Publications by authors named "Bruce R Cooper"

27 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Developmental atrazine exposure in zebrafish produces the same major metabolites as mammals along with altered behavioral outcomes.

Neurotoxicol Teratol 2021 May-Jun;85:106971. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

School of Health Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Atrazine (ATZ) is the second most commonly applied agricultural herbicide in the United States. Due to contamination concerns, the U.S. EPA has set the maximum contaminant level in potable water sources at 3 parts per billion (ppb; μg/l). Depending on the time of year and sampling location, water sources often exceed this limit. ATZ is an endocrine disrupting chemical in multiple species observed to target the neuroendocrine system. In this study the zebrafish vertebrate model was used to test the hypothesis that a developmental ATZ exposure generates metabolites similar to those found in mammals and alters morphology and behavior in developing larvae. Adult AB zebrafish were bred, embryos were collected, and exposed to 0, 0.3, 3, or 30 ppb ATZ from 1 to 120 h post fertilization (hpf). Targeted metabolomic analysis found that zebrafish produce the same major ATZ metabolites as mammals: desethyl atrazine (DEA), deisopropyl atrazine (DIA), and diaminochloroatrazine (DACT). The visual motor response test at 120 hpf detected hyperactivity in larvae in the 0.3 ppb treatment group and hypoactivity in the 30 ppb treatment group (p < 0.05). Further analysis into behavior during the dark and light phases showed zebrafish larvae exposed to 0.3 ppb ATZ had an increase in total distance moved in the first light phase and time spent moving in the first dark and light phases (p < 0.05). Alternatively, a decrease in total distance moved was observed in the second and third dark phases in zebrafish exposed to 30 ppb ATZ (p < 0.05). No significant differences were observed for any of the morphological measurements following ATZ exposure from 1 to 120 hpf (p > 0.05). These findings suggest that a ATZ exposure during early development generates metabolite profiles similar to mammals and leads to behavioral alterations supporting ATZ as a neurodevelopmental toxicant.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ntt.2021.106971DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8137596PMC
March 2021

Elucidating mechanisms involved in flavor generation of dry-aged beef loins using metabolomics approach.

Food Res Int 2021 01 8;139:109969. Epub 2020 Dec 8.

Meat Science and Muscle Biology Lab, Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

The present study was conducted to identify flavor-related chemical compounds and to elucidate beef flavor development in response to dry-aging. Paired grass-fed beef loins (n = 18) were obtained at 7 d postmortem, cut into two sections and assigned to 3 aging methods: conventional dry-aging (DA), vacuum packaged wet-aging (WA) and dry-aging in a bag (DW) for 28 days. Following aging, samples were analyzed for UPLC-MS metabolomics, volatile, fatty acid profiling, and consumer sensory comment analysis. Greater number of proteins and nucleotides derived metabolites were liberated in dry-aged samples compared to WA (P < 0.05). In particular, the liberation of gammaglutmayl peptides and glutamine metabolites through the glutathione metabolism were identified. While fatty acid profile was not affected by treatments (P > 0.05), higher concentrations of volatile compounds were found in the dry-aged (P < 0.05). Dry-aging process decreased the presence of terpenoid and steroid lipid group, which could possibly result in reducing undesirable flavor of grass-fed beef.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodres.2020.109969DOI Listing
January 2021

Ketorolac Is Not More Effective Than Flunixin Meglumine or Phenylbutazone in Reducing Foot Pain in Horses.

J Equine Vet Sci 2020 11 6;94:103204. Epub 2020 Aug 6.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN. Electronic address:

The objective was to compare the analgesic efficacy of ketorolac tromethamine (KT) and two other nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), including flunixin meglumine (FM) and phenylbutazone (PB), using a heart bar shoe (HBS) model of reversible foot lameness in horses. Nine adult horses were used in a blinded, randomized, placebo-controlled crossover study. After induction of left front limb lameness using a modified HBS model, one of three NSAIDs (KT, 2.0 mg/kg IV; FM, 1.1 mg/kg IV; PB, 4.4 mg/kg IV) or saline (placebo) was administered IV as a single dose. Lameness was assessed every 30 minutes for 2 hours, then every hour up to 12 hours using both a lameness grading scale (lameness score; LS) and a body-mounted inertial sensor system (lameness locator; LL). High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry were used to measure plasma drug concentration at various time points. There was no difference in percent reduction of LS or LL value between KT and any other group, or between FM and placebo. The PB group showed a significantly higher percentage in LS reduction than the placebo and FM groups. The mean percent reduction in LL value was greater for the PB group than that for the placebo and FM groups. Plasma drug concentration was similar among horses for each drug at each time point, with drug concentrations decreasing over time. Thus, variation in plasma drug concentration did not influence lameness reduction for any drug. Ketorolac tromethamine was not superior to FM or PB in reducing lameness using a HBS model.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jevs.2020.103204DOI Listing
November 2020

Effects of administration of ascorbic acid and low-dose hydrocortisone after infusion of sublethal doses of lipopolysaccharide to horses.

J Vet Intern Med 2020 Nov 7;34(6):2710-2718. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, USA.

Background: Sepsis is associated with ascorbic acid (AA) depletion and critical illness-related corticosteroid insufficiency (CIRCI) in humans.

Hypotheses: Intravenous infusion of lipopolysaccharide (LPS) would (a) decrease endogneous AA concentrations, (b) induce CIRCI and (c) administration of a combination of AA and hydrocortisone (HC) would have decreased indices of inflammation compared to either drug alone.

Animals: Thirty-two healthy horses.

