Publications by authors named "Bruce McCall"

10 Publications

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Phase Ia study of the indoleamine 2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) inhibitor navoximod (GDC-0919) in patients with recurrent advanced solid tumors.

J Immunother Cancer 2018 06 20;6(1):61. Epub 2018 Jun 20.

Georgia Cancer Center at Augusta University, Augusta, GA, USA.

Background: Indoleamine-2,3-dioxygenase 1 (IDO1) catalyzes the oxidation of tryptophan into kynurenine and is partially responsible for acquired immune tolerance associated with cancer. The IDO1 small molecule inhibitor navoximod (GDC-0919, NLG-919) is active as a combination therapy in multiple tumor models.

Methods: This open-label Phase Ia study assessed safety, pharmacokinetics (PK), pharmacodynamics (PD), and preliminary anti-tumor activity of navoximod in patients with recurrent/advanced solid tumors, administered as 50-800 mg BID on a 21/28 day and at 600 mg on a 28/28 day schedule. Plasma kynurenine and tryptophan were longitudinally evaluated and tumor assessments were performed.

Results: Patients (n = 22) received a median of 3 cycles of navoximod. No maximum tolerated dose was reached. One dose-limiting toxicity of Grade 4 lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage was reported. Adverse events (AEs) regardless of causality in ≥20% of patients included fatigue (59%), cough, decreased appetite, and pruritus (41% each), nausea (36%), and vomiting (27%). Grade ≥ 3 AEs occurred in 14/22 patients (64%), and were related to navoximod in two patients (9%). Navoximod was rapidly absorbed (T ~ 1 h) and exhibited dose-proportional increases in exposure, with a half-life (t ~ 11 h) supportive of BID dosing. Navoximod transiently decreased plasma kynurenine from baseline levels with kinetics consistent with its half-life. Of efficacy-evaluable patients, 8 (36%) had stable disease and 10 (46%) had progressive disease.

Conclusions: Navoximod was well-tolerated at doses up to 800 mg BID decreasing plasma kynurenine levels consistent with its half-life. Stable disease responses were observed.

Trial Registration: identifier: NCT02048709 .
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June 2018

Phase I study of the anti-α5β1 monoclonal antibody MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Cancer Chemother Pharmacol 2018 08 15;82(2):339-351. Epub 2018 Jun 15.

California Cancer Associates for Research & Excellence, Encinitas, CA, USA.

Purpose: MINT1526A is a monoclonal antibody that blocks the interaction of integrin alpha 5 beta 1 (α5β1) with its extracellular matrix ligands. This phase I study evaluated the safety and pharmacokinetics of MINT1526A with or without bevacizumab in patients with advanced solid tumors.

Methods: MINT1526A was administered every 3 weeks (Q3W) as monotherapy (arm 1) or in combination with bevacizumab 15 mg/kg, Q3W (arm 2). Each arm included a 3 + 3 dose-escalation stage and a dose-expansion stage.

Results: Twenty-four patients were enrolled in arm 1 (dose range 2-30 mg/kg) and 30 patients were enrolled in arm 2 (dose range 3-15 mg/kg). Monocyte α5β1 receptor occupancy was saturated at a dose of 15 mg/kg. No dose-limiting toxicities were observed, and the maximum tolerated dose was not reached in either arm. The most common adverse events, regardless of causality, included abdominal pain (25%), diarrhea (25%), nausea (21%), vomiting (21%), and fatigue (21%) in arm 1 and nausea (40%), fatigue (33%), vomiting (30%), dehydration (30%), headache (30%), and hypertension (30%) in arm 2. No grade ≥ 3 bleeding events were observed in either arm. No confirmed partial responses (PR) were observed in arm 1. In arm 2, one patient with thymic carcinoma experienced a confirmed PR and two patients with hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) experienced durable minor radiographic responses.

Conclusions: MINT1526A, with or without bevacizumab, was well-tolerated. Preliminary evidence of combination efficacy, including in patients with HCC, was observed, but cannot be distinguished from bevacizumab monotherapy in this phase I study.
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August 2018

Phase II Study of the Dual EGFR/HER3 Inhibitor Duligotuzumab (MEHD7945A) versus Cetuximab in Combination with FOLFIRI in Second-Line Wild-Type Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Clin Cancer Res 2018 05 5;24(10):2276-2284. Epub 2018 Mar 5.

Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology (VHIO), Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, CIBERONC, Barcelona, Spain.

