Publications by authors named "Bruce M Dixon"

5 Publications

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A Comprehensive Review of Novel Interventional Techniques for Chronic Pain: Spinal Stenosis and Degenerative Disc Disease-MILD Percutaneous Image Guided Lumbar Decompression, Vertiflex Interspinous Spacer, MinuteMan G3 Interspinous-Interlaminar Fusion.

Adv Ther 2021 09 14;38(9):4628-4645. Epub 2021 Aug 14.

Department of Anesthesiology, Louisiana State University Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Spinal stenosis is the compression of nerve roots by bone or soft tissue secondary to the narrowing of the spinal canal, lateral recesses, or intervertebral foramina. Spinal stenosis may have acquired or congenital origins. Most cases are acquired and caused by hypertrophy of the ligamentum flavum, enlarged osteophytes, degenerative arthritis, disk herniations, and various systemic illnesses. The ligamentum flavum (LF) is a highly specialized elastic ligament that connects the laminae of the spine and fuses them to the facet joint capsules. There are a number of treatment options available for spinal stenosis. Implants and surgical interventions have grown in popularity recently, and a number of these have been shown to have varying efficacy, including the minimally invasive lumbar decompression (MILD), Vertiflex, Coflex Interlaminar Stabilization, and MinuteMan G3 procedures. Minimally invasive lumbar decompression (MILD) is a minimally invasive outpatient procedure to treat spinal stenosis related to hypertrophied ligamentum flavum. The Superion Interspinous Spacer, also known as Vertiflex, is a titanium implant that is delivered percutaneously to relieve back pain caused by lumbar spinal stenosis. The MinuteMan is a minimally invasive, interspinous-interlaminar fusion device planned for the temporary fixation of the thoracic, lumbar, and sacral spine, which eventually results in bony fusion. Based on our review of the available current scientific literature, the novel interventions for symptomatic lumbar spinal stenosis, such as the MILD procedure and the Superion interspinous spacer, generally appear to be safe and effective. There is a possibility in the future that these interventions could disrupt current treatment algorithms for lumbar spinal stenosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s12325-021-01875-8DOI Listing
September 2021

Peripheral Nerve Stimulation: A Review of Techniques and Clinical Efficacy.

Pain Ther 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Anesthesiology, Perioperative and Pain Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Chronic pain is a common source of morbidity in many patient populations worldwide. There are growing concerns about the potential side effects of currently prescribed medications and a continued need for effective treatment. Related to these concerns, peripheral nerve stimulation has been regaining popularity as a potential treatment modality. Peripheral nerve stimulation components include helically coiled electrical leads, which direct an applied current to afferent neurons providing sensory innervation to the painful area. In theory, the applied current to the peripheral nerve will alter the large-diameter myelinated afferent nerve fibers, which interfere with the central processing of pain signals through small-diameter afferent fibers at the level of the spinal cord. Multiple studies have shown success in the use of peripheral nerve stimulation for acute post-surgical pain for orthopedic surgery, including post total knee arthroplasty and anterior cruciate ligament surgery, and chronic knee pain. Many studies have investigated the utility of peripheral nerve stimulation for the management of chronic shoulder pain. Peripheral nerve stimulation also serves as one of the potential non-pharmacologic therapies to treat back pain along with physical therapy, application of transcutaneous electrical neurostimulation unit, radiofrequency ablation, epidural steroid injections, permanently implanted neurostimulators, and surgery. Studies regarding back pain treatment have shown that peripheral nerve stimulation led to significant improvement in all pain and quality-of-life measures and a reduction in the use of opioids. Further studies are needed as the long-term risks and benefits of peripheral nerve stimulation have not been well studied as most information available on the effectiveness of peripheral nerve stimulation is based on shorter-term improvements in chronic pain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40122-021-00298-1DOI Listing
July 2021

Novel Interventional Techniques for Chronic Pain with Minimally Invasive Arthrodesis of the Sacroiliac Joint: (INSITE, iFuse, Tricor, Rialto, and others).

Rheumatol Ther 2021 Sep 30;8(3):1061-1072. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Department of Anesthesiology, LSU Health Shreveport, Shreveport, LA, USA.

