Publications by authors named "Bruno Dallapiccola"

425 Publications

Congenital heart defects in molecularly confirmed KBG syndrome patients.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 Dec 31. Epub 2021 Dec 31.

Medical Genetics Unit and Medical Genetics and Rare Disease Research Division, Pediatric Cardiology, Medical Genetics Laboratory, Neuropsychiatry, Scientific Rectorate, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Congenital heart defects (CHDs) are known to occur in 9%-25% of patients with KBG syndrome. In this study we analyzed the prevalence and anatomic types of CHDs in 46 personal patients with KBG syndrome, carrying pathogenetic variants in ANKRD11 or 16q24.3 deletion, and reviewed CHDs in patients with molecular diagnosis of KBG syndrome from the literature. CHD was diagnosed in 15/40 (38%) patients with ANKRD11 variant, and in one patient with 16q24.3 deletion. Left ventricular outflow tract obstructions have been diagnosed in 9/15 (60%), subaortic or muscular ventricular septal defect in 5/15 (33%), dextrocardia in 1/15 (8%). The single patient with 16q24.3 deletion and CHD had complete atrioventricular septal defect (AVSD) with aortic coarctation. Review of KBG patients from the literature and present series showed that septal defects have been diagnosed in 44% (27/61) of the cases, left ventricular tract obstructions in 31% (19/61), AVSD in 18% (11/61). Septal defects have been diagnosed in 78% of total patients with 16q24.3 deletion. Valvar anomalies are frequently diagnosed, prevalently involving the left side of the heart. A distinctive association with AVSD is identifiable and could represent a marker to suggest the diagnosis in younger patients. In conclusion, after precise molecular diagnosis and systematic cardiological screening the prevalence of CHD in KBG syndrome seems to be higher than previously reported in clinical articles. In addition to septal defects, left-sided anomalies and AVSD should be considered. Clinical management of KBG syndrome should include accurate and detailed echocardiogram at time of diagnosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62632DOI Listing
December 2021

SPRED2 loss-of-function causes a recessive Noonan syndrome-like phenotype.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 11 8;108(11):2112-2129. Epub 2021 Oct 8.

Institute of Physiology, University of Wuerzburg, 97070 Wuerzburg, Germany.

Upregulated signal flow through RAS and the mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade is the unifying mechanistic theme of the RASopathies, a family of disorders affecting development and growth. Pathogenic variants in more than 20 genes have been causally linked to RASopathies, the majority having a dominant role in promoting enhanced signaling. Here, we report that SPRED2 loss of function is causally linked to a recessive phenotype evocative of Noonan syndrome. Homozygosity for three different variants-c.187C>T (p.Arg63), c.299T>C (p.Leu100Pro), and c.1142_1143delTT (p.Leu381Hisfs95)-were identified in four subjects from three families. All variants severely affected protein stability, causing accelerated degradation, and variably perturbed SPRED2 functional behavior. When overexpressed in cells, all variants were unable to negatively modulate EGF-promoted RAF1, MEK, and ERK phosphorylation, and time-course experiments in primary fibroblasts (p.Leu100Pro and p.Leu381Hisfs95) documented an increased and prolonged activation of the MAPK cascade in response to EGF stimulation. Morpholino-mediated knockdown of spred2a and spred2b in zebrafish induced defects in convergence and extension cell movements indicating upregulated RAS-MAPK signaling, which were rescued by expressing wild-type SPRED2 but not the SPRED2 protein. The clinical phenotype of the four affected individuals included developmental delay, intellectual disability, cardiac defects, short stature, skeletal anomalies, and a typical facial gestalt as major features, without the occurrence of the distinctive skin signs characterizing Legius syndrome. These features, in part, characterize the phenotype of Spred2 mice. Our findings identify the second recessive form of Noonan syndrome and document pleiotropic consequences of SPRED2 loss of function in development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.09.007DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8595899PMC
November 2021

Relationship between glucose homeostasis and obesity in early life-A study of Italian children and adolescents.

Hum Mol Genet 2021 Sep 30. Epub 2021 Sep 30.

Research Area for Multifactorial Disease, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome 00146, Italy.

Objectives: Epidemic obesity is the most important risk factor for prediabetes and type 2 diabetes (T2D) in youth as it is in adults. Obesity shares pathophysiological mechanisms with T2D and is likely to share part of the genetic background. We aimed to test if weighted genetic risk scores (GRSs) for T2D, fasting glucose (FG) and fasting insulin (FI) predict glycaemic traits and if there is a causal relationship between obesity and impaired glucose metabolism in children and adolescents.

Design And Patients: Genotyping of 42 SNPs established by genome-wide association studies for T2D, FG and FI was performed in 1660 Italian youths aged between 2 and 19 years. We defined GRS for T2D, FG and FI and tested their effects on glycaemic traits, including FG, FI, indices of insulin resistance/beta cell function, and body mass index (BMI). We evaluated causal relationships between obesity and FG/FI using one-sample Mendelian Randomization analyses in both directions.

Results: GRS-FG associated with FG (beta = 0.075 mmol/l, SE = 0.011, P = 1.58 × 10-11) and beta cell function (beta = -0.041, SE = 0.0090 P = 5.13 × 10-6). GRS-T2D also demonstrated an association with beta cell function (beta = -0.020, SE = 0.021 P = 0.030). We detected a causal effect of increased BMI on levels of FI in Italian youths (beta = 0.31 ln (pmol/l), 95%CI [0.078, 0.54], P = 0.0085), while there was no effect of FG/FI levels on BMI.

Conclusion: Our results demonstrate that the glycaemic and T2D risk genetic variants contribute to higher FG and FI levels and decreased beta cell function in children and adolescents. The causal effects of adiposity on increased insulin resistance are detectable from childhood age.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/hmg/ddab287DOI Listing
September 2021

Co-Occurring Heterozygous and Truncating Variants: Unusual Presentation and Refinement of the IDDSADF Phenotype.

