Publications by authors named "Bruce W Bailey"

45 Publications

Milk-Fat Intake and Differences in Abdominal Adiposity and BMI: Evidence Based on 13,544 Randomly-Selected Adults.

Nutrients 2021 May 27;13(6). Epub 2021 May 27.

College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

The primary purpose of this investigation was to evaluate the relationship between milk-fat intake and obesity, particularly abdominal obesity, in 13,544 U.S. adults. A lesser objective was to measure the degree to which the association was influenced by multiple potential confounding variables. This cross-sectional study used data from the 2011-2016 National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Quantity of milk-fat regularly consumed was the exposure variable. Sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), a measure of abdominal obesity, and body mass index (BMI) were the outcome variables. Sagittal abdominal diameter is a strong predictor of visceral abdominal fat, when measured by computed tomography, and has been shown to predict cardiometabolic disorders better than BMI. After controlling for age, race, gender, physical activity, leisure computer use and gaming, alcohol habits, and cigarette use, significantly lower BMIs were associated with consistent non-fat and full-fat milk consumption (F = 4.1, = 0.0063). A significantly lower SAD was associated only with regular consumption of non-fat milk (F = 5.0, = 0.0019). No significant differences were detected between the other milk-fat groups or milk abstainers. In this nationally representative sample, only 19.6% of adults regularly consumed low-fat milk. In conclusion, consistent non-fat milk intake was predictive of lower levels of abdominal adiposity compared to consumption of higher levels of milk-fat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu13061832DOI Listing
May 2021

The impact of exercise intensity on neurophysiological indices of food-related inhibitory control and cognitive control: A randomized crossover event-related potential (ERP) study.

Neuroimage 2021 May 18;237:118162. Epub 2021 May 18.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, United States; Neuroscience Center, Brigham Young University, United States.

Food-related inhibitory control, the ability to withhold a dominant response towards highly palatable foods, influences dietary decisions. Food-related inhibitory control abilities may increase following a bout of aerobic exercise; however, the impact of exercise intensity on both food-related inhibitory control and broader cognitive control processes is currently unclear. We used a high-powered, within-subjects, crossover design to test how relative intensity of aerobic exercise influenced behavioral (response time, accuracy) and neural (N2 and P3 components of the scalp-recorded event-related potential [ERP]) measures of food-related inhibitory and cognitive control. Two hundred and ten participants completed three separate conditions separated by approximately one week in randomized order: two exercise conditions (35% VO or 70% VO) and seated rest. Directly following exercise or rest, participants completed a food-based go/no-go task and a flanker task while electroencephalogram data were recorded. Linear mixed models showed generally faster response times (RT) and improved accuracy following 70% VO exercise compared to rest, but not 35% VO; RTs and accuracy did not differ between 35% VO exercise and rest conditions. N2 and P3 amplitudes were larger following 70% VO exercise for the food-based go/no-go task compared to rest and 35% VO exercise. There were no differences between exercise conditions for N2 amplitude during the flanker task; however, P3 amplitude was more positive following 70% VO compared to rest, but not 35% VO exercise. Biological sex did not moderate exercise outcomes. Results suggest improved and more efficient food-related recruitment of later inhibitory control and cognitive control processes following 70% VO exercise.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.neuroimage.2021.118162DOI Listing
May 2021

The Effects of Exercise on Beta-Hydroxybutyrate Concentrations over a 36-h Fast: A Randomized Crossover Study.

Med Sci Sports Exerc 2021 Mar 12. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Exercise Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT Department of Physiology and Developmental Biology, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT Department of Statistics, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

Purpose: This study assessed beta-hydroxybutyrate (BHB) concentration during a short-term fast and the degree to which an initial bout of exercise influences the rate of ketogenesis.

Methods: 20 subjects (11 Male, 9 Female) completed two 36-hour fasts, with one protocol requiring the subject to complete a treadmill exercise session at the beginning of the fast. BHB levels were assessed via portable meter every two hours, along with mood and hunger ratings. Venipuncture was performed every 12 hours.

Results: The mean area under the curve (AUC) for BHB concentration was 19.19 (SD 2.59) mmol/L (nonexercised) and 27.49 (SD 2.59) mmol/L (exercised), yielding a 8.30 mmol/L difference between conditions (95% PPI = 1.94 to 14.82, PP = 0.99). The mean time to BHB concentration of 0.5 mmol/L was 21.07 (SD 2.95) hours (nonexercised) and 17.5 (SD 1.69) hours (exercised), a 3.57 hour difference (95% PPI = -2.11 to 10.87, PP = 0.89). The difference in AUC between conditions for insulin was 5.07 μU/ml (95% PPI = -21.64 to 36.18, PP = 0.67), for glucagon was 97.13 pg/ml (95% PPI = 34.08 to 354.21, PP = 0.98), and for the insulin:glucagon ratio was 20.83 (95% PPI = 4.70 to 24.22, PP = 0.99).

Conclusion: Completing aerobic exercise at the beginning of a fast accelerates the production of BHB throughout the fast without altering subjective feelings of hunger, thirst, stomach discomfort or mood. Insulin and the insulin:glucagon ratio experience marked reduction within the first 12 hours of fasting and was not altered with exercise. Thus, exercising at the beginning of a fast may improve the metabolic outcomes of fasting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1249/MSS.0000000000002655DOI Listing
March 2021

Association of periodic fasting lifestyles with survival and incident major adverse cardiovascular events in patients undergoing cardiac catheterization.

Eur J Prev Cardiol 2020 Sep 22. Epub 2020 Sep 22.

Intermountain Medical Center Heart Institute, 5121 S. Cottonwood St., Salt Lake City, UT 84107, USA.

Aims: Animal models repeatedly show fasting increases longevity. Human data, though, are limited to anecdotal claims. This study evaluated the association of routine fasting with survival and, secondarily, with incident major adverse cardiovascular events.

