Publications by authors named "Bruce H R Wolffenbuttel"

200 Publications

Residual C-peptide secretion and hypoglycemia awareness in people with type 1 diabetes.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2021 Sep;9(1)

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, Netherlands.

Introduction: This study aimed to assess the association between fasting serum C-peptide levels and the presence of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH) in people with type 1 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: We performed a cross-sectional study among 509 individuals with type 1 diabetes (diabetes duration 5-65 years). Extensive clinical data and fasting serum C-peptide concentrations were collected and related to the presence or absence of IAH, which was evaluated using the validated Dutch version of the Clarke questionnaire. A multivariable logistic regression model was constructed to investigate the association of C-peptide and other clinical variables with IAH.

Results: In 129 (25%) individuals, residual C-peptide secretion was detected, while 75 (15%) individuals reported IAH. The median (IQR) C-peptide concentration among all participants was 0.0 (0.0-3.9) pmol/L. The prevalence of severe hypoglycemia was lower in people with demonstrable C-peptide versus those with absent C-peptide (30% vs 41%, p=0.025). Individuals with IAH were older, had longer diabetes duration, more frequently had macrovascular and microvascular complications, and more often used antihypertensive drugs, antiplatelet agents and cholesterol-lowering medication. There was a strong association between IAH and having a severe hypoglycemia in the preceding year. In multivariable regression analysis, residual C-peptide, either continuously or dichotomous, was associated with lower prevalence of IAH (p=0.040-0.042), while age at diabetes onset (p=0.001), presence of microvascular complications (p=0.003) and body mass index (BMI) (p=0.003) were also independently associated with the presence of IAH.

Conclusions: Higher BMI, the presence of microvascular complications and higher age at diabetes onset were independent risk factors for IAH in people with type 1 diabetes, while residual C-peptide secretion was associated with lower risk of this complication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2021-002288DOI Listing
September 2021

The anemia-independent impact of myelodysplastic syndromes on health-related quality of life.

Ann Hematol 2021 Sep 2. Epub 2021 Sep 2.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9700 RB, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Myelodysplastic syndromes (MDS) are in the majority of cases characterized by anemia. Both anemia and MDS per se may directly contribute to impairments in health-related quality of life (HRQoL). In this study, we aimed to investigate the anemia-independent impact of MDS on HRQoL. We evaluated participants (≥ 50 years) from the large population-based Lifelines cohort (N = 44,694, mean age 59.0 ± 7.4 years, 43.6% male) and the European MDS Registry (EUMDS) (N = 1538, mean age 73.4 ± 9.0 years, 63.0% male), which comprises a cohort of lower-risk MDS patients. To enable comparison concerning HRQoL, SF-36 scores measured in Lifelines were converted to EQ-5D-3L index (range 0-1) and dimension scores. Lower-risk MDS patients had significantly lower HRQoL than those from the Lifelines cohort, as illustrated in both the index score and in the five different dimensions. Multivariable linear regression analysis demonstrated that MDS had an adjusted total impact on the EQ-5D index score (B =  - 0.12, p < 0.001) and an anemia-independent "direct" impact (B =  - 0.10, p < 0.001). Multivariable logistic regression analysis revealed an anemia-independent impact of MDS in the dimension mobility, self-care, usual activities, and anxiety/depression (all except pain/discomfort). This study demonstrates that the major part of the negative impact of lower-risk MDS on HRQoL is not mediated via anemia. Thus, the therapeutic focus should include treatment strategies directed at underlying pathogenic mechanisms to improve HRQoL, rather than aiming predominantly at increasing hemoglobin levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00277-021-04654-1DOI Listing
September 2021

Genetic insights into biological mechanisms governing human ovarian ageing.

Nature 2021 08 4;596(7872):393-397. Epub 2021 Aug 4.

Genome Integrity and Instability Group, Institut de Biotecnologia i Biomedicina, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Cerdanyola del Vallès, Spain.

Reproductive longevity is essential for fertility and influences healthy ageing in women, but insights into its underlying biological mechanisms and treatments to preserve it are limited. Here we identify 290 genetic determinants of ovarian ageing, assessed using normal variation in age at natural menopause (ANM) in about 200,000 women of European ancestry. These common alleles were associated with clinical extremes of ANM; women in the top 1% of genetic susceptibility have an equivalent risk of premature ovarian insufficiency to those carrying monogenic FMR1 premutations. The identified loci implicate a broad range of DNA damage response (DDR) processes and include loss-of-function variants in key DDR-associated genes. Integration with experimental models demonstrates that these DDR processes act across the life-course to shape the ovarian reserve and its rate of depletion. Furthermore, we demonstrate that experimental manipulation of DDR pathways highlighted by human genetics increases fertility and extends reproductive life in mice. Causal inference analyses using the identified genetic variants indicate that extending reproductive life in women improves bone health and reduces risk of type 2 diabetes, but increases the risk of hormone-sensitive cancers. These findings provide insight into the mechanisms that govern ovarian ageing, when they act, and how they might be targeted by therapeutic approaches to extend fertility and prevent disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41586-021-03779-7DOI Listing
August 2021

Preventive use of nitisinone in alkaptonuria.