Methods: Randomized placebo-controlled experimental trial. Horses were assigned to 1 of 4 groups (saline, AA and HC, AA only, or HC only). Treatments were administered 1 hour after completion of LPS infusion. Clinical signs, clinicopathological variables, pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression and production, and plasma AA concentrations were assessed at various time points. Serum cortisol concentrations and ACTH stimulation tests were used to detect CIRCI.

Results: There was no effect of drug on clinical signs or pro-inflammatory cytokine gene expression or production compared to controls at any time point. Administration of AA was associated with higher blood neutrophil counts 6 hours after LPS infusion (11.01 ± 1.02 K/μl) compared to other groups (8.99 ± 0.94 K/μL; P < .009). Adminstration of HC was associated with higher blood neutrophil counts 12 hours after LPS infusion (10.40 ± 0.75 K/μl) compared to other groups (6.88 ± 0.68 K/μl; P < .001). Serum cortisol increased from 5.11 ± 1.48 μg/dL before LPS administration to 9.59 ± 1.83 μg/dL 1 h after completion of LPS infusion (T1) without an effect of treatment (P = 0.59).

Conclusions And Clinical Importance: Ascorbic acid and HC appeared to protect against LPS-induced neutrophil depletion and could be considered as adjunctive therapy in horses with endotoxemia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jvim.15896DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7694830PMC
November 2020

Repeatability of in vitro carboplatin elution from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate beads made in a clinic setting.

Vet Surg 2020 Dec 1;49(8):1609-1617. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

Department of Veterinary Administration, College of Veterinary Medicine, Purdue University, Indiana.

Objective: To evaluate the intra-lot and inter-lot consistency and total carboplatin elution over 25 days from carboplatin-impregnated calcium sulfate hemihydrate (C-I CSH) beads manufactured in a clinic setting.

Study Design: In vitro elution study.

Methods: Two volumes of carboplatin were mixed with CSH to yield 4 mg and 8 mg C-I CSH doses. Two lots of beads were made for each concentration and split into five doses (n = 10 per concentration). Beads hardened in molds and were placed in a covered six-well plate, submerged in phosphate-buffered saline, and incubated with samples collected at 12 time points (0, 6, 12, and 24 hours and 2, 3, 5, 7, 10, 14, 18, and 25 days). The amount of carboplatin in each sample was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry. Correction for carboplatin degradation and dilution was applied, and eluted carboplatin was calculated. Intra-lot and inter-lot coefficient of variation (CV) was calculated for each concentration.

Results: The intra-lot CV ranged between 7.9% and 23.1%, and the inter-lot CV ranged from 3.5% to 10.3%, with improvement noted in each successive lot of beads. Mean peak eluted carboplatin was 2.45 ± 0.43 mg (61%) and 3.68 ± 0.41 mg (45.9%) for the 4-mg and 8-mg C-I CSH beads, respectively, with both occurring at the 12-hour timepoint.

Conclusion: Progressive improvement in variability with successive lots of beads indicated a learning curve with bead manufacturing with a low variation both within and between lots of C-I CSH beads.

Clinical Significance: On-site mixing of carboplatin with commercial CSH bead powder leads to a low variation of carboplatin per bead dose.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vsu.13511DOI Listing
December 2020

Proteomic and metabolomic profiling reveals the involvement of apoptosis in meat quality characteristics of ovine M. longissimus from different callipyge genotypes.

Meat Sci 2020 Aug 8;166:108140. Epub 2020 Apr 8.

Department of Animal Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA. Electronic address:

Proteome and metabolome changes in muscles from callipyge mutation (+/C) and non-callipyge phenotype (+/+, C/+, and C/C) lambs were profiled to provide insight into the biochemical changes affecting meat quality attributes. M. longissimus thoracis from lambs with all four possible callipyge genotype (n = 4, C/+, C/C, +/C, and +/+) were collected after 3d aging and analyzed using mass-spectrometry based platforms. Among identified proteomes, cytochrome c (pro-apoptotic protein) was detected with significantly lower abundances in +/C. Anti-apoptotic HSP70, BAG3, and PARK7 were over-abundant in +/C, which could result in delayed apoptosis and possibly attributed to tougher meat in callipyge lambs. Eight glycolysis enzymes were overabundant in +/C lambs, whereas 3 enzymes involved in TCA cycle were overabundant in non-callipyge ones (C/C and/or C/+). Twenty-five metabolites were affected by genotypes (P < .05), including metabolic co-factors, polyphenols, and AA/short peptides. Our omics results provided insightful information for revealing the differences in biochemical attributes caused by callipyge mutation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.meatsci.2020.108140DOI Listing
August 2020

Overcoming cellulose recalcitrance in woody biomass for the lignin-first biorefinery.

Biotechnol Biofuels 2019 29;12:171. Epub 2019 Jun 29.

6Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907 USA.

Background: Low-temperature swelling of cotton linter cellulose and subsequent gelatinization in trifluoroacetic acid (TFA) greatly enhance rates of enzymatic digestion or maleic acid-AlCl catalyzed conversion to hydroxymethylfurfural (HMF) and levulinic acid (LA). However, lignin inhibits low-temperature swelling of TFA-treated intact wood particles from hybrid poplar ( × ) and results in greatly reduced yields of glucose or catalytic conversion compared to lignin-free cellulose. Previous studies have established that wood particles from transgenic lines of hybrid poplar with high syringyl (S) lignin content give greater glucose yields following enzymatic digestion.