Methods And Results: Cardiac catheterization patients enrolled in the Intermountain INSPIRE longitudinal cohort (n = 2785) during 2013-2015 were followed through March 2019. A fasting survey was completed in n = 2025 (73%) of this cohort and 1957 were included in the final data analysis after 68 participants were removed (24 for data issues and 44 for fasting less than 5 years). Self-reported routine fasting behaviour, years of participation in fasting, and other fasting characteristics were surveyed. Mortality was the primary outcome and incident myocardial infarction (MI), stroke, and heart failure (HF) were secondary. Routine fasters (n = 389, mean age 64 ± 14 years, 34% female) averaged 42 ± 18 years of routine fasting (minimum 5 years). Non-fasters (n = 1568, aged 63 ± 14 years, 36% female) included never fasters (n = 1120 with 0 years of fasting) and previous fasters (n = 448 who averaged 32 ± 21 years of prior fasting but had stopped prior to enrolment). Routine fasters had greater survival vs. non-fasters [adjusted hazard ratio (HR) = 0.54, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 0.36-0.80; P = 0.002] and lower incidence of HF (adjusted HR = 0.31, CI = 0.12-0.78; P = 0.013), but not MI or stroke after adjustment.

Conclusions: Routine fasting followed during two-thirds of the lifespan was associated with higher survival after cardiac catheterization. This may in part be explained by an association of routine fasting with a lower incidence of HF.

Clinical Study Registration: The Intermountain INSPIRE registry https://clinicaltrials.gov/, NCT02450006.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/eurjpc/zwaa050DOI Listing
September 2020

Physical Activity and Insulin Resistance in 6,500 NHANES Adults: The Role of Abdominal Obesity.

J Obes 2020 26;2020:3848256. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Food Science, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.

This cross-sectional investigation studied differences in insulin resistance across levels of physical activity in 6,500 US adults who were randomly selected as part of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey (NHANES). Another important objective was to determine the influence of abdominal obesity on the physical activity and insulin resistance relationship. MET-minutes were utilized to quantify total activity based on participation in 48 different physical activities. Two strategies were employed to categorize levels of physical activity: one was based on relative MET-minutes (quartiles), and the other approach was based on the US physical activity guidelines. Insulin resistance was indexed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). Abdominal obesity was indexed using waist circumference. Effect modification was tested by dividing waist circumferences into sex-specific quartiles and then evaluating the relationship between physical activity and HOMA-IR within each quartile separately. Results showed that relative physical activity level was associated with HOMA-IR after controlling for demographic and demographic and lifestyle covariates ( = 11.5, < 0.0001 and  = 6.0, =0.0012, respectively). Adjusting for demographic and demographic and lifestyle covariates also resulted in significant relationships between guideline-based activity and HOMA-IR ( = 8.0, < 0.0001 and  = 4.9, =0.0017, respectively). However, statistically controlling for differences in waist circumference with the other covariates nullified the relationship between total physical activity and HOMA-IR. Effect modification testing showed that when the sample was delimited to adults with abdominal obesity (Quartile 4), relative ( = 5.6, =0.0019) and guideline-based physical activity ( = 3.7, =0.0098) and HOMA-IR were significantly associated. Physical activity and HOMA-IR were not related within the other three quartiles. In conclusion, it appears that differences in physical activity may play a meaningful role in insulin resistance in those with abdominal obesity, but total activity does not seem to account for differences in insulin resistance among US adults with smaller waists.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/3848256DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7745049PMC
March 2020

To play or not to play? The relationship between active video game play and electrophysiological indices of food-related inhibitory control in adolescents.

Eur J Neurosci 2021 Feb 19;53(3):876-894. Epub 2020 Dec 19.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Sedentary behaviors, such as computer use and sedentary video games, are barriers to physical activity, contribute to overweight and obesity among adolescents, and can adversely affect eating behaviors. Active video games may increase daily physical activity levels among adolescents and improve food-related inhibitory control. We compared the effects of acute bouts of active and sedentary video gaming on event-related potential (ERP) indices of food-related inhibitory control, energy expenditure, and ad libitum eating. In a within-subjects design, 59 adolescent participants (49% female, M  = 13.29 ± 1.15) completed two separate counterbalanced, 60-min long video gaming sessions separated by seven days. Immediately after, participants completed two go/no-go tasks with high- and low-calorie images and N2 and P3 ERP amplitudes were measured. Participants also completed a Stroop task and were given high- and low-calorie snacks to consume ad libitum. Results indicated that active relative to sedentary video games significantly increased energy expenditure on multiple measures (e.g., METs, heart rate, kcals burned) and participants consumed more calories after the active compared to the sedentary video game session. N2 amplitudes were larger when participants inhibited to high- compared to low-calorie foods, suggesting that high-calorie foods necessitate increased the recruitment of inhibitory control resources; however, there were non-significant differences for the N2 or P3 amplitudes, accuracy or response times, and Stroop performance between active versus sedentary video game sessions. Overall, sixty minutes of active video gaming increased energy expenditure and food consumption but did not significantly alter neural or behavioral measures of inhibitory control to food stimuli.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/ejn.15071DOI Listing
February 2021

The relationship between exercise intensity and neurophysiological responses to food stimuli in women: A randomized crossover event-related potential (ERP) study.

