoagulants or vitamin K antagonists) post-TAVR were independent factors associated with late ischemic stroke/transient ischemic attack (p < 0.05 for all). Echocardiographic data at the time of the LCVE showed no signs of valve thrombosis or degeneration in the vast majority (97%) patients. Late stroke was disabling in 107 (69.5%) patients (ischemic, 68%; hemorrhagic, 79%), and associated with an in-hospital mortality rate of 29.2%.

Conclusions: LCVEs occurred in 5.1% of TAVR recipients after a median follow-up of 2 years. LCVEs were ischemic in most cases, with older age, previous cerebrovascular events, higher mean aortic gradient at baseline, the occurrence during the periprocedural TAVR period, and lack of anticoagulation (but not valve thrombosis/degeneration) determining an increased risk. Late stroke was disabling in most cases and associated with dreadful early and midterm outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.11.022DOI Listing
April 2020

Comparison of Transfemoral Versus Transradial Secondary Access in Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 03 24;13(3):e008609. Epub 2020 Feb 24.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada (L.J., S.M., A.B.F.-F., L.G., T.C., M.C., J.R.-C.).

Background: Transfemoral approach has been commonly used as secondary access in transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR). Scarce data exist on the use and potential clinical benefits of the transradial approach as secondary access during TAVR procedures. The objective of the study is to determine the occurrence of vascular complications (VC) and clinical outcomes according to secondary access (transfemoral versus transradial) in patients undergoing TAVR.

Methods: This was a multicenter study including 4949 patients who underwent TAVR (mean age, 81±8 years, mean Society of Thoracic Surgeons score, 4.9 [3.3-7.5]). Transfemoral and transradial approaches were used as secondary access in 4016 (81.1%) and 933 (18.9%) patients, respectively. The 30-day clinical events (vascular and bleeding complications, stroke, acute kidney injury, and mortality) were evaluated and defined according to Valve Academic Research Consortium-2 criteria. Clinical outcomes were analyzed according to the secondary access (transfemoral versus transradial) in the overall population and in a propensity score-matched population involving 2978 transfemoral and 928 transradial patients.

Results: Related-access VC occurred in 834 (16.9%) patients (major VC, 5.7%) and were related to the secondary access in 172 (3.5%) patients (major VC, 1.3%). The rate of VC related to the secondary access was higher in the transfemoral group (VC, 4.1% versus 0.9%, <0.001; major VC, 1.6% versus 0%, <0.001). In the propensity score-matched population, VC related to the secondary access remained higher in the transfemoral group (4.7% versus 0.9%, <0.001; major VC, 1.8% versus 0%, <0.001), which also exhibited a higher rate of major/life-threatening bleeding events (1.0% versus 0%, <0.001). Significant differences between secondary access groups were observed regarding the rates of 30-day stroke (transfemoral: 3.1%, transradial: 1.6%; =0.043), acute kidney injury (transfemoral: 9.9%, transradial: 5.7%; <0.001), and mortality (transfemoral: 4.0%, transradial: 2.4%, =0.047).

Conclusions: The use of transradial approach as secondary access in TAVR procedures was associated with a significant reduction in vascular and bleeding complications and improved 30-day outcomes. Future randomized studies are warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008609DOI Listing
March 2020

Unrestricted use of polymer-free sirolimus eluting stents in routine clinical practice.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2020 Feb;99(8):e19119

Städtische Kliniken Esslingen, Esslingen, Germany.

Stent designs with ultrathin struts may further increase the procedural success of challenging lesion subsets. The objective of this study was to assess the safety and efficacy of ultrathin strut, polymer-free sirolimus eluting stent (PF-SES) implantations in a large scale, unselected patient population.Adult patients underwent percutaneous coronary interventions (PCI) with a thin-strut PF-SES. Data from two all-comers observational studies having the same protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were pooled. The accumulated target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate at 9-12 months was the primary endpoint. All dual antiplatelet therapy strategies according to the applicable guidelines were permissible.In total, 7243 patients were prospectively enrolled for PCI with PF-SES in stable coronary artery disease or acute coronary syndrome (ACS). Major risk factors in the overall cohort were diabetes (37.3%), ST elevation myocardial infarction (18.1%) and non-ST myocardial infarction (24.6%). The follow-up rate was 88.6% in the overall population. The TLR rate in the overall cohort was 2.2% whereas definite/probable stent thrombosis (ST) occurred in 0.7%. In patients with in-stent restenosis lesions, the major adverse cardiac events rate was 6.4% whereas the corresponding rate for isolated left main coronary artery (LMCA) disease was highest with 6.7% followed by patients with culprit lesions in vein bypasses (VB, 7.1%). The mortality rate in patients treated in VB lesions was highest with 5.4%, followed by the isolated LMCA subgroup (3.4%) and ACS (2.6%).PCI with PF-SES in an unselected patient population, is associated with low clinical event and ST rates. Furthermore, PF-SES angioplasty in niche indications demonstrated favorable safety and efficacy outcomes with high procedural success rates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000019119DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7034709PMC
February 2020

Mitral Regurgitation in Low-Flow, Low-Gradient Aortic Stenosis Patients Undergoing TAVR: Insights From the TOPAS-TAVI Registry.