Genes (Basel) 2021 06 30;12(7). Epub 2021 Jun 30.

Area di Ricerca Genetica e Malattie Rare, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

, the application of genomic sequencing in clinical practice has allowed us to appreciate the contribution of co-occurring pathogenic variants to complex and unclassified clinical phenotypes. Besides the clinical relevance, these findings have provided evidence of previously unrecognized functional links between genes in the context of developmental processes and physiology. , a 5-year-old patient showing an unclassified phenotype characterized by developmental delay, speech delay, peculiar behavioral features, facial dysmorphism and severe cardiopathy was analyzed by trio-based whole exome sequencing (WES) analysis to identify the genomic events underlying the condition. , two co-occurring heterozygous truncating variants in and were identified. Heterozygous loss-of-function variants in , encoding a subunit of the CCR4-NOT protein complex, have recently been reported to cause a syndromic condition known as intellectual developmental disorder with speech delay, autism and dysmorphic facies (IDDSADF). Enrichment of rare/private variants in the gene, encoding a protein negatively controlling transforming growth factor β/bone morphogenetic protein (TGFB/BMP) signaling, has been described in association with a wide spectrum of congenital heart defects. We dissected the contribution of individual variants to the complex clinical manifestations and profiled a previously unappreciated set of facial features and signs characterizing IDDSADF. , two concomitant truncating variants in and are the cause of the combination of features documented in the patient resulting in the unique multisystem neurodevelopmental condition. These findings provide evidence for a functional link between the CCR4-NOT complex and TGFB/BMP signaling in processes controlling cardiac development. Finally, the present revision provides evidence that IDDSADF is characterized by a distinctive facial gestalt.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/genes12071009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8303239PMC
June 2021

Functional Genomics for Undiagnosed Patients: The Impact of Small GTPases Signaling Dysregulation at Pan-Embryo Developmental Scale.

Front Cell Dev Biol 2021 25;9:642235. Epub 2021 May 25.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

While individually rare, disorders affecting development collectively represent a substantial clinical, psychological, and socioeconomic burden to patients, families, and society. Insights into the molecular mechanisms underlying these disorders are required to speed up diagnosis, improve counseling, and optimize management toward targeted therapies. Genome sequencing is now unveiling previously unexplored genetic variations in undiagnosed patients, which require functional validation and mechanistic understanding, particularly when dealing with novel nosologic entities. Functional perturbations of key regulators acting on signals' intersections of evolutionarily conserved pathways in these pathological conditions hinder the fine balance between various developmental inputs governing morphogenesis and homeostasis. However, the distinct mechanisms by which these hubs orchestrate pathways to ensure the developmental coordinates are poorly understood. Integrative functional genomics implementing quantitative models of embryogenesis with subcellular precision in whole organisms contribute to answering these questions. Here, we review the current knowledge on genes and mechanisms critically involved in developmental syndromes and pediatric cancers, revealed by genomic sequencing and models such as insects, worms and fish. We focus on the monomeric GTPases of the RAS superfamily and their influence on crucial developmental signals and processes. We next discuss the effectiveness of exponentially growing functional assays employing tractable models to identify regulatory crossroads. Unprecedented sophistications are now possible in zebrafish, i.e., genome editing with single-nucleotide precision, nanoimaging, highly resolved recording of multiple small molecules activity, and simultaneous monitoring of brain circuits and complex behavioral response. These assets permit accurate real-time reporting of dynamic small GTPases-controlled processes in entire organisms, owning the potential to tackle rare disease mechanisms.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2021.642235DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8194860PMC
May 2021

Cross-correlation of virome-bacteriome-host-metabolome to study respiratory health.

Trends Microbiol 2022 Jan 26;30(1):34-46. Epub 2021 May 26.

Department of Diagnostic and Laboratory Medicine, Unit of Parasitology and Multimodal Laboratory Medicine Research Area, Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy. Electronic address:

A comprehensive understanding of the microbiome-host relationship in respiratory diseases can be elucidated by exploring the landscape of virome-bacteriome-host metabolome data through unsupervised 'multi-omics' approaches. Here, we describe how the composition and function of airway and gut virome and bacteriome may contribute to pathogen establishment and propagation in airway districts and how the virome-bacteriome communities may react to respiratory diseases. A new systems medicine approach, including the characterization of respiratory and gut microbiome, may be crucial to demonstrate the likelihood and odds of respiratory disease pathophysiology, opening new avenues to the discovery of a chain of causation for key bacteria and viruses in disease severity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tim.2021.04.011DOI Listing
January 2022

TSPEAR variants are primarily associated with ectodermal dysplasia and tooth agenesis but not hearing loss: A novel cohort study.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 08 27;185(8):2417-2433. Epub 2021 May 27.

Faculté de Chirurgie Dentaire, Université de Strasbourg, Strasbourg, France.

Biallelic loss-of-function variants in the thrombospondin-type laminin G domain and epilepsy-associated repeats (TSPEAR) gene have recently been associated with ectodermal dysplasia and hearing loss. The first reports describing a TSPEAR disease association identified this gene is a cause of nonsyndromic hearing loss, but subsequent reports involving additional affected families have questioned this evidence and suggested a stronger association with ectodermal dysplasia. To clarify genotype-phenotype associations for TSPEAR variants, we characterized 13 individuals with biallelic TSPEAR variants. Individuals underwent either exome sequencing or panel-based genetic testing. Nearly all of these newly reported individuals (11/13) have phenotypes that include tooth agenesis or ectodermal dysplasia, while three newly reported individuals have hearing loss. Of the individuals displaying hearing loss, all have additional variants in other hearing-loss-associated genes, specifically TMPRSS3, GJB2, and GJB6, that present competing candidates for their hearing loss phenotype. When presented alongside previous reports, the overall evidence supports the association of TSPEAR variants with ectodermal dysplasia and tooth agenesis features but creates significant doubt as to whether TSPEAR variants are a monogenic cause of hearing loss. Further functional evidence is needed to evaluate this phenotypic association.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.62347DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361973PMC
August 2021

Copy number variation analysis implicates novel pathways in patients with oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum and congenital heart defects.