Int J Psychophysiol 2020 12 1;158:349-361. Epub 2020 Nov 1.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, United States of America. Electronic address:

We tested the effect of different intensities of acute exercise on hunger, and post-exercise energy intake, and neurophysiological measures of attention towards food- and non-food stimuli in women. In a within-subjects crossover design, forty-two women completed no exercise, moderate-intensity exercise, and vigorous-intensity exercise sessions separated by one week, in a counterbalanced fashion. At each session, participants completed a passive viewing task of food (high- and low-calorie) and non-food pictures while electroencephalogram (EEG) data were recorded. The early posterior negativity (EPN), P3, and late positive potential (LPP) components of the event-related potential (ERP) measured neurophysiological responses. Subjective ratings of hunger were measured before and immediately after each condition using a visual analog scale (VAS) and food intake was measured using an ad libitum snack buffet offered at the end of each condition. Results indicated that hunger levels increased as time passed for all sessions. EPN amplitude was larger to non-food compared to food images; P3 amplitude was larger to food than non-food stimuli. LPP amplitude did not differ by high-calorie, low-calorie, or non-food images. Notably, there were no significant main effects or interactions of any ERP component amplitude as a function of exercise intensity. Food intake also did not differ by rest or moderate or vigorous exercise, although subjective arousal ratings to the images were higher after moderate and vigorous exercise compared to rest. Food images also had higher arousal and valence ratings than non-food images overall. Findings indicate that, in this sample, acute moderate and vigorous exercise compared to rest did not disproportionately affect neurophysiological measures of attention to food or non-food stimuli, caloric intake, or hunger.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpsycho.2020.10.011DOI Listing
December 2020

Evaluating Relationships Between Sleep and Next-Day Physical Activity in Young Women.

J Phys Act Health 2020 Aug 12;17(9):874-880. Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Background: To evaluate the relationship between sleep and next-day physical activity (PA) under free-living conditions in women.

Methods: Sleep and PA were measured objectively for 7 consecutive days by accelerometry in 330 young adult women (aged 17-25 y). A structural equation model was used to evaluate the relationship between the driving factor of sleep (total sleep or morning wake time) and the amount of nonsleep sedentary (SED) and moderate to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) each day.

Results: With sleep duration as the driving factor, the estimates of βSED and βMVPA were -0.415 and -0.093, respectively (P ≤ .05). For every hour slept, a 24.9-minute reduction in SED time and a 5.58-minute reduction in MVPA were observed. With wake time as the driving factor, the estimates of βSED and βMVPA were -0.636 and -0.149, respectively. For every wake time that was 1 hour later, a 38.2-minute decrease in SED and a 8.9-minute decrease in MVPA (P ≤ .05) were observed.

Conclusions: Women who wake later or who sleep longer tend to get less MVPA throughout the day. Getting up earlier and going to bed earlier may support behaviors that improve PA and lifestyle.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2020-0014DOI Listing
August 2020

Strength Training and Insulin Resistance: The Mediating Role of Body Composition.

J Diabetes Res 2020 8;2020:7694825. Epub 2020 May 8.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah 84602, USA.

The main objective of the present study was to assess the association between participation in strength training and insulin resistance. Another goal was to assess the influence of several potential confounding variables on the strength training and insulin resistance relationship. Lastly, the influence of waist circumference, fat-free mass (kg), body fat percentage, and the fat-free mass index on the association between strength training and insulin resistance was assessed. This cross-sectional study included 6,561 randomly selected men and women in the U.S. Data were collected using the precise protocol established by NHANES. HOMA-IR was used as the outcome variable to index insulin resistance. Both time spent strength training and frequency of strength training bouts were used as exposure variables. There was not a statistically significant relationship between strength training and insulin resistance in women. However, before and after controlling for 11 potential confounding variables, men who reported no strength training had significantly higher levels of HOMA-IR compared to men who reported moderate or high levels of strength training ( = 9.87, < 0.0001). Odds ratios were also assessed. Men reporting no strength training had 2.42 times the odds of having insulin resistance compared to men reporting moderate levels of strength training (95% CI: 1.19-4.93). Similarly, men reporting no strength training had 2.50 times the odds of having insulin resistance compared to men reporting high levels of strength training (95% CI: 1.25-5.00). In conclusion, there was a strong relationship between strength training and insulin resistance in U.S. men, but not in U.S. women. Differences in waist circumference, fat-free mass (kg), body fat percentage, and the fat-free mass index, as well as demographic and lifestyle measures, do not appear to mediate the relationship. The present study was not a clinical trial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2020/7694825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7235686PMC
March 2021

Acute after-school screen time in children decreases impulse control and activation toward high-calorie food stimuli in brain regions related to reward and attention.

Brain Imaging Behav 2021 Feb;15(1):177-189

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, 267 Smith Fieldhouse, Provo, UT, 84602, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of after-school sedentary screen time on children's brain activation in reward and cognitive control regions in response to pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. Thirty-two children participated in a randomized crossover study with counterbalanced treatment conditions. Conditions took place on separate days after school and included three hours of active or sedentary play. After each condition, neural activation was assessed using functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) while participants completed a go/no-go task involving pictures of high- and low-calorie foods. General response inhibition was also measured using the Stroop task. Hunger was measured upon arrival to the testing facility and just prior to fMRI scans. Mixed effects models were used to evaluate main effects and interactions. Significant stimulus by condition interactions were found in the right superior parietal cortex, and left anterior cingulate cortex (Ps ≤ 0.05). High-calorie pictures elicited significantly more activation bilaterally in the orbitofrontal cortex compared to low-calorie pictures (Ps ≤ 0.05). Stroop task performance diminished significantly following the sedentary condition compared to the active (P ≤ 0.05). Subjective feelings of hunger were not different between conditions at any point. Sedentary screen time was associated with significantly decreased response inhibition and a reversed brain activation pattern to pictures of high- and low-calorie foods compared to active play, in areas of the brain important to the modulation of food intake. Decreased attention, and impulse control following sedentary screen time may contribute to disinhibited eating that can lead to overweight and obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11682-019-00244-yDOI Listing
February 2021

The Impact of Step Recommendations on Body Composition and Physical Activity Patterns in College Freshman Women: A Randomized Trial.

J Obes 2019 1;2019:4036825. Epub 2019 Dec 1.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Purpose: Transitioning from high school to college generally results in reduced physical activity and weight gain at a rate that is higher than the general population. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of three progressively higher step recommendations over 24 weeks on changes in body weight and body composition.