Orphanet J Rare Dis 2021 Aug 3;16(1):343. Epub 2021 Aug 3.

Beatrix Children's Hospital, Division of Metabolic Disorders, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Alkaptonuria (AKU, OMIM 203500) is a rare congenital disorder caused by a deficiency of the enzyme homogentisate-1,2,-dioxygenase. The long-term consequences of AKU are joint problems, cardiac valve abnormalities and renal problems. Landmark intervention studies with nitisinone 10 mg daily, suppressing an upstream enzyme activity, demonstrated its beneficial effects in AKU patients with established complications, which usually start to develop in the fourth decade. Lower dose of nitisinone in the range of 0.2-2 mg daily will already reduce urinary homogentisic acid (uHGA) excretion by > 90%, which may prevent AKU-related complications earlier in the course of the disease while limiting the possibility of side-effects related to the increase of plasma tyrosine levels caused by nitisinone. Future preventive studies should establish the lowest possible dose for an individual patient, the best age to start treatment and also collect evidence to which level uHGA excretion should be reduced to prevent complications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13023-021-01977-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8336241PMC
August 2021

Data-driven assessment, contextualisation and implementation of 134 variables in the risk for type 2 diabetes: an analysis of Lifelines, a prospective cohort study in the Netherlands.

Diabetologia 2021 Jun 12;64(6):1268-1278. Epub 2021 Mar 12.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA.

Aims/hypothesis: We aimed to assess and contextualise 134 potential risk variables for the development of type 2 diabetes and to determine their applicability in risk prediction.

Methods: A total of 96,534 people without baseline diabetes (372,007 person-years) from the Dutch Lifelines cohort were included. We used a risk variable-wide association study (RV-WAS) design to independently screen and replicate risk variables for 5-year incidence of type 2 diabetes. For identified variables, we contextualised HRs, calculated correlations and assessed their robustness and unique contribution in different clinical contexts using bootstrapped and cross-validated lasso regression models. We evaluated the change in risk, or 'HR trajectory', when sequentially assigning variables to a model.

Results: We identified 63 risk variables, with novel associations for quality-of-life indicators and non-cardiovascular medications (i.e., proton-pump inhibitors, anti-asthmatics). For continuous variables, the increase of 1 SD of HbA, i.e., 3.39 mmol/mol (0.31%), was equivalent in risk to an increase of 0.53 mmol/l of glucose, 19.8 cm of waist circumference, 8.34 kg/m of BMI, 0.67 mmol/l of HDL-cholesterol, and 0.14 mmol/l of uric acid. Other variables required an increase of >3 SD, which is not physiologically realistic or a rare occurrence in the population. Though moderately correlated, the inclusion of four variables satiated prediction models. Invasive variables, except for glucose and HbA, contributed little compared with non-invasive variables. Glucose, HbA and family history of diabetes explained a unique part of disease risk. Adding risk variables to a satiated model can impact the HRs of variables already in the model.

Conclusions: Many variables show weak or inconsistent associations with the development of type 2 diabetes, and only a handful can reliably explain disease risk. Newly discovered risk variables will yield little over established factors, and existing prediction models can be simplified. A systematic, data-driven approach to identify risk variables for the prediction of type 2 diabetes is necessary for the practice of precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-021-05419-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8099846PMC
June 2021

Temporal exposure and consistency of endocrine disrupting chemicals in a longitudinal study of individuals with impaired fasting glucose.

Environ Res 2021 06 20;197:110901. Epub 2021 Feb 20.