Clin Genet 2021 09 24;100(3):268-279. Epub 2021 May 24.

Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, "Sapienza" University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral spectrum (OAVS) is a developmental disorder of craniofacial morphogenesis. Its etiology is unclear, but assumed to be complex and heterogeneous, with contribution of both genetic and environmental factors. We assessed the occurrence of copy number variants (CNVs) in a cohort of 19 unrelated OAVS individuals with congenital heart defect. Chromosomal microarray analysis identified pathogenic CNVs in 2/19 (10.5%) individuals, and CNVs classified as variants of uncertain significance in 7/19 (36.9%) individuals. Remarkably, two subjects had small intragenic CNVs involving DACH1 and DACH2, two paralogs coding for key components of the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network, a transcriptional regulatory pathway controlling developmental processes relevant to OAVS and causally associated with syndromes characterized by craniofacial involvement. Moreover, a third patient showed a large duplication encompassing DMBX1/OTX3, encoding a transcriptional repressor of OTX2, another transcription factor functionally connected to the DACH-EYA-PAX network. Among the other relevant CNVs, a deletion encompassing HSD17B6, a gene connected with the retinoic acid signaling pathway, whose dysregulation has been implicated in craniofacial malformations, was also identified. Our findings suggest that CNVs affecting gene dosage likely contribute to the genetic heterogeneity of OAVS, and implicate the PAX-SIX-EYA-DACH network as novel pathway involved in the etiology of this developmental trait.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13994DOI Listing
September 2021

Remember friedreich ataxia even in a toddler with apparently isolated dilated (not hypertrophic!) cardiomyopathy: revisited.

Minerva Pediatr (Torino) 2021 Apr 2. Epub 2021 Apr 2.

European Reference Network for rare, low prevalence and complex diseases of the heart - ERN GUARD-Heart HCP, Pediatric Cardiology and Arrhythmia/Syncope Units, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy -

Background: Friedreich Ataxia (FRDA) is the most common form of ataxia in late childhood. Neurological manifestations often precede cardiac involvement, presenting mainly as hypertrophic cardiomyopathy.

Methods: We describe a toddler with apparently isolated severe heart failure, successfully managed with heart transplant (HT). Although well described in adolescents and adults, onset of FRDA is very uncommon in toddlers and neurological ataxic features are predominant. The presenting symptom of cardiomyopathy is very rare. Similar history is rarely reported in literature, that we described, including an aggressive cardiomyopathy in children younger than 5years-old.

Results: Our patient was diagnosed with FRDA at a postoperative stage due to minimal neurological manifestations. Moreover, the novelty of this study lies in demonstrating a major DNA triplet repeat expansion in skeletal muscle compared to DNA from peripheral blood leukocytes. These results support the concept that triplet repeat expansion is variable among different tissues in FRDA, and in our case it was more expanded in the post mitotic muscular tissue than in blood cells.

Conclusions: We believe on the importance of taking in consideration this rare condition even in a toddler with apparently isolated cardiomyopathy and especially when conventional investigations give negative results. We discuss potential trigger effect of heart transplant as a precipitating factor in manifesting neurological symptoms. This observation corresponds to our experience and relates to three patients described so far (the third patient died suddenly). Early onset cardiomyopathy with FRDA should increase awareness of this rare condition and we highlight HT successful outcome. Further reports are needed to delineate this rare condition in youngsters.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S2724-5276.21.05969-3DOI Listing
April 2021

Expansion of the clinical and molecular spectrum of an XPD-related disorder linked to biallelic mutations in ERCC2 gene.

Clin Genet 2021 06 5;99(6):842-848. Epub 2021 Apr 5.

Department of Hematology/Oncology, Gene and Cell Therapy, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCSS, Rome, Italy.

Bi-allelic inactivation of XPD protein, a nucleotide excision repair (NER) signaling pathway component encoded by ERCC2 gene, has been associated with several defective DNA repair phenotypes, including xeroderma pigmentosum, photosensitive trichothiodystrophy, and cerebro-oculo-facio-skeletal syndrome. We report a pediatric patient harboring two compound heterozygous variants in ERCC2 gene, c.361-1G>A and c.2125A>C (p.Thr709Pro), affected by severe postnatal growth deficiency, microcephaly, facial dysmorphisms and pilocytic astrocytoma of the brainstem. Some of these features point to a DNA repair syndrome, and altogether delineate a phenotype differentiating from disorders known to be associated with ERCC2 mutations. The DNA repair efficiency following UV irradiation in the proband's skin fibroblasts was defective indicating that the new set of ERCC2 alleles impacts on NER efficiency. Sequencing analysis on tumor DNA did not reveal any somatic deleterious point variant in cancer-related genes, while SNP-array analysis disclosed a 2 Mb microduplication involving the 7q34 region, spanning from KIAA1549 to BRAF, and resulting in the KIAA1549:BRAF fusion protein, a marker of pilocytic astrocytoma. In conclusion, this report expands the clinical and mutational spectrum of ERCC2-related disorders.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13957DOI Listing
June 2021

SPEN haploinsufficiency causes a neurodevelopmental disorder overlapping proximal 1p36 deletion syndrome with an episignature of X chromosomes in females.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 03 16;108(3):502-516. Epub 2021 Feb 16.

Division of Medical Genetics, Department of Pediatrics, UPMC Children's Hospital of Pittsburgh, Pittsburgh, PA 15224, USA.