Methods: Ninety-two freshmen college women wore a multifunction pedometer for 24 weeks after being randomly assigned to a daily step level: 10,000, 12,500, or 15,000. Pedometer data were downloaded every two weeks and participants were counseled on meeting their step recommendation. Body weight and body composition were assessed at baseline and 24 weeks. Body composition was assessed by dual X-ray absorptiometry.

Results: On average, women took 10,786 ± 1501, 12,650 ± 2001, and 13,762 ± 2098 steps per day for the 10,000-, 12,500-, and 15,000-step groups, respectively ( = 15.48, < 0.0001). Participants gained 1.4 ± 2.6, 1.8 ± 2.1, and 1.4 ± 2.1 kg for the 10,000-, 12,500-, and 15,000-step groups, respectively ( = 37.74, < 0.0001). Weight gain was not significantly different between groups ( = 0.18, =0.8385). There was also no difference in fat weight gain ( = 0.41, =0.7954).

Discussion: A step recommendation beyond 10,000 does not prevent weight or fat gain over the first year of college. Future research should focus on either intensity of physical activity or the addition of dietary interventions to prevent weight gain during the first year of college.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/4036825DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6914918PMC
August 2020

Sagittal Abdominal Diameter, Waist Circumference, and BMI as Predictors of Multiple Measures of Glucose Metabolism: An NHANES Investigation of US Adults.

J Diabetes Res 2018 19;2018:3604108. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Department of Exercise Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

The objective was to compare associations between sagittal abdominal diameter (SAD), waist circumference, and BMI to the oral glucose tolerance test (OGTT), along with fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR, in a nationally representative sample of 3582 US adults. The study also analyzed the effect of multiple covariates on the anthropometric and glucose metabolism associations. A cross-sectional design was used. SAD was assessed using an abdominal caliper. All other data were collected following strict NHANES protocols. The OGTT was the primary variable used to index glucose metabolism. Fasting glucose, HbA1c, and HOMA-IR were also evaluated. Results showed that mean ± SE values were as follows: SAD: 22.3 ± 0.1 cm, waist circumference: 98.0 ± 0.4 cm, BMI: 28.6 ± 0.2 kg/m, OGTT: 113.9 ± 1.0 mg/dL, fasting glucose: 99.6 ± 0.3 mg/dL, HbA1c: 5.4 ± 0.01%, and HOMA-IR: 3.2 ± 0.1. Compared to waist circumference and BMI, SAD consistently emerged as the best predictor of glucose metabolism, before and after adjusting for the covariates, and with the sample stratified by gender, race, or age. SAD was not a better predictor of OGTT among normal-weight adults or non-Hispanic Black adults. Due to the ease of taking SAD measurements, we recommend that healthcare providers use this simple method to more precisely predict diabetes risk, especially among overweight and obese adults.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2018/3604108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6029495PMC
December 2018

Expanded Normal Weight Obesity and Insulin Resistance in US Adults of the National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey.

J Diabetes Res 2017 25;2017:9502643. Epub 2017 Jul 25.

Department of Exercise Sciences, College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

This study aims to expand the evaluation of normal weight obesity (NWO) and its association with insulin resistance using an NHANES (1999-2006) sample of US adults. A cross-sectional study including 5983 men and women (50.8%) was conducted. Body fat percentage (BF%) was assessed using dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Expanded normal weight obesity (eNWO) categories, pairings of BMI and body fat percentage classifications, were created using standard cut-points for BMI and sex-specific median for BF%. Homeostatic model assessment-insulin resistance (HOMA-IR) levels were used to index insulin resistance. Mean ± SE values were BMI: 27.9 ± 0.2 (women) and 27.8 ± 0.1 (men); body fat percentage: 40.5 ± 0.2 (women) and 27.8 ± 0.2 (men); and HOMA-IR: 2.04 ± 0.05 (women) and 2.47 ± 0.09 (men). HOMA-IR differed systematically and in a dose-response fashion across all levels of the eNWO categories ( = 291.3, < 0.0001). As BMI levels increased, HOMA-IR increased significantly, and within each BMI category, higher levels of body fat were associated with higher levels of HOMA-IR. Both high BMI and high BF% were strongly related to insulin resistance. Insulin resistance appears to increase incrementally according to BMI levels primarily and body fat levels secondarily. Including a precise measure of body fat with BMI adds little to the utility of BMI in the prediction of insulin resistance.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2017/9502643DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5547730PMC
May 2018

Testing food-related inhibitory control to high- and low-calorie food stimuli: Electrophysiological responses to high-calorie food stimuli predict calorie and carbohydrate intake.

Psychophysiology 2017 Jul 24;54(7):982-997. Epub 2017 Mar 24.

Department of Psychology, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah.

Maintaining a healthy diet has important implications for physical and mental health. One factor that may influence diet and food consumption is inhibitory control-the ability to withhold a dominant response in order to correctly respond to environmental demands. We examined how N2 amplitude, an ERP that reflects inhibitory control processes, differed toward high- and low-calorie food stimuli and related to food intake. A total of 159 participants (81 female; M age = 23.5 years; SD = 7.6) completed two food-based go/no-go tasks (one with high-calorie and one with low-calorie food pictures as no-go stimuli) while N2 amplitude was recorded. Participants recorded food intake using the Automated Self-Administered 24-hour Dietary Recall system. Inhibiting responses toward high-calorie stimuli elicited a larger (i.e., more negative) no-go N2 amplitude; inhibiting responses toward low-calorie stimuli elicited a smaller no-go N2 amplitude. Participants were more accurate during the high-calorie than low-calorie task, but took longer to respond on go trials toward high-calorie rather than low-calorie stimuli. When controlling for age, gender, and BMI, larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted lower caloric intake (β = 0.17); low-calorie N2 difference amplitude was not related to caloric intake (β = -0.03). Exploratory analyses revealed larger high-calorie N2 difference amplitude predicted carbohydrate intake (β = 0.22), but not protein (β = 0.08) or fat (β = 0.11) intake. Results suggest that withholding responses from high-calorie foods requires increased recruitment of inhibitory control processes, which may be necessary to regulate food consumption, particularly for foods high in calories and carbohydrates.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/psyp.12860DOI Listing
July 2017

Strength training and body composition in middle-age women.