Department of Biomedical Informatics, Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) include non-persistent exogenous substances such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates which have been associated with a range of metabolic disorders and disease. It is unclear if exposure remains consistent over time. We investigated change in indicators of EDC exposure between 2009 and 2016 and assessed its consistency between and within individuals over a median follow-up time of 47 months in a sample of Dutch individuals. Of 500 Dutch individuals, two 24 h urine samples were analysed for 5 parabens, 3 bisphenols and 13 metabolites of in total 8 different phthalates. We calculated per-year differences using meta-analysis and assessed temporal correlations between and within individuals using Spearman correlation coefficients, intra-class correlation coefficients (ICC) and kappa-statistics. We found a secular decrease in concentrations of methyl, ethyl, propyl and n-butyl paraben, bisphenol A, and metabolites of di-ethyl phthalate (DEP), di-butyl phthalate (DBP), di-(2-ethyl-hexyl) phthalate (DEHP), and butylbenzyl phthalate (DBzP) which varied from 8 to 96% (ethyl paraben, propyl paraben) between 2009 and 2016. Within-person temporal correlations were highest for parabens (ICC: 0.34 to 0.40) and poorest for bisphenols (ICC: 0.15 to 0.23). For phthalate metabolites, correlations decreased most between time periods (ICC < 48 months: 0.22 to 0.39; ≥48 months: 0.05 to 0.32). When categorizing EDC concentrations, 33-54% of individuals remained in the lowest or highest category and temporal correlations were similar to continuous measurements. Exposure to most EDCs decreased between 2009 and 2016 in a sample of individuals with impaired fasting glucose from the Dutch population. Temporal consistency was generally poor. The inconsistency in disease associations may be influenced by individual-level or temporal variation exhibited by EDCs. Our findings call for the need for repeated measurements of EDCs in observational studies before and during at-risk temporal windows for the disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2021.110901DOI Listing
June 2021

Skin autofluorescence predicts new cardiovascular disease and mortality in people with type 2 diabetes.

BMC Endocr Disord 2021 Jan 12;21(1):14. Epub 2021 Jan 12.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, P.O. Box 30001, HPC AA31, Groningen, RB, 9700, The Netherlands.

Background: Skin autofluorescence (SAF) is a non-invasive marker of tissue accumulation of advanced glycation endproducts (AGE). Recently, we demonstrated in the general population that elevated SAF levels predict the development of type 2 diabetes (T2D), cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality. We evaluated whether elevated SAF may predict the development of CVD and mortality in individuals with T2D.

Methods: We included 2349 people with T2D, available baseline SAF measurements (measured with the AGE reader) and follow-up data from the Lifelines Cohort Study. Of them, 2071 had no clinical CVD at baseline. 60% were already diagnosed with diabetes (median duration 5, IQR 2-9 years), while 40% were detected during the baseline examination by elevated fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l) and/or HbA1c ≥6.5% (48 mmol/mol).

Results: Mean (±SD) age was 57 ± 12 yrs., BMI 30.2 ± 5.4 kg/m. 11% of participants with known T2D were treated with diet, the others used oral glucose-lowering medication, with or without insulin; 6% was using insulin alone. Participants with known T2D had higher SAF than those with newly-detected T2D (SAF Z-score 0.56 ± 0.99 vs 0.34 ± 0.89 AU, p < 0.001), which reflects a longer duration of hyperglycaemia in the former group. Participants with existing CVD and T2D had the highest SAF Z-score: 0.78 ± 1.25 AU. During a median follow-up of 3.7 yrs., 195 (7.6%) developed an atherosclerotic CVD event, while 137 (5.4%) died. SAF was strongly associated with the combined outcome of a new CVD event or mortality (OR 2.59, 95% CI 2.10-3.20, p < 0.001), as well as incidence of CVD (OR 2.05, 95% CI 1.61-2.61, p < 0.001) and death (OR 2.98, 2.25-3.94, p < 0.001) as a single outcome. In multivariable analysis for the combined endpoint, SAF retained its significance when sex, systolic blood pressure, HbA1c, total cholesterol, eGFR, as well as antihypertensive and statin medication were included. In a similar multivariable model, SAF was independently associated with mortality as a single outcome, but not with incident CVD.

Conclusions: Measuring SAF can assist in prediction of incident cardiovascular disease and mortality in individuals with T2D. SAF showed a stronger association with future CVD events and mortality than cholesterol or blood pressure levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12902-020-00676-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7802158PMC
January 2021

Sex-dimorphic genetic effects and novel loci for fasting glucose and insulin variability.

Nat Commun 2021 01 5;12(1):24. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Biostatistics and Data Science, Division of Public Health Sciences, Wake Forest University School of Medicine, Winston-Salem, NC, USA.