Deletion 1p36 (del1p36) syndrome is the most common human disorder resulting from a terminal autosomal deletion. This condition is molecularly and clinically heterogeneous. Deletions involving two non-overlapping regions, known as the distal (telomeric) and proximal (centromeric) critical regions, are sufficient to cause the majority of the recurrent clinical features, although with different facial features and dysmorphisms. SPEN encodes a transcriptional repressor commonly deleted in proximal del1p36 syndrome and is located centromeric to the proximal 1p36 critical region. Here, we used clinical data from 34 individuals with truncating variants in SPEN to define a neurodevelopmental disorder presenting with features that overlap considerably with those of proximal del1p36 syndrome. The clinical profile of this disease includes developmental delay/intellectual disability, autism spectrum disorder, anxiety, aggressive behavior, attention deficit disorder, hypotonia, brain and spine anomalies, congenital heart defects, high/narrow palate, facial dysmorphisms, and obesity/increased BMI, especially in females. SPEN also emerges as a relevant gene for del1p36 syndrome by co-expression analyses. Finally, we show that haploinsufficiency of SPEN is associated with a distinctive DNA methylation episignature of the X chromosome in affected females, providing further evidence of a specific contribution of the protein to the epigenetic control of this chromosome, and a paradigm of an X chromosome-specific episignature that classifies syndromic traits. We conclude that SPEN is required for multiple developmental processes and SPEN haploinsufficiency is a major contributor to a disorder associated with deletions centromeric to the previously established 1p36 critical regions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2021.01.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8008487PMC
March 2021

Genome-Wide DNA Methylation Analysis of a Cohort of 41 Patients Affected by Oculo-Auriculo-Vertebral Spectrum (OAVS).

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 26;22(3). Epub 2021 Jan 26.

Istituto Auxologico Italiano IRCCS, Bioinformatics and Statistical Genomics Unit, Cusano Milanino, 20095 Milano, Italy.

Oculo-auriculo-vertebral-spectrum (OAVS; OMIM 164210) is a rare disorder originating from abnormal development of the first and second branchial arch. The clinical phenotype is extremely heterogeneous with ear anomalies, hemifacial microsomia, ocular defects, and vertebral malformations being the main features. , , and gene variants were reported in a few OAVS patients, but the etiology remains largely unknown. A multifactorial origin has been proposed, including the involvement of environmental and epigenetic mechanisms. To identify the epigenetic mechanisms contributing to OAVS, we evaluated the DNA-methylation profiles of 41 OAVS unrelated affected individuals by using a genome-wide microarray-based methylation approach. The analysis was first carried out comparing OAVS patients with controls at the group level. It revealed a moderate epigenetic variation in a large number of genes implicated in basic chromatin dynamics such as DNA packaging and protein-DNA organization. The alternative analysis in individual profiles based on the searching for Stochastic Epigenetic Variants (SEV) identified an increased number of SEVs in OAVS patients compared to controls. Although no recurrent deregulated enriched regions were found, isolated patients harboring suggestive epigenetic deregulations were identified. The recognition of a different DNA methylation pattern in the OAVS cohort and the identification of isolated patients with suggestive epigenetic variations provide consistent evidence for the contribution of epigenetic mechanisms to the etiology of this complex and heterogeneous disorder.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22031190DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7866060PMC
January 2021

Homozygous and Gene Variants in a Boy with Growth Hormone Deficiency and Early Onset Osteoporosis.

Int J Mol Sci 2021 Jan 13;22(2). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

Laboratory of Medical Genetics, Translational Cytogenomics Research Unit, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, IRCCS, 00146 Rome, Italy.

We report on a patient born to consanguineous parents, presenting with Growth Hormone Deficiency (GHD) and osteoporosis. SNP-array analysis and exome sequencing disclosed long contiguous stretches of homozygosity and two distinct homozygous variants in (Q6H) and (E1361K) genes. The variant was described as causative in a few subjects with an incompletely penetrant dominant form of combined pituitary hormone deficiency (CPHD). The variant is rare, and so far it has never been found in a homozygous form. Segregation analysis showed that both variants were inherited from heterozygous unaffected parents. Present results further elucidate the inheritance pattern of variants and recommend assessing the clinical impact of variants located in C-terminal propeptide of gene for their potential association with rare recessive and early onset forms of osteoporosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms22020750DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7828579PMC
January 2021

Clinical Application of Easychip 8x15K Platform in 4106 Pregnancies Without Ultrasound Anomalies.

Reprod Sci 2021 04 6;28(4):1142-1149. Epub 2021 Jan 6.

Department of Medical Genetics, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Clinical utility of Array-CGH Easychip 8x15K platform can be assessed by testing its ability to detect the occurrence of pathogenic copy number variants (CNVs), and occurrence of variants of uncertain significance (VoUS) in pregnancies without structural fetal malformations. The demand of chromosomal microarray analysis in prenatal diagnosis is progressively increasing in uneventful pregnancies. However, depending on such platform resolution, a genome-wide approach also provides a high risk of detecting VoUS and incidental finding (IF) also defined as "toxic findings." In this context, novel alternative strategies in probe design and data filtering are required to balance the detection of disease causing CNVs and the occurrence of unwanted findings. In a cohort of consecutive pregnancies without ultrasound anomalies, a total of 4106 DNA samples from cultured and uncultured amniotic fluid or chorionic villi were collected and analyzed by a previously designed Array-CGH mixed-resolution custom platform, which is able to detect pathogenic CNVs and structural imbalanced rearrangements limiting the identification of VoUS and IF. Pathogenic CNVs were identified in 88 samples (2.1%), 19 of which (0.5%) were undetectable by standard karyotype. VoUS accounted for 0.6% of cases. Our data confirm that a mixed-resolution and targeted array CGH platform, as Easychip 8x15K, yields a similar detection rate of higher resolution CMA platforms and reduces the occurrence of "toxic findings," hence making it eligible for a first-tier genetic test in pregnancies without ultrasound anomalies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s43032-020-00419-9DOI Listing
April 2021

Biallelic variants in cause a severe neurodevelopmental disorder with microcephaly, bilateral cataract, epilepsy and simplified gyration.

J Med Genet 2021 Jan 4. Epub 2021 Jan 4.