JACC Cardiovasc Interv 2020 03 12;13(5):567-579. Epub 2020 Feb 12.

Quebec Heart & Lung Institute, Laval University, Quebec City, Quebec, Canada.

Objectives: This study sought to determine the incidence, clinical impact, and changes over time of mitral regurgitation (MR) in patients with low-flow, low-gradient aortic stenosis (LFLG-AS) undergoing transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR).

Background: Few data exist on the clinical impact and changes in severity over time of MR in patients with LFLG-AS undergoing TAVR.

Methods: A total of 308 TAVR candidates with LFLG-AS were included. Patients were categorized according to MR severity at baseline, and presence of MR improvement at 12-month follow-up. Clinical outcomes were assessed at 1 and 12 months (+ echocardiography), and yearly thereafter.

Results: Baseline mild and moderate-to-severe MR were present in 118 (38.3%) and 115 (37.3%) patients, respectively. MR was of functional and mixed etiology in 77.2% and 22.7% of patients, respectively. A total of 131 patients (42.5%) died after a median follow-up of 2 (1 to 3) years. Baseline moderate-or-greater MR had no impact on mortality (hazard ratio [HR]: 1.34; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 0.72 to 2.48) or heart failure hospitalization (HR: 1.02; 95% CI: 0.49 to 2.10). At 1-year follow-up, MR improved in 44.3% of patients and remained unchanged/worsened in 55.7%. The lack of MR improvement was associated with a higher risk of all-cause and cardiac mortality (HR: 2.02; 95% CI: 1.29 to 3.17; HR: 3.03; 95% CI: 1.27 to 7.23, respectively), rehospitalization for cardiac causes (HR: 1.50; 95% CI: 1.04 to 2.15), and an increased overall-mortality/heart failure rehospitalization (HR: 1.94; 95% CI: 1.25 to 3.02). A higher baseline left ventricular end-diastolic diameter and a higher increase in left ventricular ejection fraction were found to be independent predictors of MR improvement at 1-year follow-up (odds ratio: 0.69; 95% CI: 0.51 to 0.94; and odds ratio: 0.81; 95% CI: 0.67 to 0.96, respectively).

Conclusions: Most TAVR candidates with LFLG-AS had some degree of MR, of functional origin in most cases. MR improved in about one-half of patients, with larger left ventricular size and a higher increase in left ventricular ejection fraction post-TAVR determining MR improvement over time. The lack of MR improvement at 1 year was associated with poorer outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcin.2019.11.042DOI Listing
March 2020

Acute Coronary Syndrome Following Transcatheter Aortic Valve Replacement.

Circ Cardiovasc Interv 2020 02 29;13(2):e008620. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Quebec Heart and Lung Institute, Laval University, Canada (L.F., D.d.V., T.C., J.R.-C.).

Background: Scarce data exist on coronary events following transcatheter aortic valve replacement (TAVR), and no study has determined the factors associated with poorer outcomes in this setting. This study sought to determine the clinical characteristics, outcomes, and prognostic factors of acute coronary syndrome (ACS) events following TAVR.

Methods: Multicenter cohort study including a total of 270 patients presenting an ACS after a median time of 12 (interquartile range, 5-17) months post-TAVR. Post-ACS death, myocardial infarction, stroke, and overall major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events were recorded.

Results: The ACS clinical presentation consisted of non-ST-segment-elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI) type 2 (31.9%), non-STEMI type 1 (31.5%), unstable angina (28.5%), and STEMI (8.1%). An invasive strategy was used in 163 patients (60.4%), and a percutaneous coronary intervention was performed in 97 patients (35.9%). Coronary access issues were observed in 2.5% and 2.1% of coronary angiography and percutaneous coronary intervention procedures, respectively. The in-hospital mortality rate was 10.0%, and at a median follow-up of 17 (interquartile range, 5-32) months, the rates of death, stroke, myocardial infarction, and major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events were 43.0%, 4.1%, 15.2%, and 52.6%, respectively. By multivariable analysis, revascularization at ACS time was associated with a reduction of the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio, 0.54 [95% CI, 0.36-0.81] =0.003), whereas STEMI increased the risk of all-cause death (hazard ratio, 2.06 [95% CI, 1.05-4.03] =0.036) and major adverse cardiovascular or cerebrovascular events (hazard ratio, 1.97 [95% CI, 1.08-3.57] =0.026).