Duligotuzumab is a dual-action antibody directed against EGFR and HER3. Metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC) patients with ex2 wild-type received duligotuzumab or cetuximab and FOLFIRI until progression or intolerable toxicity. Mandatory tumor samples underwent mutation and biomarker analysis. Efficacy analysis was conducted in patients with exon 2/3 wild-type tumors. Of 134 randomly assigned patients, 98 had ex2/3 wild-type. Duligotuzumab provided no progression-free survival (PFS) or overall survival (OS) benefit compared with cetuximab, although there was a trend for a lower objective response rate (ORR) in the duligotuzumab arm. No relationship was seen between PFS or ORR and ERBB3, NRG1, or AREG expression. There were fewer skin rash events for duligotuzumab but more diarrhea. Although the incidence of grade ≥3 AEs was similar, the frequency of serious AEs was higher for duligotuzumab. Duligotuzumab plus FOLFIRI did not appear to improve the outcomes in patients with exon 2/3 wild-type mCRC compared with cetuximab + FOLFIRI. .
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May 2018

Randomized Phase II Trial of Parsatuzumab (Anti-EGFL7) or Placebo in Combination with Carboplatin, Paclitaxel, and Bevacizumab for First-Line Nonsquamous Non-Small Cell Lung Cancer.

Oncologist 2018 06 7;23(6):654-e58. Epub 2018 Feb 7.

LungenClinic Grosshansdorf, Airway Research Center North (ARCN), German Center for Lung Research (DZL), Grosshansdorf, Germany

Lessons Learned: The lack of efficacy associated with anti-EGFL7 combined with standard bevacizumab and chemotherapy in this phase II trial in non-small cell lung carcinoma is consistent with the lack of benefit observed in colorectal carcinoma, highlighting the challenge of enhancing the efficacy of VEGF inhibition in unselected populations.Future efforts with agents like anti-EGFL7 should be guided by advances in pharmacodynamic and predictive biomarker development for antiangiogenic agents.

Background: Epidermal growth factor-like domain 7 (EGFL7) is an extracellular matrix-associated protein that is upregulated during angiogenesis and supports endothelial cell survival. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of the anti-EGFL7 antibody, parsatuzumab, in combination with bevacizumab plus platinum-based therapy for advanced or recurrent nonsquamous non-small cell lung cancer (NS-NSCLC).

Methods: Patients ( = 104) were randomized to either placebo or parsatuzumab (600 mg) in combination with bevacizumab (15 mg/kg) and carboplatin/paclitaxel, administered on day 1 of each 21-day cycle. Carboplatin and paclitaxel were administered for up to six cycles. Bevacizumab and parsatuzumab/placebo were administered for a maximum of 24 months.

Results: The progression-free survival (PFS) hazard ratio (HR) was 1.7 (95% confidence interval [CI], 1.0-2.8;  = .047). The median PFS was 6.7 months for the parsatuzumab arm versus 8.1 months for the placebo arm. The hazard ratio for overall survival (OS) was 1.1 (95% CI, 0.5-2.2;  = .847). The objective response rate (ORR) was 29% in the parsatuzumab arm and 56% in the placebo arm. Overall safety and tolerability were consistent with the established toxicity profile of bevacizumab.

Conclusion: There was no evidence of efficacy for the addition of parsatuzumab to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for first-line NS-NSCLC.
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June 2018

A Phase Ib Dose-Escalation Study of the Safety, Tolerability, and Pharmacokinetics of Cobimetinib and Duligotuzumab in Patients with Previously Treated Locally Advanced or Metastatic Cancers with Mutant KRAS.

Oncologist 2017 09 7;22(9):1024-e89. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Vall d'Hebron University Hospital and Institute of Oncology, CIBERONC, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain.

Lessons Learned: Cobimetinib and duligotuzumab were well tolerated as single agents and in combination with other agents.The cobimetinib and duligotuzumab combination was associated with increased toxicity, most notably gastrointestinal, and limited efficacy in the patient population tested.

Background: -mutant tumors possess abnormal mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPK) pathway signaling, leading to dysregulated cell proliferation. Cobimetinib blocks MAPK signaling. The dual-action antibody duligotuzumab (MEHD7945A) inhibits ligand binding to both epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3). Blockade of EGFR/HER3 and inhibition of mitogen-activated protein kinase (MEK) in -mutant tumors may provide additive benefit.

Methods: Patients with -mutant solid tumors were eligible for this phase Ib dose-escalation study with a planned expansion phase. Duligotuzumab was given intravenously (IV) at 1,100 mg every 2 weeks (q2w), while cobimetinib was given orally in a standard 3 + 3 design to identify the recommended phase II dose (RP2D). The primary objective was to evaluate the safety and tolerability of this combination.

Results: Twenty-three patients were enrolled. Dose-limiting toxicities (DLTs) included grade 4 hypokalemia and grade 3 mucosal inflammation, asthenia, and dermatitis acneiform. Seventy percent of patients experienced grade 3 or worse adverse events (AEs). Five (22%) and 12 (52%) patients missed at least 1 dose of duligotuzumab and cobimetinib, respectively, and 9 (39%) patients required a cobimetinib dose reduction. Three (13%) patients discontinued due to an AE. Best response was limited to 9 patients with stable disease and 13 patients with progressive disease.