Medical Genetics Laboratory, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Background: Next-generation sequencing, combined with international pooling of cases, has impressively enhanced the discovery of genes responsible for Mendelian neurodevelopmental disorders, particularly in individuals affected by clinically undiagnosed diseases. To date, biallelic missense variants in gene, encoding a Krüppel-type zinc-finger protein, have been reported in three families with non-syndromic intellectual disability.

Methods: Here, we describe five individuals from four unrelated families with an undiagnosed neurodevelopmental disorder in which we performed exome sequencing, on a combination of trio-based (4 subjects) or single probands (1 subject).

Results: We identified five patients from four unrelated families with homozygous variants by whole exome sequencing. Four had variants resulting in truncation of ZNF526; they were affected by severe prenatal and postnatal microcephaly (ranging from -4 SD to -8 SD), profound psychomotor delay, hypertonic-dystonic movements, epilepsy and simplified gyral pattern on MRI. All of them also displayed bilateral progressive cataracts. A fifth patient had a homozygous missense variant and a slightly less severe disorder, with postnatal microcephaly (-2 SD), progressive bilateral cataracts, severe intellectual disability and unremarkable brain MRI.Mutant zebrafish larvae had notable malformations of the eye and central nervous system, resembling findings seen in the human holoprosencephaly spectrum.

Conclusion: Our findings support the role of biallelic variants in a complex neurodevelopmental disorder, primarily affecting brain and eyes, resulting in severe microcephaly, simplified gyral pattern, epileptic encephalopathy and bilateral cataracts.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-107430DOI Listing
January 2021

SCUBE3 loss-of-function causes a recognizable recessive developmental disorder due to defective bone morphogenetic protein signaling.

Am J Hum Genet 2021 01 11;108(1):115-133. Epub 2020 Dec 11.

Sheba Cancer Research Center, Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel-Hashomer, Israel; Wohl Institute for Translational Medicine, Sheba Medical Center, 52621 Tel-Hashomer, Israel.

Signal peptide-CUB-EGF domain-containing protein 3 (SCUBE3) is a member of a small family of multifunctional cell surface-anchored glycoproteins functioning as co-receptors for a variety of growth factors. Here we report that bi-allelic inactivating variants in SCUBE3 have pleiotropic consequences on development and cause a previously unrecognized syndromic disorder. Eighteen affected individuals from nine unrelated families showed a consistent phenotype characterized by reduced growth, skeletal features, distinctive craniofacial appearance, and dental anomalies. In vitro functional validation studies demonstrated a variable impact of disease-causing variants on transcript processing, protein secretion and function, and their dysregulating effect on bone morphogenetic protein (BMP) signaling. We show that SCUBE3 acts as a BMP2/BMP4 co-receptor, recruits the BMP receptor complexes into raft microdomains, and positively modulates signaling possibly by augmenting the specific interactions between BMPs and BMP type I receptors. Scube3 mice showed craniofacial and dental defects, reduced body size, and defective endochondral bone growth due to impaired BMP-mediated chondrogenesis and osteogenesis, recapitulating the human disorder. Our findings identify a human disease caused by defective function of a member of the SCUBE family, and link SCUBE3 to processes controlling growth, morphogenesis, and bone and teeth development through modulation of BMP signaling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.11.015DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7820739PMC
January 2021

7q11.23 Microduplication Syndrome: Clinical and Neurobehavioral Profiling.

Brain Sci 2020 Nov 11;10(11). Epub 2020 Nov 11.

Child and Adolescent Neuropsychiatry Unit, Department of Neurological and Psychiatric Science, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

7q11.23 Microduplication (dup7q11.23) syndrome is a rare autosomal dominant disorder due to a recurring 1.5 to 1.8 Mb duplication of the Williams-Beuren Syndrome critical region. Dup7q11.23 has been associated with several neuro-behavioral characteristics such as low cognitive and adaptive functioning, expressive language impairment, anxiety problems and autistic features. In the present study, we analyze the clinical features of ten individuals in which array-CGH detected dup7q11.23, spanning from 1.4 to 2.1 Mb. The clinical characteristics associated with dup7q11.23 are discussed with respect to its reciprocal deletion. Consistent with previous studies, we confirm that individuals with dup7q11.23 syndrome do not have a homogeneous clinical profile, although some recurring dysmorphic features were found, including macrocephaly, prominent forehead, elongated palpebral fissures, thin lip vermilion and microstomia. Minor congenital malformations include patent ductus arteriosus, cryptorchidism and pes planus. A common finding is hypotonia and joint laxity, resulting in mild motor delay. Neuropsychological and psychodiagnostic assessment confirm that mild cognitive impairment, expressive language deficits and anxiety are recurring neurobehavioral features. New insights into adaptive, psychopathological and neurodevelopmental profiles are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/brainsci10110839DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7697259PMC
November 2020

Atypical 7q11.23 deletions excluding ELN gene result in Williams-Beuren syndrome craniofacial features and neurocognitive profile.

Am J Med Genet A 2021 01 24;185(1):242-249. Epub 2020 Oct 24.

Bambino Gesù Children Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Williams-Beurens syndrome (WBS) is a rare genetic disorder caused by a recurrent 7q11.23 microdeletion. Clinical characteristics include typical facial dysmorphisms, weakness of connective tissue, short stature, mild to moderate intellectual disability and distinct behavioral phenotype. Cardiovascular diseases are common due to haploinsufficiency of ELN gene. A few cases of larger or smaller deletions have been reported spanning towards the centromeric or the telomeric regions, most of which included ELN gene. We report on three patients from two unrelated families, presenting with distinctive WBS features, harboring an atypical distal deletion excluding ELN gene. Our study supports a critical role of CLIP2, GTF2IRD1, and GTF2I gene in the WBS neurobehavioral profile and in craniofacial features, highlights a possible role of HIP1 in the autism spectrum disorder, and delineates a subgroup of WBS individuals with an atypical distal deletion not associated to an increased risk of cardiovascular defects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61937DOI Listing
January 2021

Fused Omics Data Models Reveal Gut Microbiome Signatures Specific of Inactive Stage of Juvenile Idiopathic Arthritis in Pediatric Patients.