Results: Low-temperature (- 20 °C) treatment of S-lignin-rich poplar wood particles in TFA slightly increased yields of glucose from enzymatic digestions and HMF and LA from maleic acid-AlCl catalysis. Subsequent gelatinization at 55 °C resulted in over 80% digestion of cellulose in only 3 to 6 h with high-S-lignin wood, compared to 20-60% digestion in the wild-type poplar hybrid and transgenic lines high in guaiacyl lignin or 5-hydroxy-G lignin. Disassembly of lignin in woody particles by Ni/C catalytic systems improved yields of glucose by enzymatic digestion or catalytic conversion to HMF and LA. Although lignin was completely removed by Ni/C-catalyzed delignification (CDL) treatment, recalcitrance to enzymatic digestion of cellulose from the high-S lines was reduced compared to other lignin variants. However, cellulose still exhibited considerable recalcitrance to complete enzymatic digestion or catalytic conversion after complete delignification. Low-temperature swelling of the CDL-treated wood particles in TFA resulted in nearly complete enzymatic hydrolysis, regardless of original lignin composition.

Conclusions: Genetic modification of lignin composition can enhance the portfolio of aromatic products obtained from lignocellulosic biomass while promoting disassembly into biofuel and bioproduct substrates. CDL enhances rates of enzymatic digestion and chemical conversion, but cellulose remains intrinsically recalcitrant. Cold TFA is sufficient to overcome this recalcitrance after CDL treatment. Our results inform a 'no carbon left behind' strategy to convert total woody biomass into lignin, cellulose, and hemicellulose value streams for the future biorefinery.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13068-019-1503-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6599248PMC
June 2019

Absorption of Transdermal Fluoxetine Compounded in a Lipoderm Base Compared to Oral Fluoxetine in Client-owned Cats.

Int J Pharm Compd 2017 May-Jun;21(3):242-246

Veterinary Teaching Hospital, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana.

The objective of this study was to compare serum concentrations of transdermal fluoxetine compounded in Lipoderm base versus commercially available oral fluoxetine tablets. Sixteen clinically healthy, client-owned cats that were at least one year of age were enrolled. Cats weighed between three and seven kilograms, had no comorbidities, and were behavior medication naïve. Cats were recruited from January 2016 through April 2016. Eight cats were assigned to each medication group based on owner preference. The cats received either oral (1 mg/kg) or transdermal (5 mg/kg; maximum 25 mg daily) fluoxetine compounded in a transdermal base (PCCA Lipoderm), administered daily for 60 days. Serum levels of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine were assessed as a surrogate for relative efficacy. Serum was collected and analyzed by high-performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry/mass spectrometry at baseline and days 5, 10, 30, 45, and 60 post-drug start. Adverse effects were monitored during physical exams, speaking with owners, and laboratory analysis of liver function tests at baseline and days 5, 30, and 60 post-drug start. Serum fluoxetine concentrations significantly differed between the treatment groups at days 45 and 60 post-drug start. Norfluoxetine concentrations significantly differed at days 30, 45, and 60 post-drug start. Blood concentrations of fluoxetine and norfluoxetine significantly differed between oral and transdermal routes after 30 days of treatment. Oral fluoxetine concentrations were consistently higher. Transdermal fluoxetine appeared to be well-tolerated, but a lack of knowledge regarding effective blood levels makes it unclear if a clinical effective response would be obtained at the blood concentrations achieved.
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July 2017

HPLC-MS Analysis of Lichen-Derived Metabolites in the Life Stages of Crambidia cephalica (Grote & Robinson).

J Chem Ecol 2017 Jan 14;43(1):66-74. Epub 2016 Dec 14.

Department of Entomology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, 47907, USA.

Tiger moths (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae: Arctiini) are notable for their specialized associations with hosts that produce toxic secondary compounds, and are thus an ideal study system for understanding insect-plant interactions and the evolution of antipredatory defense. Likewise, their sister lineage (Arctiinae: Lithosiini) has been documented feeding on algae and lichens, and is known to sequester lichen-derived secondary compounds from the larval to adult stages. Prevalence of lichenivory in this early radiation (ca. 3000 species) may provide clues to the phylogenetic basis for storied chemical sequestration within all tiger moths. Despite the evolutionary significance of this trait, we lack a basic understanding of the extent of lichenivory among lithosiines, and the distribution of sequestered chemicals among life stages. The dynamics of chemical sequestration throughout the lifecycle for the lichen moth Crambidia cephalica were investigated by testing the hypothesis that lichen-derived metabolites are unequally distributed among life stages, and that laboratory-reared C. cephalica have less metabolite diversity than wild-caught individuals. Crambidia cephalica was reared on Physcia, and analyzed using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled to mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS). Several putative lichen-derived metabolites were detected across three life stages, i.e., larval, pupal, and adult, and differences among life stages and lichen host were observed. These results provide evidence that multiple lichen-derived metabolites are sequestered by C. cephalica; some metabolites are retained through adulthood, and others are lost or modified in earlier life stages. The presence of differing lichen-derived metabolites across life stages may indicate functional properties of the metabolites for C. cephalica with regards to chemical protection from antagonists, and other physiological processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10886-016-0799-3DOI Listing
January 2017

1-Alpha, 25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 alters the pharmacokinetics of mycophenolic acid in renal transplant recipients by regulating two extrahepatic UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A8 and 1A10.

Transl Res 2016 12 19;178:54-62.e6. Epub 2016 Jul 19.