Conclusion: Given the limited tolerability and efficacy of this combination, the study did not proceed to expansion stage and closed for enrollment.
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September 2017

Randomized Phase II Trial of Parsatuzumab (Anti-EGFL7) or Placebo in Combination with FOLFOX and Bevacizumab for First-Line Metastatic Colorectal Cancer.

Oncologist 2017 04 8;22(4):375-e30. Epub 2017 Mar 8.

Duke Clinical Research Institute, Durham, North Carolina, USA

Lessons Learned: These negative phase II results for parsatuzumab highlight the challenges of developing an agent intended to enhance the efficacy of vascular endothelial growth factor inhibition without the benefit of validated pharmacodynamic biomarkers or strong predictive biomarker hypotheses.Any further clinical development of anti-EGFL7 is likely to require new mechanistic insights and biomarker development for antiangiogenic agents.

Background: EGFL7 (epidermal growth factor-like domain 7) is a tumor-enriched vascular extracellular matrix protein that supports endothelial cell survival. This phase II trial evaluated the efficacy of parsatuzumab (also known as MEGF0444A), a humanized anti-EGFL7 IgG monoclonal antibody, in combination with modified FOLFOX6 (mFOLFOX6) (folinic acid, 5-fluorouracil, and oxaliplatin) bevacizumab in patients with previously untreated metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC).

Methods: One-hundred twenty-seven patients were randomly assigned to parsatuzumab, 400 mg, or placebo, in combination with mFOLFOX6 plus bevacizumab, 5 mg/kg. Treatment cycles were repeated every 2 weeks until disease progression or unacceptable toxicity for a maximum of 24 months, with the exception of oxaliplatin, which was administered for up to 8 cycles.

Results: The progression-free survival (PFS) hazard ratio was 1.17 (95% confidence interval [CI], 0.71-1.93;  = .548). The median PFS was 12 months for the experimental arm versus 11.9 months for the control arm. The hazard ratio for overall survival was 0.97 (95% CI, 0.46-2.1;  = .943). The overall response rate was 59% in the parsatuzumab arm and 64% in the placebo arm. The adverse event profile was similar in both arms.

Conclusions: There was no evidence of efficacy for the addition of parsatuzumab to the combination of bevacizumab and chemotherapy for first-line mCRC. 2017;22:375-e30.
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April 2017

Randomized Phase II Study of Duligotuzumab (MEHD7945A) vs. Cetuximab in Squamous Cell Carcinoma of the Head and Neck (MEHGAN Study).

Front Oncol 2016 31;6:232. Epub 2016 Oct 31.

Antwerp University Hospital , Edegem , Belgium.

Background: Duligotuzumab, a novel dual-action humanized IgG1 antibody that blocks ligand binding to epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3), inhibits signaling from all ligand-dependent HER dimers, and can elicit antibody-dependent cell-mediated cytotoxicity. High tumor-expression of neuregulin 1 (NRG1), a ligand to HER3, may enhance sensitivity to duligotuzumab.

Methods: This multicenter, open-label, randomized phase II study (MEHGAN) evaluated drug efficacy in patients with recurrent/metastatic (R/M) squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck (SCCHN) progressive on/after chemotherapy and among patients with NRG1-high tumors. Patients received duligotuzumab (1100 mg IV, q2w) or cetuximab (400 mg/m load, 250 mg/m IV, q1w) until progression or intolerable toxicity. Tumor samples were assayed for biomarkers [, and human papillomavirus (HPV) status].

Results: Patients ( = 121) were randomized (duligotuzumab:cetuximab; 59:62), median age 62 years; ECOG 0-2. Both arms (duligotuzumab vs. cetuximab, respectively) showed comparable progression-free survival [4.2 vs. 4.0 months; HR: 1.23 (90% confidence interval (CI): 0.89-1.70)], overall survival [7.2 vs. 8.7 months; HR 1.15 (90% CI: 0.81-1.63)], and objective response rate (12 vs. 14.5%), with no difference between patients with -high tumors or -low tumors. Responses in both arms were confined to HPV-negative patients. Grade ≥3 adverse events (AEs) (duligotuzumab vs. cetuximab, respectively) included infections (22 vs. 11.5%) and GI disorders (17 vs. 7%), contributing to higher rates of serious AEs (41 vs. 29.5%). Metabolic disorders were less frequent with duligotuzumab (10 vs. 16%); any grade rash-related events were less with duligotuzumab (49 vs. 67%).