Microorganisms 2020 Oct 6;8(10). Epub 2020 Oct 6.

Department of Laboratories, Unit of Parasitology and Area of Genetics and Rare Diseases, Unit of Human Microbiome, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS, 00165 Rome, Italy.

Juvenile idiopathic arthritis (JIA) is the most common rheumatic disease in children. Herein, we evaluated the relationship between the gut microbiome (GM) and disease phenotype by an integrated omics fused approach. In a multicenter, observational cohort study, stools from Italian JIA patients were collected at baseline, active, and inactive disease stages, and their GM compared to healthy controls (CTRLs). The microbiota metabolome was analyzed to detect volatile- and non-volatile organic compounds (VOCs); the data were fused with operational taxonomic units (OTUs) from 16S RNA targeted-metagenomics and classified by chemometric models. Non-VOCs did not characterize JIA patients nor JIA activity stages compared to CTRLs. The core of VOCs, (Ethanol, Methyl-isobutyl-ketone, 2,6-Dimethyl-4-heptanone and Phenol) characterized patients at baseline and inactive disease stages, while the OTUs represented by Ruminococcaceae, Lachnospiraceae and Clostridiacea discriminated between JIA inactive stage and CTRLs. No differences were highlighted amongst JIA activity stages. Finally, the fused data discriminated inactive and baseline stages versus CTRLs, based on the contribution of the invariant core of VOCs while Ruminococcaceae concurred for the inactive stage versus CTRLs comparison. In conclusion, the GM signatures enabled to distinguish the inactive disease stage from CTRLs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/microorganisms8101540DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7650812PMC
October 2020

PPP1R21-related syndromic intellectual disability: Report of an adult patient and review.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 12 27;182(12):3014-3022. Epub 2020 Sep 27.

Scientific Directorate, Bambino Gesù Pediatric Hospital, IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Variants in PPP1R21 were recently found to be associated with an autosomal recessive intellectual disability syndrome in 9 individuals. Our patient, the oldest among the known subjects affected by PPP1R21-related syndrome, manifested intellectual disability, short stature, congenital ataxia with cerebellar vermis hypoplasia, generalized hypertrichosis, ulcerative keratitis, muscle weakness, progressive coarse appearance, macroglossia with fissured tongue, and deep palmar and plantar creases. We provide an overview of the clinical spectrum and natural history of this newly recognized disorder, arguing the emerging notion that PPP1R21 gene mutations could result in endolysosomal functional defects. The oldest patients could display a more severe clinical outcome, due to accumulation of metabolites or damage secondary to an alteration of the autophagy pathway. Follow-up of patients with PPP1R21 mutations is recommended for improving the understanding of PPP1R21-related syndromic intellectual disability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61889DOI Listing
December 2020

Cardiovascular Involvement in Pediatric Laminopathies. Report of Six Patients and Literature Revision.

Front Pediatr 2020 24;8:374. Epub 2020 Jul 24.

The European Reference Network for Rare, Low Prevalence and Complex Diseases of the Heart-ERN GUARD-Heart, Pediatric Cardiology and Arrhythmia/Syncope Units, Bambino Gesù Children Hospital and Research Institute, Rome, Italy.

Lamin A/C () encodes for two nuclear intermediate filament proteins. Mutations in cause a highly heterogeneous group of diseases predominantly leading to muscular or cardiac disease, lipodystrophy syndromes, peripheral neuropathy, and accelerated aging disorders. Cardiac involvement includes progressive arrhythmias (brady/tachyarrhythmias, sudden cardiac death). Furthermore, cardiomyocyte damage often progresses into dilated cardiomyopathy (DCM), rarely described in the pediatric age group. Neuromuscular manifestations are even rarer in children. We report on six pediatric patients with mutations: patient 1 was operated on for aortic coarctation, non-compact left ventricle, atrial fibrillation (AF) preceding the diagnosis of DCM; patient 2 was operated on for ventricular septal defect (VSD), developed after years malignant arrhythmias preceding the progression to DCM (left ventricular non-compaction with LV dysfunction); patient 3 had ectopic atrial tachycardia as first manifestation of a DCM; patients 4 and 5 had no major arrhythmic events but only dilated ascending aorta, mildly dilated LV with mild hypertrabeculation of the lateral wall and a normally functioning but dilated left ventricle, respectively; patient 6 showed aortic coarctation, supraventricular tachycardia. Paroxysmal AF occurred in patients 1, 2, and 3 (50% of cases). Our series highlight the coexistence of congenital heart defects (CHDs) and aortic involvement with laminopathies in four of our patients: consisting of aortic coarctation (two patients), aortic root dilatation (one patient), and VSD (one patient). Aortic changes in laminopathies have been reported only once in an adult patient. This is the first report in the pediatric setting, and no associations with CHD have been previously described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fped.2020.00374DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7393225PMC
July 2020

Biallelic mutations in the gene cause a novel primary ciliopathy.

J Med Genet 2021 08 3;58(8):526-533. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Clinical Genetics Unit, Department of Women's and Children's Health, University of Padova, Padova, Italy

Background: Dysfunction in non-motile cilia is associated with a broad spectrum of developmental disorders characterised by clinical heterogeneity. While over 100 genes have been associated with primary ciliopathies, with wide phenotypic overlap, some patients still lack a molecular diagnosis.

Objective: To investigate and functionally characterise the molecular cause of a malformation disorder observed in two sibling fetuses characterised by microphthalmia, cleft lip and palate, and brain anomalies.

Methods: A trio-based whole exome sequencing (WES) strategy was used to identify candidate variants in the gene. In silico, in vitro and in vivo () studies were carried out to explore the impact of mutations on protein structure and function, and relevant biological processes.