Department of General Surgery, Shanghai First People's Hospital, Medical College, Shanghai Jiaotong University, Shanghai, P. R. China. Electronic address:

Mycophenolic acid (MPA) is an important immunosuppressant broadly used in renal transplantation. However, the large inter-patient variability in mycophenolic acid (MPA) pharmacokinetics (PK) limits its use. We hypothesize that extrahepatic metabolism of MPA may have significant impact on MPA PK variability. Two intestinal UDP-glucuronosyltransferases 1A8 and 1A10 plays critical role in MPA metabolism. Both in silico and previous genome-wide analyses suggested that vitamin D (VD) may regulate intestinal UGT1A expression. We validated the VD response elements (VDREs) across the UGT1A locus with chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) and luciferase reporter assays. The impact of 1-alpha,25-dihydroxyvitamin D3 (D3) on UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 transcription and on MPA glucuronidation was tested in human intestinal cell lines LS180, Caco-2 and HCT-116. The correlation between transcription levels of VD receptor (VDR) and the two UGT genes were examined in human normal colorectal tissue samples (n = 73). PK alterations of MPA following the parent drug, mycophenolate mofetil (MMF), and D3 treatment was assessed among renal transplant recipients (n = 10). Our ChIP assay validate three VDREs which were further demonstrated as transcriptional enhancers with the luciferase assays. D3 treatment significantly increased transcription of both UGT genes as well as MPA glucuronidation in cells. The VDR mRNA level was highly correlated with that of both UGT1A8 and UGT1A10 in human colorectal tissue. D3 treatment in patients led to about 40% reduction in both AUC and Cmax while over 70% elevation of total clearance of MPA. Our study suggested a significant regulatory role of VD on MPA metabolism and PK via modulating extrahepatic UGT activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.trsl.2016.07.006DOI Listing
December 2016

Chemical characterization of α-pinene secondary organic aerosol constituents using gas chromatography, liquid chromatography, and paper spray-based mass spectrometry techniques.

Rapid Commun Mass Spectrom 2016 07;30(13):1627-38

Department of Chemistry, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

Rationale: Despite ample research into the atmospheric oxidation of α-pinene, an important precursor to biogenic secondary organic aerosol formation, the identification of its reaction products, specifically organic nitrates, which impact atmospheric NOx concentrations, is still incomplete. This negatively impacts our understanding of α-pinene oxidation chemistry and its relation to air quality.

Methods: Photochemical chamber experiments were conducted in conjunction with mass spectrometric techniques, including gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS), high-performance liquid chromatography/time-of-flight (HPLC/TOF), and paper spray ionization MS, to investigate products from the OH radical initiated oxidation of α-pinene under high NOx conditions.

Results: Over 30 compounds were tentatively identified, including those newly detected from photochemical chamber studies of α-pinene oxidation, pinocamphenol, fencholenic aldehyde, and α-pinene-derived nitrate isomers. α-Pinene-derived hydroxynitrate isomers were successfully detected using chromatographic methods, demonstrating, for the first time, the identification of individual first-generation organic nitrate products derived from α-pinene. The application of paper spray ionization to particle-phase compounds collected on filters represents a novel method for the direct analysis of filter samples at ambient pressure and temperature.

Conclusions: The use of HPLC/TOF and paper spray ionization methods to identify previously unobserved α-pinene-derived products helps lower the uncertainty in α-pinene oxidation chemistry and provides new platforms that can be used to identify and quantify important atmospheric compounds that relate to air quality in a complex sample matrix, such as ambient aerosol particles. Additionally, the use of paper spray ionization for direct filter analysis is a fast, relatively inexpensive sample preparation technique that can be used to reduce sample manipulation from solvent-induced reactions. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/rcm.7602DOI Listing
July 2016

The Cell Wall Arabinose-Deficient Arabidopsis thaliana Mutant murus5 Encodes a Defective Allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2.

Plant Physiol 2016 07 23;171(3):1905-20. Epub 2016 May 23.

Department of Botany and Plant Pathology (C.K.D., R.A.M., A.T.O., N.C.C.), Department of Biological Sciences (M.R.B., M.C.M., N.C.C.), Bindley Bioscience Center (B.R.C., M.C.M., N.C.C.), and Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture (P.J.S.), Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2054;Université de Picardie Jules Verne, EA 3900-BIOPI, 80039 Amiens, France (C.R.);Heidelberg Institut für Theoretische Studien, Molecular Biomechanics, 69118 Heidelberg, Germany (D.M.); andDepartment of Molecular and Cell Biology, University of Connecticut, Storrs, Connecticut 06269 (C.H., W.-D.R.)

Traditional marker-based mapping and next-generation sequencing was used to determine that the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) low cell wall arabinose mutant murus5 (mur5) encodes a defective allele of REVERSIBLY GLYCOSYLATED POLYPEPTIDE2 (RGP2). Marker analysis of 13 F2 confirmed mutant progeny from a recombinant mapping population gave a rough map position on the upper arm of chromosome 5, and deep sequencing of DNA from these 13 lines gave five candidate genes with G→A (C→T) transitions predicted to result in amino acid changes. Of these five, only insertional mutant alleles of RGP2, a gene that encodes a UDP-arabinose mutase that interconverts UDP-arabinopyranose and UDP-arabinofuranose, exhibited the low cell wall arabinose phenotype. The identities of mur5 and two SALK insertional alleles were confirmed by allelism tests and overexpression of wild-type RGP2 complementary DNA placed under the control of the 35S promoter in the three alleles. The mur5 mutation results in the conversion of cysteine-257 to tyrosine-257 within a conserved hydrophobic cluster predicted to be distal to the active site and essential for protein stability and possible heterodimerization with other isoforms of RGP.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.15.01922DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4936543PMC
July 2016

Role of intestinal microbiota in the generation of polyphenol-derived phenolic acid mediated attenuation of Alzheimer's disease β-amyloid oligomerization.

Mol Nutr Food Res 2015 Jun 27;59(6):1025-40. Epub 2015 Apr 27.

Department of Neurology, Icahn School of Medicine at Mount Sinai, New York, NJ, USA.