Conclusions: ACS events in TAVR recipients exhibited specific characteristics (ACS presentation, low use of invasive procedures, coronary access issues) and were associated with a poor prognosis, with a very high in-hospital and late death rate. STEMI and the lack of coronary revascularization determined an increased risk. These results should inform future studies to improve both the prevention and management of ACS post-TAVR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/CIRCINTERVENTIONS.119.008620DOI Listing
February 2020

Polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stent use in Europe and Asia: Ethnic differences in demographics and clinical outcomes.

PLoS One 2020 13;15(1):e0226606. Epub 2020 Jan 13.

Gachon University Gil Medical Center, Incheon, South Korea.

Background: The objective of this study was to assess regional and ethnic differences in an unselected patient population treated with polymer-free sirolimus-eluting stents (PF-SES) in Asia and Europe.

Methods: Two all-comers observational studies based on the same protocol (ClinicalTrials.gov Identifiers: NCT02629575 and NCT02905214) were combined for data analysis to assure sufficient statistical power. The primary endpoint was the accumulated target lesion revascularization (TLR) rate at 9-12 months.

Results: Of the total population of 7243 patients, 44.0% (3186) were recruited in the Mediterranean region and 32.0% (2317) in central Europe. The most prominent Asian region was South Korea (17.6%, 1274) followed by Malaysia (5.7%, 413). Major cardiovascular risk factors varied significantly across regions. The overall rates for accumulated TLR and MACE were low with 2.2% (140/6374) and 4.4% (279/6374), respectively. In ACS patients, there were no differences in terms of MACE, TLR, MI and accumulated mortality between the investigated regions. Moreover, dual antiplatelet therapy (DAPT) regimens were substantially longer in Asian countries even in patients with stable coronary artery disease as compared to those in Europe.

Conclusions: PF-SES angioplasty is associated with low clinical event rates in all regions. Further reductions in clinical event rates seem to be associated with longer DAPT regimens.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226606PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6957170PMC
April 2020

Differential features in composition of coronary thrombus of women with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction.

Thromb Res 2020 02 17;186:64-70. Epub 2019 Dec 17.

Department of Cardiology, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron, Spain; Vall d'Hebron Institut de Recerca, University Hospital Vall d'Hebron-Universitat Autònoma, Barcelona, Spain; Centro de Investigación Biomédica en Red para Enfermedades Cardiovasculares, Madrid, Spain. Electronic address:

Objectives: To characterize sex differences in the composition of coronary thrombus in patients with ST-segment elevation myocardial infarction (STEMI), especially in the young (age ≤ 55 years).

Background: Women have smaller coronary vessels than men and their vascular lesions can be influenced by different exposure to circulating estrogens throughout life. These factors could determine a different composition of the coronary thrombus in women with STEMI.

Methods: A prospective, multicenter study was conducted on patients with STEMI and coronary thrombus was aspirated immediately before percutaneous coronary intervention (PCI) using a suction catheter (ProntoV3® or Export®). Histopathology, immunohistochemistry and ELISA techniques were used for the quantitative determination of fibrin, p-selectin and von Willebrand factor (vWF) within thrombi.

Results: Thrombi were collected from 100 patients (50 men and 50 women; 13 women and 13 men of <55 years). Women presented similar baseline characteristics and pain-to-balloon elapsed time than men. Thrombi from women showed a trend to a lower concentration of fibrin than those from men [median = 1.2 ng/mg (IQR 3.5) vs median = 2.2 ng/mg (IQR 5.9), p = 0.102]. No differences were found between sexes in p-selectin and vWF concentration in thrombi. However, thrombi from young women showed lower levels of p-selectin [median = 2.2 ng/mg (IQR 4.5) vs 6.5 ng/mg (IQR 4.8), p = 0.004], fibrin [median = 1.1 ng/mg; (IQR: 3.4) vs 4.1 ng/mg (IQR 15.6), p = 0.014] and vWF [median = 3.2 ng/mg (IQR 10.6) vs 25.8 ng/mg (IQR 15.0), p = 0.003] than those from young men.

Conclusions: Thrombi from young women with STEMI showed a lower content of fibrin, p-selectin and vWF than those from men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.thromres.2019.12.010DOI Listing
February 2020