J Sports Med Phys Fitness 2018 Jan-Feb;58(1-2):82-91. Epub 2017 Feb 8.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT, USA.

Background: Strength training is a sound method to improve body composition. However, the effect of age, diet, menopause, and physical activity on the relationship between strength training and body composition in women remains unknown. The purpose of this study was to examine the intricacies of the relationship between strength training and body composition in 257 middle-age women and to quantify the effect of these factors on the association.

Methods: The study was cross-sectional. Five variables were used to index strength training participation. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Diet was assessed by 7-day weighed food records, and physical activity was measured objectively using accelerometers.

Results: There were 109 strength trainers in the sample. For each day per week of strength training, body fat was 1.3 percentage points lower (F=14.8, P<0.001) and fat-free mass was 656 g higher (F=18.9, P<0.001). Likewise, the more time women spent lifting and the more intensely they trained, the better their body composition tended to be. Differences in age, energy and protein consumption had little effect on the associations. However, adjusting for differences in physical activity, and to a lesser extent, menopause status, weakened the relationships significantly.

Conclusions: The more days, time, and effort women devote to strength training, the lower their body fat and the higher their fat-free mass tend to be. A significant portion of the differences in body composition seems to result from lifters participating in more physical activity than non-lifters. Menopause status also contributes significantly to the relationship.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.23736/S0022-4707.17.06706-8DOI Listing
May 2018

A randomized controlled trial to study the effects of breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters.

Appetite 2017 05 4;112:44-51. Epub 2017 Jan 4.

267 SFH, Provo, UT 84604-2216, USA. Electronic address:

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to determine the effects of eating breakfast on energy intake, physical activity, body weight, and body fat in women who are nonhabitual breakfast eaters over a four-week period.

Methods: Forty-nine women who were nonhabitual breakfast-eaters were randomized to one of two conditions: breakfast or no breakfast. Breakfast eaters were required to eat at least 15% of their daily energy requirement before 8:30 a.m. Non-breakfast eaters did not consume any energy until after 11:30 a.m. Weight and body fat were assessed at baseline and after four weeks of intervention. Body fat was measured by dual energy x-ray absorptiometry (DXA). Participants completed seven 24-hour recalls to assess dietary intake during the intervention. Physical activity was measured by accelerometry for 32 consecutive days.

Results: On average, the participants randomized to eat breakfast consumed 266 ± 496 (F = 12.81; P < 0.01) more calories per day over the course of the study and weighed 0.7 ± 0.8 kg (F = 7.81; p < 0.01) more at the end of the intervention. There was no observed caloric compensation at subsequent meals and no change in self-reported hunger or satiety. There was also no physical activity compensation with the addition of breakfast.

Conclusion: The findings of our study showed that requiring non-breakfast eaters to eat breakfast resulted in higher caloric intake and weight gain. Future research should evaluate this relationship for a longer period of time to see if adding breakfast to the diet of women who generally do not eat breakfast results in adaptive behavior change over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.appet.2016.12.041DOI Listing
May 2017

Disparity in neural and subjective responses to food images in women with obesity and normal-weight women.

Obesity (Silver Spring) 2017 02 20;25(2):384-390. Epub 2016 Dec 20.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, Utah, USA.

Objective: Self-reports tend to differ from objective measurements of food intake, particularly in adults with obesity; however, no studies have examined how neural responses to food (an objective measure) and subjective ratings of food differ by BMI status. This study tested normal-weight women (NWW) and women with obesity (OBW) for group differences in neural indices of attention towards food pictures, subjective ratings of these pictures, and the disparity between objective and subjective measurements.

Methods: Twenty-two NWW (21.8 ± 1.7 kg/m ) and 22 OBW (37.0 ± 5.7 kg/m ) viewed food and flower pictures while late positive potential amplitude, an event-related potential, was recorded. Participants rated pictures for arousal and valence.

Results: Late positive potential amplitude was larger toward food than flower pictures. OBW self-reported flower pictures as more pleasant than food; NWW showed no difference for pleasantness. There were no significant main effects or interactions for arousal. Standardized scores showed that only on subjective, but not objective, measures did OBW compared with NWW disproportionately indicate food pictures as less pleasant than flowers.

Conclusions: Compared with NWW, OBW showed larger discrepancies between neural and subjective reports of attention towards food. Inaccurate self-reports of attention towards food may reduce the efficiency of health interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/oby.21710DOI Listing
February 2017

The Effect of CardioWaves Interval Training on Resting Blood Pressure, Resting Heart Rate, and Mind-Body Wellness.

Int J Exerc Sci 2016;9(1):89-100. Epub 2016 Jan 1.

Brigham Young University, Department of Exercise Sciences.