Scope: Grape seed polyphenol extract (GSPE) is receiving increasing attention for its potential preventative and therapeutic roles in Alzheimer's disease (AD) and other age-related neurodegenerative disorders. The intestinal microbiota is known to actively convert many dietary polyphenols, including GSPE, to phenolic acids. There is limited information on the bioavailability and bioactivity of GSPE-derived phenolic acid in the brain.

Methods And Results: We orally administered GSPE to rats and investigated the bioavailability of 12 phenolic acids known to be generated by microbiota metabolism of anthocyanidins. GSPE treatment significantly increased the content of two of the phenolic acids in the brain: 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3´-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid, resulting in the brain accumulations of the two phenolic acids at micromolar concentrations. We also provided evidence that 3-hydroxybenzoic acid and 3-(3´-hydroxyphenyl)propionic acid potently interfere with the assembly of β-amyloid peptides into neurotoxic β-amyloid aggregates that play key roles in AD pathogenesis.

Conclusion: Our observation suggests important contribution of the intestinal microbiota to the protective activities of GSPE (as well as other polyphenol preparations) in AD. Outcomes from our studies support future preclinical and clinical investigations exploring the potential contributions of the intestinal microbiota in protecting against the onset/progression of AD and other neurodegenerative conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mnfr.201400544DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4498582PMC
June 2015

Synthesis and quantitative analysis of plasma-targeted metabolites of catechin and epicatechin.

J Agric Food Chem 2015 Mar 20;63(8):2233-40. Epub 2015 Feb 20.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of North Texas , 1155 Union Circle #305220, Denton, Texas 76203-5017, United States.

Grape seed polyphenolic extract (GSPE) rich in the flavan-3-ols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin beneficially modulates Alzheimer's Disease phenotypes in animal models. The parent molecules in the extract are converted to a series of methylated and glucuronidated derivatives. To fully characterize these metabolites and establish a robust quantitative assay of their levels in biological fluids, we have implemented a partial synthetic approach utilizing chemical methylation followed by enzymatic glucuronidation. Liquid chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (LC-TOF-MS) and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy were used to assign unequivocal structures to the compounds. An analytical method using solid-phase extraction and LC-MS/MS in selective reaction monitoring mode (SRM) was validated for their quantitation in plasma. These studies provide a basis for improvements in future work on the bioavailability, metabolism, and mechanism of action of metabolites derived from dietary flavan-3-ols in a range of interventions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf505922bDOI Listing
March 2015

Soilless plant growth media influence the efficacy of phytohormones and phytohormone inhibitors.

PLoS One 2014 8;9(12):e107689. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana, United States of America.

Plant growth regulators, such as hormones and their respective biosynthesis inhibitors, are effective tools to elucidate the physiological function of phytohormones in plants. A problem of chemical treatments, however, is the potential for interaction of the active compound with the growth media substrate. We studied the interaction and efficacy of propiconazole, a potent and specific inhibitor of brassinosteroid biosynthesis, with common soilless greenhouse growth media for rice, sorghum, and maize. Many of the tested growth media interacted with propiconazole reducing its efficacy up to a hundred fold. To determine the molecular interaction of inhibitors with media substrates, Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy and sorption isotherm analysis was applied. While mica clay substrates absorbed up to 1.3 mg of propiconazole per g substrate, calcined clays bound up to 12 mg of propiconazole per g substrate. The efficacy of the gibberellic acid biosynthesis inhibitor, uniconazole, and the most active brassinosteroid, brassinolide, was impacted similarly by the respective substrates. Conversely, gibberellic acid showed no distinct growth response in different media. Our results suggest that the reduction in efficacy of propiconazole, uniconazole, and brassinolide in bioassays when grown in calcined clay is caused by hydrophobic interactions between the plant growth regulators and the growth media. This was further confirmed by experiments using methanol-water solvent mixes with higher hydrophobicity values, which reduce the interaction of propiconazole and calcined clay.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0107689PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4259294PMC
August 2015

An alternative pathway contributes to phenylalanine biosynthesis in plants via a cytosolic tyrosine:phenylpyruvate aminotransferase.

Nat Commun 2013 ;4:2833

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, 625 Agriculture Mall Dr, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Phenylalanine is a vital component of proteins in all living organisms, and in plants is a precursor for thousands of additional metabolites. Animals are incapable of synthesizing phenylalanine and must primarily obtain it directly or indirectly from plants. Although plants can synthesize phenylalanine in plastids through arogenate, the contribution of an alternative pathway via phenylpyruvate, as occurs in most microbes, has not been demonstrated. Here we show that plants also utilize a microbial-like phenylpyruvate pathway to produce phenylalanine, and flux through this route is increased when the entry point to the arogenate pathway is limiting. Unexpectedly, we find the plant phenylpyruvate pathway utilizes a cytosolic aminotransferase that links the coordinated catabolism of tyrosine to serve as the amino donor, thus interconnecting the extra-plastidial metabolism of these amino acids. This discovery uncovers another level of complexity in the plant aromatic amino acid regulatory network, unveiling new targets for metabolic engineering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ncomms3833DOI Listing
July 2014

Quantification of vitamin D and 25-hydroxyvitamin D in soft tissues by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2013 Aug 6;932:6-11. Epub 2013 Jun 6.

Department of Food Science, Purdue University, USA.