Conclusion: While several lines of preclinical evidence had supported the premise that the blockade of HER3 in addition to that of EGFR may improve outcomes for patients with R/M SCCHN overall or specifically in those patients whose tumors express high levels of , this study provided definitive clinical evidence refuting this hypothesis. Duligotuzumab did not improve patient outcomes in comparison to cetuximab despite frequent expression of . These data indicate that inhibition of EGFR alone is sufficient to block EGFR-HER3 signaling, suggesting that HER2 plays a minimal role in this disease. Extensive biomarker analyses further show that HPV-negative SCCHN but not HPV-positive SCCHN are most likely to respond to EGFR blockage by cetuximab or duligotuzumab.
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October 2016

Phase Ib study of duligotuzumab (MEHD7945A) plus cisplatin/5-fluorouracil or carboplatin/paclitaxel for first-line treatment of recurrent/metastatic squamous cell carcinoma of the head and neck.

Cancer 2016 Dec 15;122(24):3803-3811. Epub 2016 Aug 15.

Department of General Medical Oncology, University Hospitals Leuven, Leuven, Belgium.

Background: This open-label, multicenter, phase Ib study assessed the safety and preliminary activity of duligotuzumab, a dual-action antibody that blocks ligand binding to human epidermal growth factor receptor 3 (HER3) and epidermal growth factor receptor, in combination with chemotherapy, in the first-line treatment of patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck.

Methods: On day 1, duligotuzumab at a dose of 1650 mg intravenously was combined with cisplatin at a dose of 100 mg/m and 5-fluorouracil at a dose of 1000 mg/m /day on days 1 to 4 in treatment arm A, or carboplatin (area under the curve, 6 mg/mL/min) and paclitaxel (at a dose of 200 mg/m ) in treatment arm B. Up to 6 cycles (21 days/cycle) were followed by duligotuzumab maintenance until disease progression or intolerable toxicity occurred.

Results: Nine patients in arm A and 15 patients in arm B received a median of 6 cycles of chemotherapy, and a median of 11 cycles (arm A) and 9 cycles (arm B) of duligotuzumab. Dose-limiting toxicities occurred in 3 patients in arm A and 1 patient in arm B. Grade ≥ 3 treatment-related adverse events (graded according to graded according to National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events [version 4.0]) in ≥ 3 patients were neutropenia (5 patients), hypokalemia (4 patients), dehydration (3 patients), anemia (3 patients), and diarrhea (3 patients) in arm A, and neutropenia (8 patients), anemia (5 patients), febrile neutropenia (4 patients), leukopenia (3 patients), thrombocytopenia (3 patients), and hypomagnesemia (3 patients) in arm B. The chemotherapy dose was reduced in 19 of 24 patients. Sixteen patients (67%) demonstrated objective responses regardless of human papillomavirus status or neuregulin 1 (NRG1) mRNA expression (arm A: 2 confirmed complete responses and 4 confirmed partial responses; arm B: 2 confirmed complete responses and 8 confirmed partial responses).

Conclusions: Duligotuzumab in combination with cisplatin/5-fluorouracil or carboplatin/paclitaxel demonstrated encouraging activity in patients with recurrent/metastatic squamous cell cancer of the head and neck; an association with increased frequency and severity of select adverse events relative to historical data was suggestive of the potentiation of chemotherapy-related adverse events. Cancer 2016;122:3803-3811. © 2016 American Cancer Society.
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December 2016

Incidence and relevance of proteinuria in bevacizumab-treated patients: pooled analysis from randomized controlled trials.

Am J Nephrol 2014 18;40(1):75-83. Epub 2014 Jul 18.

Department of Medicine, Stanford University, Palo Alto,Calif., USA.

Background: This analysis evaluated the incidence of and risk factors for bevacizumab-related proteinuria and assessed for any associated clinical sequelae, including renal function changes.

Methods: Patient-level adverse event and laboratory data from a pooled safety database were used to characterize alterations in urine protein excretion following interventional therapy ± bevacizumab in 17 randomized trials across multiple tumor types. Severity of renal function change was assessed using changes in serum creatinine concentration from baseline values. Potential predictors of proteinuria and the association between proteinuria and other adverse events were also investigated.

Results: Among 14,548 patients, the incidence of any-grade proteinuria was 8.2% (733/8,917) and 4.6% (257/5,631) in the bevacizumab and control groups, respectively; rates of grade ≥3 proteinuria were 1.4 and 0.2%. Post-baseline proteinuria grade and bevacizumab were associated with increased rates of renal dysfunction. Patients developing proteinuria had an increased rate of any-grade infection but not thromboembolic events. History of diabetes was the only examined risk factor that appeared to have a significant association with proteinuria development.

Conclusions: This analysis confirmed a significant increase in the development of proteinuria during bevacizumab treatment. We also observed an increased rate of renal dysfunction associated with bevacizumab treatment and among subjects with proteinuria, although the dysfunction was generally mild. The development of proteinuria was also associated with a modest increase in risk of infection.
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September 2015