An experimental study to examine the effects of CardioWaves interval training (CWIT) and continuous training (CT) on resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness. Fifty-two normotensive (blood pressure <120/80 mmHg), pre-hypertensive (120-139/80-89 mmHg), and hypertensive (>140/90 mmHg) participants were randomly assigned and equally divided between the CWIT and CT groups. Both groups participated in the assigned exercise protocol 30 minutes per day, four days per week for eight weeks. Resting blood pressure, resting heart rate, and mind-body wellness were measured pre- and post-intervention. A total of 47 participants (15 females and 32 males) were included in the analysis. The CWIT group had a non-significant trend of reduced systolic blood pressure (SBP) and increased diastolic blood pressure (DBP) while the CT group had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.01) and total SBP (p = 0.01) and a non-significant decrease in DBP. With both groups combined, the female participants had a statistically significant decrease in awake SBP (p = 0.002), asleep SBP (p = 0.01), total SBP (p = 0.003), awake DBP (p = 0.02), and total DBP (p = 0.05). The male participants had an increase in SBP and DBP with total DBP showing a statistically significant increase (p = 0.05). Neither group had a consistent change in resting heart rate. Both groups showed improved mind-body wellness. CWIT and CT reduced resting blood pressure, with CT having a greater effect. Resting heart rate did not change in either group. Additionally, both CWIT and CT improved mind-body wellness.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4831849PMC
January 2016

Reduced Sleep Acutely Influences Sedentary Behavior and Mood But Not Total Energy Intake in Normal-Weight and Obese Women.

Behav Sleep Med 2016 Sep-Oct;14(5):528-38. Epub 2015 Oct 20.

a Department of Exercise Sciences , Brigham Young University , Provo , Utah.

Using a crossover design, 22 normal-weight and 22 obese women completed two free-living sleep conditions: (a) Normal Sleep: night of ~8 hr time in bed; and (b) Reduced Sleep: night of < 5 hr time in bed). Outcome measures were energy intake, physical activity and sedentary time, and mood. Sleep time was 7.7 ± 0.3 and 4.8 ± 0.2 hrs during the Normal Sleep and Reduced Sleep conditions, respectively (F = 1791.94; p < 0.0001). Energy intake did not differ between groups or as a function of sleep condition (F = 2.46; p = 0.1244). Sedentary time was ~ 30 min higher after the Reduced Sleep condition (F = 4.98; p = 0.0318); other physical activity outcomes were not different by condition (p > 0.05). Total mood score, depression, anger, vigor, fatigue, and confusion were worse after Reduced Sleep (p < 0.05). Reducing sleep acutely and negatively influenced sedentary time and mood in normal-weight and obese women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15402002.2015.1036272DOI Listing
July 2017

Meat Intake and Insulin Resistance in Women without Type 2 Diabetes.

J Diabetes Res 2015 9;2015:174742. Epub 2015 Jul 9.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, 267 SFH, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

Purpose: To examine the relationship between meat intake and insulin resistance (IR) in 292 nondiabetic women.

Methods: IR was evaluated using the homeostasis model assessment (HOMA). Diet was assessed via 7-day weighed food records. Servings of very lean meat (VLM) and regular meat (meat) were indexed using the ADA Exchange Lists Program. Physical activity was assessed using accelerometers and body fat was measured using the Bod Pod.

Results: Meat intake was directly related to HOMA (F = 7.4; P = 0.007). Women with moderate or high meat intakes had significantly higher HOMA levels than their counterparts. Adjusting for body fat weakened the relationship (F = 1.0; P = 0.3201). Odds ratio results showed that the low meat quartile had 67% lower odds of being IR (75th percentile) compared to their counterparts (OR = 0.33; 95% CI = 0.16-0.71). These findings changed little after adjusting for all covariates simultaneously (OR = 0.34; 95% CI = 0.14-0.83). Conversely, VLM intake was not related to HOMA, with or without the covariates.

Conclusion: Moderate and high meat intakes are associated with increased insulin resistance in nondiabetic women. However, differences in body fat contribute significantly to the relationship. VLM is not predictive of IR. Prudence in the amount and type of meat consumed may be helpful in decreasing the likelihood of IR.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/174742DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4512604PMC
March 2016

Dairy consumption and insulin resistance: the role of body fat, physical activity, and energy intake.

J Diabetes Res 2015 29;2015:206959. Epub 2015 Jan 29.

College of Life Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT 84602, USA.

The relationship between dairy consumption and insulin resistance was ascertained in 272 middle-aged, nondiabetic women using a cross-sectional design. Participants kept 7-day, weighed food records to report their diets, including dairy intake. Insulin resistance was assessed using the homeostatic model assessment (HOMA). The Bod Pod was used to measure body fat percentage, and accelerometry for 7 days was used to objectively index physical activity. Regression analysis was used to determine the extent to which mean HOMA levels differed across low, moderate, and high dairy intake categories. Results showed that women in the highest quartile of dairy consumption had significantly greater log-transformed HOMA values (0.41 ± 0.53) than those in the middle-two quartiles (0.22 ± 0.55) or the lowest quartile (0.19 ± 0.58) (F = 6.90, P = 0.0091). The association remained significant after controlling for each potential confounder individually and all covariates simultaneously. Adjusting for differences in energy intake weakened the relationship most, but the association remained significant. Of the 11 potential confounders, only protein intake differed significantly across the dairy categories, with those consuming high dairy also consuming more total protein than their counterparts. Apparently, high dairy intake is a significant predictor of insulin resistance in middle-aged, nondiabetic women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2015/206959DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4325471PMC
October 2015

Adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and the relationship to adiposity in young women.

J Nutr Educ Behav 2015 Jan-Feb;47(1):86-93. Epub 2014 Oct 17.

Department of Exercise Sciences, Brigham Young University, Provo, UT.

Objective: To determine the relationship between adherence to the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans and adiposity in young women with and without statistical adjustment for physical activity (PA).

Methods: Participants included 324 young women (aged 17-25 years). The researchers measured dietary intake using the Dietary History Questionnaire and determined diet quality using the 2010 Healthy Eating Index (HEI-2010). BOD POD (Cosmed, Rome, Italy, 2006) and accelerometry were used to assess body fat and PA, respectively.

Results: Women in the top quartile of HEI-2010 had significantly lower percent body fat than women in the lowest 3 quartiles (F = 3.36; P = .03). Controlling for objectively measured PA weakened this relationship by 20%. These young women (top quartile of HEI-2010) also had 0.37 odds (95% confidence interval, 0.16-0.85) of having body fat > 32%.