Results: encodes a member of the Crescerin1 family of proteins regulating microtubule dynamics. Its orthologue in , , is expressed in a subset of sensory neurons and localises in the dendritic cilium where it is required for chemosensation. Nematode lines harbouring the corresponding missense variant in were generated by CRISPR/Cas9 technology. Although chemotaxis ability on a NaCl gradient was not affected, point mutants displayed impaired lipophilic dye uptake, with shorter and altered cilia in sensory neurons. Finally, in vitro analysis of microtubule polymerisation in the presence of wild-type or mutant TOG2 domain revealed a faster polymerisation associated with the mutant protein, suggesting aberrant tubulin binding.

Conclusions: Our data are in favour of a causative role of variants in the pathogenesis of this novel disorder, connecting this gene with primary ciliopathy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2020-106833DOI Listing
August 2021

Enhanced MAPK1 Function Causes a Neurodevelopmental Disorder within the RASopathy Clinical Spectrum.

Am J Hum Genet 2020 09 27;107(3):499-513. Epub 2020 Jul 27.

Institute of Human Genetics, University Hospital Magdeburg, 39120 Magdeburg, Germany.

Signal transduction through the RAF-MEK-ERK pathway, the first described mitogen-associated protein kinase (MAPK) cascade, mediates multiple cellular processes and participates in early and late developmental programs. Aberrant signaling through this cascade contributes to oncogenesis and underlies the RASopathies, a family of cancer-prone disorders. Here, we report that de novo missense variants in MAPK1, encoding the mitogen-activated protein kinase 1 (i.e., extracellular signal-regulated protein kinase 2, ERK2), cause a neurodevelopmental disease within the RASopathy phenotypic spectrum, reminiscent of Noonan syndrome in some subjects. Pathogenic variants promote increased phosphorylation of the kinase, which enhances translocation to the nucleus and boosts MAPK signaling in vitro and in vivo. Two variant classes are identified, one of which directly disrupts binding to MKP3, a dual-specificity protein phosphatase negatively regulating ERK function. Importantly, signal dysregulation driven by pathogenic MAPK1 variants is stimulus reliant and retains dependence on MEK activity. Our data support a model in which the identified pathogenic variants operate with counteracting effects on MAPK1 function by differentially impacting the ability of the kinase to interact with regulators and substrates, which likely explains the minor role of these variants as driver events contributing to oncogenesis. After nearly 20 years from the discovery of the first gene implicated in Noonan syndrome, PTPN11, the last tier of the MAPK cascade joins the group of genes mutated in RASopathies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajhg.2020.06.018DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477014PMC
September 2020

TUBB3 E410K syndrome: Case report and review of the clinical spectrum of TUBB3 mutations.

Am J Med Genet A 2020 08 23;182(8):1977-1984. Epub 2020 Jun 23.

Rare Diseases and Medical Genetics Unit, Bambino Gesù Children's Hospital, IRCCS Rome, Rome, Italy.

The tubulinopathies refer to a wide range of brain malformations caused by mutations in one of the seven genes encoding different tubulin's isotypes. The β-tubulin isotype III (TUBB3) gene has a primary function in nervous system development and axon generation and maintenance, due to its neuron-specific expression pattern. A recurrent heterozygous mutation, c.1228G > A; p.E410K, in TUBB3 gene is responsible of a rare disorder clinically characterized by congenital fibrosis of the extraocular muscle type 3 (CFEOM3), intellectual disability and a wide range of neurological and endocrine abnormalities. Other mutations have been described spanning the entire gene and genotype-phenotype correlations have been proposed. We report on a 3-year-old boy in whom clinical exome sequencing allowed to identify a de novo TUBB3 E410K mutation as the molecular cause underlying a complex phenotype characterized by a severe bilateral palpebral ptosis refractory to eye surgery, psychomotor delay, absent speech, hypogonadism, celiac disease, and cyclic vomiting. Brain MRI revealed thinning of the corpus callosum with no evidence of malformation cortical dysplasia. We reviewed available records of patients with TUBB3 E410K mutation and compared their phenotype with the clinical outcome of patients with other mutations in TUBB3 gene. The present study confirms that TUBB3 E410K results in a clinically recognizable phenotype, unassociated to the distinct cortical dysplasia caused by other mutations in the same gene. Early molecular characterization of TUBB3 E410K syndrome is critical for targeted genetic counseling and prompt prospective care in term of neurological, ophthalmological, endocrine, and gastrointestinal follow-up.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ajmg.a.61719DOI Listing
August 2020

Atypical cardiac defects in patients with RASopathies: Updated data on CARNET study.

Birth Defects Res 2020 06;112(10):725-731

Pediatric Cardiology, Department of Pediatrics, Obstetrics and Gynecology, Sapienza University of Rome, Rome, Italy.

Background: RASopathies are a set of relatively common autosomal dominant clinically and genetically heterogeneous disorders. Cardiac outcomes in terms of mortality and morbidity for common heart defects (such as pulmonary valve stenosis and hypertrophic cardiomyopathy) have been reported. Nevertheless, also Atypical Cardiac Defects (ACDs) are described. The aim of the present study was to report both prevalence and cardiac outcome of ACDs in patients with RASopathies.

Methods: A retrospective, multicentric observational study (CArdiac Rasopathy NETwork-CARNET study) was carried out. Clinical, surgical, and genetic data of the patients who were followed until December 2019 were collected.

Results: Forty-five patients out of 440 followed in CARNET centers had ACDs. Noonan Syndrome (NS), NS Multiple Lentigines (NSML) and CardioFacioCutaneous Syndrome (CFCS) were present in 36, 5 and 4 patients, respectively. Median age at last follow-up was 20.1 years (range 6.9-47 years). Different ACDs were reported, including mitral and aortic valve dysfunction, ascending and descending aortic arch anomalies, coronary arteries dilation, enlargement of left atrial appendage and isolated pulmonary branches diseases. Five patients (11%) underwent cardiac surgery and one of them underwent a second intervention for mitral valve replacement and severe pericardial effusion. No patients died in our cohort until December 2019.