Inadequate data on tissue distribution of vitamin D and its metabolites remains a barrier to defining health outcomes of vitamin D intake and 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) status. The purpose of this study was to develop a method for the analysis of vitamin D2 (ergocalciferol), vitamin D3 (cholecalciferol), 25(OH)D2, and 25(OH)D3 in soft tissues, and determine distribution in select tissues from a dose-response study of vitamin D2 and vitamin D3 in rats. Liver, gastrocnemius muscle, and epididymal fat homogenates were analyzed by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) with electrospray ionization following liquid-liquid extraction, solid-phase extraction, and derivatization with 4-phenyl-1,2,4-triazoline-3,5-dione (PTAD). A dose-response was observed in most tissues for vitamin D and 25(OH)D from both vitamers. Vitamin D concentration was greater in epididymal fat than gastrocnemius muscle and liver, but 25(OH)D concentration was not significantly different between tissues. Soft tissues of rats fed crystalline vitamin D3 had higher concentrations of total vitamin D than those of rats fed yeast-derived vitamin D2, while total 25(OH)D concentrations were similar between vitamin D sources. This method is well suited to more complete studies of vitamin D bioavailability and metabolite tissue distribution.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2013.05.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3815525PMC
August 2013

Assessment of juvenile pigs to serve as human pediatric surrogates for preclinical formulation pharmacokinetic testing.

AAPS J 2013 Jul 18;15(3):763-74. Epub 2013 Apr 18.

Department of Industrial and Physical Pharmacy, College of Pharmacy, Purdue University, 575 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

Pediatric drug development is hampered by biological, clinical, and formulation challenges associated with age-based populations. A primary cause for this lack of development is the inability to accurately predict ontogenic changes that affect pharmacokinetics (PK) in children using traditional preclinical animal models. In response to this issue, our laboratory has conducted a proof-of-concept study to investigate the potential utility of juvenile pigs to serve as surrogates for children during preclinical PK testing of selected rifampin dosage forms. Pigs were surgically modified with jugular vein catheters that were externalized in the dorsal scapular region and connected to an automated blood sampling system (PigTurn-Culex-L). Commercially available rifampin capsules were administered to both 20 and 40 kg pigs to determine relevant PK parameters. Orally disintegrating tablet formulations of rifampin were also developed and administered to 20 kg pigs. Plasma samples were prepared from whole blood by centrifugation and analyzed for rifampin content by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry. Porcine PK parameters were determined from the resultant plasma-concentration time profiles and contrasted with published rifampin PK data in human adults and children. Results indicated significant similarities in dose-normalized absorption and elimination parameters between pigs and humans. Moreover, ontogenic changes observed in porcine PK parameters were consistent with ontogenic changes reported for human PK. These results demonstrate the potential utility of the juvenile porcine model for predicting human pediatric PK for rifampin. Furthermore, utilization of juvenile pigs during formulation testing may provide an alternative approach to expedite reformulation efforts during pediatric drug development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-013-9482-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3691418PMC
July 2013

Detection of herbicides in the urine of pet dogs following home lawn chemical application.

Sci Total Environ 2013 Jul 10;456-457:34-41. Epub 2013 Apr 10.

Department of Veterinary Clinical Sciences, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907-2026, USA.

Exposure to herbicide-treated lawns has been associated with significantly higher bladder cancer risk in dogs. This work was performed to further characterize lawn chemical exposures in dogs, and to determine environmental factors associated with chemical residence time on grass. In addition to concern for canine health, a strong justification for the work was that dogs may serve as sentinels for potentially harmful environmental exposures in humans. Experimentally, herbicides [2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D), 4-chloro-2-methylphenoxypropionic acid (MCPP), dicamba] were applied to grass plots under different conditions (e.g., green, dry brown, wet, and recently mowed grass). Chemicals in dislodgeable residues were measured by LC-MS at 0.17, 1, 24, 48, 72 h post treatment. In a separate study, 2,4-D, MCPP, and dithiopyr concentrations were measured in the urine of dogs and in dislodgeable grass residues in households that applied or did not apply chemicals in the preceding 48 h. Chemicals were measured at 0, 24, and 48 h post application in treated households and at time 0 in untreated control households. Residence times of 2,4-D, MCPP, and dicamba were significantly prolonged (P<0.05) on dry brown grass compared to green grass. Chemicals were detected in the urine of dogs in 14 of 25 households before lawn treatment, in 19 of 25 households after lawn treatment, and in 4 of 8 untreated households. Chemicals were commonly detected in grass residues from treated lawns, and from untreated lawns suggesting chemical drift from nearby treated areas. Thus dogs could be exposed to chemicals through contact with their own lawn (treated or contaminated through drift) or through contact with other grassy areas if they travel. The length of time to restrict a dog's access to treated lawns following treatment remains to be defined. Further study is indicated to assess the risks of herbicide exposure in humans and dogs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2013.03.019DOI Listing
July 2013

Quantitative LC-MS/MS analysis of arachidonoyl amino acids in mouse brain with treatment of FAAH inhibitor.

Anal Biochem 2013 Jan 5;432(2):74-81. Epub 2012 Oct 5.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47904, USA.

An additional class of endogenous lipid amides, N-arachidonoyl amino acids (Ara-AAs), is growing in significance in the field of endocannabinoids. The development, validation, and application of a sensitive and selective method to simultaneously monitor and quantify the level of Ara-AAs along with anandamide (AEA) and 2-arachidonoyl glycerol (2-AG) in mouse brain has been established. The linearity of the method over the concentration ranges of 0.2-120 pg/μl for the standards of N-arachidonoyl amino acids, N-arachidonoyl alanine (NAAla), serine (NASer), γ-aminobutyric acid (NAGABA), and glycine (NAGly); 0.7-90 pg/μl for AEA-d(0)/d(8); and 7.5-950 pg/μl for 2-AG was determined with R(2) values of 0.99. Also the effects of the FAAH inhibitor URB 597 on the endogenous levels of these analytes were investigated. AEA and NASer brain levels exhibit a dose-dependent increase after systemic administration of URB 597, whereas NAGly and NAGABA were significantly decreased after treatment. NAAla and 2-AG were not altered after URB 597 treatment. The potential benefit of establishing this assay extends beyond the quantification of the Ara-AAs along with AEA and 2-AG in mouse brain, to reveal a variety of pharmacological effects and physiological roles of these analytes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2012.09.031DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3760509PMC
January 2013

Contribution of CoA ligases to benzenoid biosynthesis in petunia flowers.