Acute and chronic pain are public health issues that clinicians have been battling for years. Opioid medications have been a treatment option for both chronic and acute pain; however, they can cause unwanted complications and are a major contributor to our present opioid epidemic. The sacroiliac (SI) joint is a common cause of both acute and chronic low back pain. It affects about 15-25% of patients with axial low back pain, and up to 40% of patients with ongoing pain following lumbar fusion. Recent advances in the treatment of SI joint pain have led to the development of a wide variety of SI joint fusion devices. These fusion devices seek to stabilize the joints themselves in order that they become immobile and, in theory, can no longer be a source for pain. This is a minimally invasive procedure aimed to address chronic pain without subjecting patients to lengthy surgery or medications, including opioids with the potential for addiction and abuse. Minimally invasive SI fusion can be performed by a lateral approach (i.e., iFuse, Tricor) or posterior approach (i.e., CornerLoc, LinQ, Rialto). The posterior approach requires the patient to be in the prone position but allows for less disruption of muscles with entry. More data are necessary to determine which fusion system may be best for a particular patient. SI fusion devices are a promising way of treating chronic lower back pain related to the SI joint. This narrative review will discuss various types of SI fusion devices, and their potential use in terms of their safety and efficacy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s40744-021-00350-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8380604PMC
September 2021

Emergency total proctocolectomy in an uninsured patient with Familial Adenomatous Polyposis Syndrome and acute lower gastrointestinal hemorrhage in a community hospital: A case report.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2016 30;26:166-9. Epub 2016 Jul 30.

Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine, Class of 2017, 445 Health Science Blvd, Dothan, AL 36303, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Rectal bleeding is the most common symptom of Familial Adenomatous Polyposis (FAP). This case investigates the efficacy of emergency surgery for FAP with total proctocolectomy end ileostomy for recurrent lower gastrointestinal (GI) hemorrhage in an uninsured patient in a 266-bed community hospital. The optimal treatment for FAP with acute lower GI hemorrhage and hemodynamic compromise unresponsive to conservative management is unclear.

Presentation Of Case: A 41-year-old uninsured African American man with no past medical or family history presented to the emergency department with hematochezia lasting three days. A clinical diagnosis of FAP made on colonoscopy with biopsies revealed villous and tubulovillous adenomas without dysplasia. After blood products resuscitation, an emergency total proctocolectomy with end ileostomy was performed. A staged ileal J pouch to anal anastomosis and creation of protective loop ileostomy was performed months later after securing state funding. A final loop ileostomy reversal occurred six weeks later. His self reported quality of life is improved.

Discussion: Lower GI hemorrhage from FAP unresponsive to blood products may require emergency total proctocolectomy and end ileostomy with a staged ileal J pouch to anal anastomosis, which can be done in a community acute care hospital for an uninsured patient.

Conclusion: A total proctocolectomy is feasible in the emergency setting in an uninsured patient with lower GI bleeding and FAP. A staged ileal J pouch-anal anastomosis is easier to justify to the hospital compared to a staged completion colectomy with proctectomy. It is essential to monitor the ileo-anal anastomosis with anoscopy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.07.052DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4976607PMC
September 2016

Achalasia: A case report on its effect during surgical decision making for laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy in the young morbidly obese patient.

Int J Surg Case Rep 2016 7;26:4-6. Epub 2016 Jul 7.

Alabama College of Osteopathic Medicine, Class of 2017, 445 Health Sciences Blvd, Dothan, AL 36303, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Achalasia is a condition that occurs when the lower esophageal sphincter (LES) fails to properly relax, combined with slowing/failure of esophageal peristalsis. This is seen clinically by not allowing solids and liquids to pass easily into the stomach. Achalasia is not historically associated with morbid obesity, yet dual treatment of morbid obesity and achalasia is becoming more prominent due to the worldwide obesity epidemic.

Presentation Of Case: Achalasia is typically a disease that affects non-obese adults over the age of 55, which makes the discussion of this case report unique in that our patient is a 23 year-old woman who successfully underwent per-oral endoscopic myotomy (POEM) in preparation for a future laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy. There is sparse literature on combining laparoscopic Heller myotomy (LHM) and partial fundoplication versus POEM with either restrictive or malabsorptive minimally invasive bariatric procedures.

Discussion: LHM and partial fundoplication have long been considered the gold standard surgical treatment for achalasia by disrupting both the longitudinal and circular muscle layers of the LES. The newer, less invasive, POEM technique will be compared to the gold standard LHM and Dor fundoplication in this uncharacteristically young morbidly obese achalasia patient. The decision to pursue a laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy over a laparoscopic Roux-en-Y gastric bypass was multifactorial due to the patient's concerns regarding malabsorption of vitamins and nutrients in the event of a future pregnancy.

Conclusion: The patient has already undergone a POEM procedure, which was chosen to maintain the gastric fundus, cardia, and gastroesophageal junction (GEJ) architecture as opposed to a LHM with Dor fundoplication, which would have altered the anatomy, thus making a concomitant laparoscopic sleeve gastrectomy an unfeasible option.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijscr.2016.06.046DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4949807PMC
September 2016
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