Conclusions And Implications: Young women whose diets most closely meet the 2010 Dietary Guidelines for Americans have lower adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jneb.2014.08.011DOI Listing
August 2015

Cardiorespiratory fitness and hip bone mineral density in women: a 6-year prospective study.

Percept Mot Skills 2014 Oct 25;119(2):333-46. Epub 2014 Aug 25.

1 Brigham Young University.

Cross-sectional studies and short term interventions focusing on fitness and bone mineral density (BMD) are common. However, few investigations have studied the effect of fitness on BMD over an extended period of time. The present study was conducted to determine the extent to which cardiorespiratory fitness influences risk of BMD loss at the hip over 6 yr. A prospective cohort design was used with 245 healthy, middle-aged women. Hip BMD was assessed using dual energy x-ray absorptiometry. Calcium and vitamin D were measured using the Block Food Frequency Questionnaire. Menopause status was measured by a questionnaire. Results showed that fit and unfit women experienced similar changes in hip BMD over time. Specifically, unfit women experienced a non-significant 7% increased risk of losing hip BMD compared to their counterparts (RR = 1.07, 95% CI = 0.66, 1.73). Adjusting statistically for differences in age, initial body weight, and hip BMD, weight change, menopause status, calcium and vitamin D intake, and time between assessments had little effect on the relationship. Fitness level did not influence risk of hip BMD loss over time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/06.10.PMS.119c19z2DOI Listing
October 2014

Examining the Relationship Between Physical Activity Intensity and Adiposity in Young Women.

J Phys Act Health 2015 Jun;12(6):764-9

Background: The purpose of this study was to assess the relationship between intensity of physical activity (PA) and body composition in 343 young women.

Methods: Physical activity was objectively measured using accelerometers worn for 7 days in women 17 to 25 years. Body composition was assessed using the BOD POD.

Results: Young women who spent less than 30 minutes a week performing vigorous PA had significantly higher body fat percentages than women who performed more than 30 minutes of vigorous PA per week (F = 4.54, P = .0113). Young women who spent less than 30 minutes per day in moderate to vigorous PA (MVPA) had significantly higher body fat percentages than those who obtained more than 30 minutes per day of MVPA (F = 7.47, P = .0066). Accumulating more than 90 minutes of MVPA per day was associated with the lowest percent body fat. For every 10 minutes spent in MVPA per day, the odds of having a body fat percentage above 32% decreased by 29% (P = .0002).

Conclusion: Vigorous PA and MVPA are associated with lower adiposity. Young women should be encouraged to accumulate at least 30 minutes of MVPA per day, however getting more than 90 minutes a day is predictive of even lower levels of adiposity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1123/jpah.2013-0441DOI Listing
June 2015

Test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod: the effect of multiple assessments.

Percept Mot Skills 2014 Apr;118(2):563-70

The Bod Pod uses air-displacement plethysmography to estimate body fat percentage (BF%). This study was designed to assess the test-retest reliability of the Bod Pod. The study included 283 women (M age = 41.0 yr., SD = 3.0). Each participant was tested at least twice in the Bod Pod. Results showed no significant mean difference between the test and the retest. The intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was .991. However, the absolute value of the initial trial differences (absolute mean difference) was .96 (SD = .90). A third assessment of BF% was taken when the initial trial difference was greater than 1 percentage point, and the two closest values were compared. This strategy resulted in a significant decrease in the absolute mean difference, from .96 to .55 percentage point, and ICC increased to .998. The Bod Pod appears to measure body fat percentage reliably; however, findings suggest that multiple trials may be necessary to detect small treatment effects.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2466/03.PMS.118k15w5DOI Listing
April 2014

Television viewing time and measured cardiorespiratory fitness in adult women.

Am J Health Promot 2015 May-Jun;29(5):285-90. Epub 2014 May 12.

Purpose: This study assessed the relationship between television viewing time and measured cardiorespiratory fitness and the influence of various potential confounders.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: Intermountain West.

Subjects: The sample was composed of 302 nonsmoking women aged 40.2 ± 3.0 years, with ~90% Caucasian and 82% married.

Measures: TV viewing was assessed by using a questionnaire, and cardiorespiratory fitness was measured by using a graded, maximum treadmill test. Physical activity (PA) was evaluated by using accelerometers for 7 days, and body fat percentage (BF%) was measured by using the Bod Pod.

Analysis: Analysis of variance and partial correlation.

Results: VO2max of Frequent (≥3 h/d) TV viewers (32.6 ± 6.4 mL/kg/min) was significantly lower than that of both Moderate (1-2 h/d) (36.2 ± 7.2 mL/kg/min) or Infrequent (<1 h/d) (36.5 ± 6.5 mL/kg/min) viewers (F = 8.0, p = .0004). The Infrequent and Moderate groups did not differ in VO2max. Age, education, body mass index, and season of assessment had no influence on the relationship when controlled statistically. Adjusting for PA (F = 4.2, p = .0157) and BF% (F = 5.0, p = .0071) weakened the relationship by 59% and 58%, respectively, but the relationships remained significant. After controlling for both PA and BF% simultaneously (F = 2.9, p = .0572), the relationship was weakened by 81% and was only borderline significant.

Conclusion: Female Frequent TV viewers have significantly lower cardiorespiratory fitness levels than Moderate or Infrequent viewers. This association appears to be largely a function of differences in levels of PA and BF%.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.131107-QUAN-565DOI Listing
December 2016

Dietary patterns as predictors of body fat and BMI in women: a factor analytic study.

Am J Health Promot 2015 Mar-Apr;29(4):e136-46. Epub 2014 Apr 10.

Purpose: To identify independent patterns of diet using factor analysis to determine the extent to which dietary patterns account for differences in body fat percentage (BF%) and body mass index (BMI). Also, to ascertain the extent to which the associations are influenced by age, education, menopause, energy intake, and physical activity.

Design: Study design was cross-sectional.