Plant Cell 2012 May 30;24(5):2015-30. Epub 2012 May 30.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

Biosynthesis of benzoic acid from Phe requires shortening of the side chain by two carbons, which can occur via the β-oxidative or nonoxidative pathways. The first step in the β-oxidative pathway is cinnamoyl-CoA formation, likely catalyzed by a member of the 4-coumarate:CoA ligase (4CL) family that converts a range of trans-cinnamic acid derivatives into the corresponding CoA thioesters. Using a functional genomics approach, we identified two potential CoA-ligases from petunia (Petunia hybrida) petal-specific cDNA libraries. The cognate proteins share only 25% amino acid identity and are highly expressed in petunia corollas. Biochemical characterization of the recombinant proteins revealed that one of these proteins (Ph-4CL1) has broad substrate specificity and represents a bona fide 4CL, whereas the other is a cinnamate:CoA ligase (Ph-CNL). RNA interference suppression of Ph-4CL1 did not affect the petunia benzenoid scent profile, whereas downregulation of Ph-CNL resulted in a decrease in emission of benzylbenzoate, phenylethylbenzoate, and methylbenzoate. Green fluorescent protein localization studies revealed that the Ph-4CL1 protein is localized in the cytosol, whereas Ph-CNL is in peroxisomes. Our results indicate that subcellular compartmentalization of enzymes affects their involvement in the benzenoid network and provide evidence that cinnamoyl-CoA formation by Ph-CNL in the peroxisomes is the committed step in the β-oxidative pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.112.097519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3442584PMC
May 2012

Evaluation of a tandem gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry metabolomics platform as a single method to investigate the effect of starvation on whole-animal metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss).

J Exp Biol 2012 May;215(Pt 10):1627-32

Department of Forestry and Natural Resources, Purdue University, 715 West State Street, West Lafayette, IN, USA.

This study was conducted to evaluate the use of a two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC×GC/TOF-MS) metabolomic platform to comprehensively analyze the effect of starvation on whole-animal metabolism in rainbow trout (Oncorhynchus mykiss). Trout were either fed a commercial diet at 2% body mass twice daily or starved for 4 weeks. Metabolomic analysis was conducted on serum, liver and muscle tissue from each fish. Database searching and statistical analysis revealed that concentrations of more than 50 positively identified molecules changed significantly (P<0.05) as a result of starvation. Our results indicate that starving rainbow trout for 4 weeks promotes increased utilization of select tissue fatty acids in liver and muscle. However, starvation did not significantly affect protein catabolism in peripheral tissues, as indicated by reductions in the level of serum amino acids in starved fish. In contrast, starvation appears to promote protein catabolism in liver as the level of methionine, proline and lysine metabolite 2-piperidine carboxylic acid increased significantly. Also, starvation resulted in significant changes in the level of numerous xenobiotics that could indicate the origin of particular feed ingredients and selective retention of these molecules in tissues. We suggest that metabolomic analysis using GC×GC/TOF-MS is an effective tool in studying whole-animal metabolism and the fate of important xenobiotic compounds in rainbow trout as numerous polar and non-polar metabolites were rapidly and accurately profiled using a single method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1242/jeb.059873DOI Listing
May 2012

Profiling hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A thioesters: unlocking the back door of phenylpropanoid metabolism.

Anal Biochem 2012 Jan 16;420(2):182-4. Epub 2011 Sep 16.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, IN 47907, USA.

In plants, 20 to 30% of photosynthetically fixed carbon is directed toward lignin and other phenylpropanoid compounds for which hydroxycinnamoyl-coenzyme A (CoA) esters are key intermediates. CoA thioesters, ubiquitous metabolites found in all living cells (often at trace levels), have traditionally been challenging to measure. Here we report a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography (HILIC) method, coupled with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), that allows simultaneous sensitive quantification of previously undetectable hydroxycinnamoyl-CoA esters and an extended range of acyl-CoAs from plant tissues. This method provides rapid liquid chromatography (LC) analysis (10 min/sample) and the ability for qualitative assessment of acyl-CoAs by MS/MS precursor ion scanning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ab.2011.09.010DOI Listing
January 2012

Lipidomic metabolism analysis of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide).

J Pharm Biomed Anal 2010 Nov 1;53(3):567-75. Epub 2010 Apr 1.

Department of Medicinal Chemistry and Molecular Pharmacology, Purdue University, 575 Stadium Mall Drive, West Lafayette, IN 47904, United States.

Elucidation of pathways involved with lipid metabolism has been limited by analytical challenges associated with detection and structure identification. A discovery-based mass spectrometry lipidomic approach has been applied to identify metabolites of the endogenous cannabinoid anandamide (N-arachidonylethanolamide). Previously, a model system was established to show that anandamide can be recycled by cells to form new endocannabinoids suggesting recycling of the arachidonate carbon chain. We hypothesized that distinct cellular pathways exist to direct the anandamide-derived arachidonate chain into a specific set of metabolites, different from the metabolite pool that is comprised of non-anandamide-derived arachidonic acid. Using stable isotope encoding and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry, we identified a distinct pool of lipid metabolites derived from exogenous anandamide or arachidonic acid in RBL-2H3 cells. We discovered that arachidonic acid-derived metabolites were primarily comprised of the eicosanoid lipid class, whereas anandamide-derived arachidonic acid, in addition to eicosanoids, was metabolized into diradylglycerols, fatty acid amides, sterols, and glycerophospholipids. From the list of anandamide metabolites of particular interest was 1-O-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine. Furthermore, we determined that while 1-O-arachidonyl-sn-glycero-3-phosphocholine may be a metabolite of anandamide, the sn-2 compound was more abundant in mouse brain tissue. Overall, our results provide a novel approach to study the metabolic fate of endocannabinoids and fatty acid-derived signaling molecules.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jpba.2010.03.035DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2974571PMC
November 2010

RNAi suppression of Arogenate Dehydratase1 reveals that phenylalanine is synthesized predominantly via the arogenate pathway in petunia petals.