Conclusions: Patients with RASopathies present a distinct CHD spectrum. Present data suggest that also ACDs must be carefully investigated for their possible impact on the clinical outcome. A careful longitudinal follow up until the individuals reach an adult age is recommended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/bdr2.1670DOI Listing
June 2020

Refinement of the clinical and mutational spectrum of UBE2A deficiency syndrome.

Clin Genet 2020 08 3;98(2):172-178. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Genetics and Rare Diseases Research Division, Ospedale Pediatrico Bambino Gesù, IRCSS, Rome, Italy.

UBE2A deficiency, that is, intellectual disability (ID) Nascimento type (MIM 300860), is an X-linked syndrome characterized by developmental delay, moderate to severe ID, seizures, dysmorphisms, skin anomalies, and urogenital malformations. Forty affected subjects have been reported thus far, with 31 cases having intragenic UBE2A variants. Here, we report on additional eight affected subjects from seven unrelated families who were found to be hemizygous for previously unreported UBE2A missense variants (p.Glu62Lys, p.Arg95Cys, p.Thr99Ala, and p.Arg135Trp) or small in-frame deletions (p.Val81_Ala83del, and p.Asp101del). A wide phenotypic spectrum was documented in these subjects, ranging from moderate ID associated with mild dysmorphisms to severe features including congenital heart defects (CHD), severe cognitive impairment, and pineal gland tumors. Four variants affected residues (Glu62, Arg95, Thr99 and Asp101) that contribute to stabilizing the structure of the E3 binding domain. The three-residue in-frame deletion, p.Val81_Ala83del, resulted from aberrant processing of the transcript. This variant and p.Arg135Trp mapped to regions of the protein located far from the E3 binding region, and caused variably accelerated protein degradation. By reviewing available clinical information, we revise the clinical and molecular profile of the disorder and document genotype-phenotype correlations. Pineal gland cysts/tumors, CHD and hypogammaglobulinemia emerge as recurrent features.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cge.13775DOI Listing
August 2020

Deficiency of MFSD7c results in microcephaly-associated vasculopathy in Fowler syndrome.

J Clin Invest 2020 08;130(8):4081-4093

Department of Biochemistry, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore.

Several missense mutations in the orphan transporter FLVCR2 have been reported in Fowler syndrome. Affected subjects exhibit signs of severe neurological defects. We identified the mouse ortholog Mfsd7c as a gene expressed in the blood-brain barrier. Here, we report the characterizations of Mfsd7c-KO mice and compare these characterizations to phenotypic findings in humans with biallelic FLVCR2 mutations. Global KO of Mfsd7c in mice resulted in late-gestation lethality, likely due to CNS phenotypes. We found that the angiogenic growth of CNS blood vessels in the brain of Mfsd7c-KO embryos was inhibited in cortical ventricular zones and ganglionic eminences. Vascular tips were dilated and fused, resulting in glomeruloid vessels. Nonetheless, CNS blood vessels were intact, without hemorrhage. Both embryos and humans with biallelic FLVCR2 mutations exhibited reduced cerebral cortical layers, enlargement of the cerebral ventricles, and microcephaly. Transcriptomic analysis of Mfsd7cK-KO embryonic brains revealed upregulation of genes involved in glycolysis and angiogenesis. The Mfsd7c-KO brain exhibited hypoxia and neuronal cell death. Our results indicate that MFSD7c is required for the normal growth of CNS blood vessels and that ablation of this gene results in microcephaly-associated vasculopathy in mice and humans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1172/JCI136727DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7410059PMC
August 2020

Telemedicine strategy of the European Reference Network ITHACA for the diagnosis and management of patients with rare developmental disorders.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2020 04 25;15(1):103. Epub 2020 Apr 25.

Manchester Centre for Genomic Medicine, St Mary's Hospital, Manchester University Hospitals NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester Academic Health Sciences Centre, Manchester, M13 9WL, UK.

Background: The European Reference Networks, ERNs, are virtual networks for healthcare providers across Europe to collaborate and share expertise on complex or rare diseases and conditions. As part of the ERNs, the Clinical Patient Management System, CPMS, a secure digital platform, was developed to allow and facilitate web-based, clinical consultations between submitting clinicians and relevant international experts. The European Reference Network on Intellectual Disability, TeleHealth and Congenital Anomalies, ERN ITHACA, was formed to harness the clinical and diagnostic expertise in the sector of rare, multiple anomaly and/or intellectual disability syndromes, chromosome disorders and undiagnosed syndromic disorders. We present the first year results of CPMS use by ERN ITHACA as an example of a telemedicine strategy for the diagnosis and management of patients with rare developmental disorders.

Results: ERN ITHACA ranked third in telemedicine activity amongst 24 European networks after 12 months of using the CPMS. Information about 28 very rare cases from 13 different centres across 7 countries was shared on the platform, with diagnostic or other management queries. Early interaction with patient support groups identified data protection as of primary importance in adopting digital platforms for patient diagnosis and care. The first launch of the CPMS was built to accommodate the needs of all ERNs. The ERN ITHACA telemedicine process highlighted a need to customise the CPMS with network-specific requirements. The results of this effort should enhance the CPMS utility for telemedicine services and ERN-specific care outcomes.

Conclusions: We present the results of a long and fruitful process of interaction between the ERN ITHACA network lead team and EU officials, software developers and members of 38 EU clinical genetics centres to organise and coordinate direct e-healthcare through a secure, digital platform. The variability of the queries in just the first 28 cases submitted to the ERN ITHACA CPMS is a fair representation of the complexity and rarity of the patients referred, but also proof of the sophisticated and variable service that could be provided through a structured telemedicine approach for patients and families with rare developmental disorders. Web-based approaches are likely to result in increased accessibility to clinical genomic services.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-020-1349-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7183125PMC
April 2020
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