Setting: Study setting was approximately 20 cities in the Mountain West.

Subjects: The study included 281 apparently healthy female nonsmokers.

Measures: Diet was assessed using 7-day weighed food records, and foods were categorized using the American Diabetes and American Dietetic Associations Exchange Lists and expressed as servings per 1000 kcal. BF% was measured using the Bod Pod, and physical activity was estimated using accelerometers worn for 1 week.

Analysis: We used factor analysis, general linear models, and partial correlations.

Results: Three dietary patterns were identified: (1) Prudent Pattern, (2) Low-fat Milk, and (3) Meat. Higher consumption of the Prudent Pattern corresponded with significantly lower BF% (F = 8.5, p = .0038) and BMI (F = 4.4, p = .0363). The Low-fat Milk pattern was inversely related to BF% (F = 5.4, p = .0207) and BMI (F = 9.5, p = .0023). Higher intake of the Meat pattern was related to higher levels of BF% (F = 4.5, p = .0346) and BMI (F = 4.2, p = .0418).

Conclusion: These findings support an association between dietary patterns and body composition. Dietary patterns reflect the complex interrelationships inherent in day-to-day eating and are strongly related to differences in BF% and BMI in women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130327-QUAN-129DOI Listing
December 2016

A 4-year prospective study of soft drink consumption and weight gain: the role of calorie intake and physical activity.

Am J Health Promot 2015 Mar-Apr;29(4):262-5. Epub 2014 Apr 9.

Purpose: Examine the association between soft drink consumption and risk of weight gain over 4 years. Also, determine if the relationship between soft drink intake and weight gain is a result of differences in calorie intake or physical activity (PA), or other potential mediating factors.

Design: Four-year prospective cohort.

Setting: Approximately 20 cities in Utah and Wyoming.

Subjects: One hundred seventy nonsmoking, apparently healthy women.

Measures: At baseline, soft drink consumption and menopause status were measured using a questionnaire; calorie intake was estimated using 7-day, weighed food records; and PA was assessed using 7-day accelerometer data. Weight was assessed using an electronic scale at baseline and follow-up.

Analysis: Multiple regression and partial correlation.

Results: Four-year weight gain in participants who, at baseline, consumed sugar-sweetened soft drinks (2.7 ± 5.1 kg) was greater than in participants who consumed artificially sweetened soft drinks (-.1 ± 4.4 kg) or no soft drinks (.5 ± 5.1 kg) (F = 5.4, p = .022). Adjusting for objectively measured PA had no effect on risk of weight gain. However, controlling statistically for differences in calorie intake significantly weakened the relationship between soft drink consumption and weight gain by 28%.

Conclusion: Consuming artificially sweetened soft drinks or no soft drinks instead of sugar-sweetened soft drinks may help to reduce risk of weight gain in women. The relationship appears to be partly a function of differences in calorie intake, but not differences in PA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130619-ARB-315DOI Listing
December 2016

Effect of two jumping programs on hip bone mineral density in premenopausal women: a randomized controlled trial.

Am J Health Promot 2015 Jan-Feb;29(3):158-64

Purpose: To determine the effect of two jumping programs on hip bone mineral density (BMD) in women.

Design: Randomized controlled trial.

Setting: Approximately 20 cities in the Mountain West.

Subjects: Sixty premenopausal women, aged 25 to 50 years, completed the intervention.

Intervention: Subjects were randomly assigned to a control group or one of two jumping groups. The Jump 10 group performed 10 jumps with 30 seconds rest between jumps, twice daily for 16 weeks, while the Jump 20 group performed the same protocol but with 20 jumps.

Measures: Hip BMD was measured by using dual-energy x-ray absorptiometry.

Analysis: Analysis of variance and covariance.

Results: At 8 weeks, unadjusted percentage change in hip BMD was significantly different among groups (F = 5.4, p = .0236). Specifically, compared with controls, the Jump 20 women had significantly greater gains in hip BMD and the Jump 10 women had marginally greater improvements. Following 16 weeks of jumping, differences between the Jump 10 and the Jump 20 groups compared with controls were significant (F = 4.2, p = .0444), especially after adjusting for the covariates (F = 7.3, p = .0092).

Conclusion: After 16 weeks of high-impact jump training, hip BMD can be improved in premenopausal women by jumping 10 or 20 times, twice daily, with 30 seconds of rest between each jump, compared with controls.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.130430-QUAN-200DOI Listing
November 2016

Objectively measured sleep patterns in young adult women and the relationship to adiposity.

Am J Health Promot 2014 Sep-Oct;29(1):46-54. Epub 2013 Nov 7.

Purpose: The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between sleep patterns and adiposity in young adult women.

Design: Cross-sectional.

Setting: The study took place at two Mountain West region universities and surrounding communities.

Subjects: Subjects were 330 young adult women (20.2 ± 1.5 years).

Measures: Sleep and physical activity were monitored for 7 consecutive days and nights using actigraphy. Height and weight were measured directly. Adiposity was assessed using the BOD POD.

Analysis: Regression analysis, between subjects analysis of variance, and structural equation modeling were used.

Results: Bivariate regression analysis demonstrated that sleep efficiency was negatively related to adiposity and that the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration were positively related to adiposity (p < .05). Controlling for objectively measured physical activity strengthened the relationship between sleep duration and adiposity by 84% but had a statistically negligible impact on all other relationships that were analyzed. However, multivariate structural equation modeling indicated that a model including sleep efficiency, sleep pattern inconsistency (latent variable consisting of the 7-day standard deviations of bedtime, wake time, and sleep duration), and physical activity was the best for predicting percent body fat.

Conclusion: Inconsistent sleep patterns and poor sleep efficiency are related to adiposity. Consistent sleep patterns that include sufficient sleep may be important in modifying risk of excess body fat in young adult women.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4278/ajhp.121012-QUAN-500DOI Listing
August 2016