Plant Cell 2010 Mar 9;22(3):832-49. Epub 2010 Mar 9.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA.

l-Phe, a protein building block and precursor of numerous phenolic compounds, is synthesized from prephenate via an arogenate and/or phenylpyruvate route in which arogenate dehydratase (ADT) or prephenate dehydratase, respectively, plays a key role. Here, we used Petunia hybrida flowers, which are rich in Phe-derived volatiles, to determine the biosynthetic routes involved in Phe formation in planta. Of the three identified petunia ADTs, expression of ADT1 was the highest in petunia petals and positively correlated with endogenous Phe levels throughout flower development. ADT1 showed strict substrate specificity toward arogenate, although with the lowest catalytic efficiency among the three ADTs. ADT1 suppression via RNA interference in petunia petals significantly reduced ADT activity, levels of Phe, and downstream phenylpropanoid/benzenoid volatiles. Unexpectedly, arogenate levels were unaltered, while shikimate and Trp levels were decreased in transgenic petals. Stable isotope labeling experiments showed that ADT1 suppression led to downregulation of carbon flux toward shikimic acid. However, an exogenous supply of shikimate bypassed this negative regulation and resulted in elevated arogenate accumulation. Feeding with shikimate also led to prephenate and phenylpyruvate accumulation and a partial recovery of the reduced Phe level in transgenic petals, suggesting that the phenylpyruvate route can also operate in planta. These results provide genetic evidence that Phe is synthesized predominantly via arogenate in petunia petals and uncover a novel posttranscriptional regulation of the shikimate pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1105/tpc.109.073247DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2861463PMC
March 2010

The Arabidopsis RESURRECTION1 gene regulates a novel antagonistic interaction in plant defense to biotrophs and necrotrophs.

Plant Physiol 2009 Sep 22;151(1):290-305. Epub 2009 Jul 22.

Department of Horticulture and Landscape Architecture, Purdue University, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907-2054, USA.

We report a role for the Arabidopsis (Arabidopsis thaliana) RESURRECTION1 (RST1) gene in plant defense. The rst1 mutant exhibits enhanced susceptibility to the biotrophic fungal pathogen Erysiphe cichoracearum but enhanced resistance to the necrotrophic fungal pathogens Botrytis cinerea and Alternaria brassicicola. RST1 encodes a novel protein that localizes to the plasma membrane and is predicted to contain 11 transmembrane domains. Disease responses in rst1 correlate with higher levels of jasmonic acid (JA) and increased basal and B. cinerea-induced expression of the plant defensin PDF1.2 gene but reduced E. cichoracearum-inducible salicylic acid levels and expression of pathogenesis-related genes PR1 and PR2. These results are consistent with rst1's varied resistance and susceptibility to pathogens of different life styles. Cuticular lipids, both cutin monomers and cuticular waxes, on rst1 leaves were significantly elevated, indicating a role for RST1 in the suppression of leaf cuticle lipid synthesis. The rst1 cuticle exhibits normal permeability, however, indicating that the disease responses of rst1 are not due to changes in this cuticle property. Double mutant analysis revealed that the coi1 mutation (causing defective JA signaling) is completely epistatic to rst1, whereas the ein2 mutation (causing defective ethylene signaling) is partially epistatic to rst1, for resistance to B. cinerea. The rst1 mutation thus defines a unique combination of disease responses to biotrophic and necrotrophic fungi in that it antagonizes salicylic acid-dependent defense and enhances JA-mediated defense through a mechanism that also controls cuticle synthesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1104/pp.109.142158DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2735982PMC
September 2009

Catechin degradation with concurrent formation of homo- and heterocatechin dimers during in vitro digestion.

J Agric Food Chem 2007 Oct 9;55(22):8941-9. Epub 2007 Oct 9.

Department of Food Science, Purdue University, 745 Agriculture Mall Drive, West Lafayette, Indiana 47907, USA

Catechins were subjected to in vitro gastric and small intestinal digestion. EGCG, EGC, and ECG were significantly degraded at all concentrations tested, with losses of 71-91, 72-100, and 60-61%, respectively. EC and C were comparatively stable, with losses of 8-11 and 7-8%, respectively. HLPC-ESI-MS/MS indicated that EGCG degradation under simulated digestion resulted in production of theasinensins (THSNs) A and D (m/z 913) and P-2 (m/z 883), its autoxidation homodimers. EGC dimerization produced the homodimers THSN C and E (m/z 609) and homodimers analogous to P-2 (m/z 579). ECG homodimers were not observed. EGCG and EGC formed heterodimers analogous to the THSNs (m/z 761) and P-2 (m/z 731). EGCG and ECG formed homodimers analogous to the THSNs (m/z 897). This study provides an expanded profile of catechin dimers of digestive origin that may potentially form following consumption of catechins. These data provide a logical basis for initial screening to detect catechin digestive products in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/jf071645mDOI Listing
October 2007
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