Differences between sexes contribute to variation in the levels of fasting glucose and insulin. Epidemiological studies established a higher prevalence of impaired fasting glucose in men and impaired glucose tolerance in women, however, the genetic component underlying this phenomenon is not established. We assess sex-dimorphic (73,089/50,404 women and 67,506/47,806 men) and sex-combined (151,188/105,056 individuals) fasting glucose/fasting insulin genetic effects via genome-wide association study meta-analyses in individuals of European descent without diabetes. Here we report sex dimorphism in allelic effects on fasting insulin at IRS1 and ZNF12 loci, the latter showing higher RNA expression in whole blood in women compared to men. We also observe sex-homogeneous effects on fasting glucose at seven novel loci. Fasting insulin in women shows stronger genetic correlations than in men with waist-to-hip ratio and anorexia nervosa. Furthermore, waist-to-hip ratio is causally related to insulin resistance in women, but not in men. These results position dissection of metabolic and glycemic health sex dimorphism as a steppingstone for understanding differences in genetic effects between women and men in related phenotypes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-19366-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7785747PMC
January 2021

Association Between Peripheral Blood Cell Count Abnormalities and Health-Related Quality of Life in the General Population.

Hemasphere 2021 Jan 21;5(1):e503. Epub 2020 Dec 21.

Department of Hematology, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Complete blood cell counts, including differentials, are widely available and change on aging. Peripheral blood cell counts outside the normal range have previously been associated with increased mortality rates and a number of comorbid conditions. However, data about the association between blood cell count abnormalities, other than anemia, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) are scarce. We investigated the association between abnormalities in (differential) blood cell counts and HRQoL in 143 191 community-dwelling individuals from the prospective population-based Lifelines cohort. HRQoL was measured using the RAND 36-Item Health Survey. Logistic regression analyses were used to determine the effect of blood cell count abnormalities on the odds of having a lower score than an age- and sex-specific reference value for each domain. Leukocytosis, neutrophilia, and a high neutrophil to lymphocyte ratio were associated with impaired HRQoL across multiple domains, both for younger and older (≥60 years) individuals. Using multivariable models, we confirmed that these associations were independent of the potential confounding factors obesity, smoking, alcohol use, number of medications (as a measure of comorbidity), anemia, and mean corpuscular volume. The impact on HRQoL was most pronounced for high neutrophil levels. Further, high white blood cell counts proved to be a better marker for inferior HRQoL as compared to elevated high-sensitivity C-reactive protein levels. Decreased HRQoL in several domains was also observed for individuals with monocytosis, lymphocytosis, and thrombocytosis. Taken together, the present study demonstrates an association between inflammatory and myeloid-skewed blood cell counts and inferior HRQoL in community-dwelling individuals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000503DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7755519PMC
January 2021

Epidemiology of thyroid disorders in the Lifelines Cohort Study (the Netherlands).

PLoS One 2020 25;15(11):e0242795. Epub 2020 Nov 25.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Thyroid hormone plays a pivotal role in human metabolism. In epidemiologic studies, adequate registration of thyroid disorders is warranted. We examined the prevalence of thyroid disorders, reported thyroid medication use, thyroid hormone levels, and validity of thyroid data obtained from questionnaires in the Lifelines Cohort Study.

Methods: We evaluated baseline data of all 152180 subjects (aged 18-93 years) of the Lifelines Cohort Study. At baseline, participants were asked about previous thyroid surgery and current and previous thyroid hormone use. At follow-up (n = 136776, after median 43 months), incident thyroid disorders could be reported in an open, non-structured question. Data on baseline thyroid hormone measurements (TSH, FT4 and FT3) were available in a subset of 39935 participants.

Results: Of the 152180 participants, mean (±SD) age was 44.6±13.1 years and 58.5% were female. Thyroid medication was used by 4790 participants (3.1%); the majority (98.2%) used levothyroxine, and 88% were females. 59.3% of levothyroxine users had normal TSH levels. The prevalence of abnormal TSH levels in those not using thyroid medication was 10.8%; 9.4% had a mildly elevated (4.01-10.0 mIU/L), 0.7% had suppressed (<0.40 mIU/L), while 0.7% had elevated (>10.0 mIU/L) TSH levels. Over 98% of subjects with TSH between 4 and 10 mIU/L had normal FT4. Open text questions allowing to report previous thyroid surgery and incident thyroid disorders proved not to be reliable and severely underestimated the true incidence and prevalence of thyroid disorders.

Conclusions: Undetected thyroid disorders were prevalent in the general population, whereas the prevalence of thyroid medication use was 3.1%. Less than 60% of individuals using levothyroxine had a normal TSH level. The large group of individuals with subclinical hypothyroidism (9.4%) offers an excellent possibility to prospectively follow the natural course of this disorder. Both structured questions as well as linking to G.P.'s and pharmacists' data are necessary to improve the completeness and reliability of Lifelines' data on thyroid disorders.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0242795PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7688129PMC
January 2021

The Association Between Anemia and Skin Autofluorescence, a Marker for Advanced Glycation End Product Accumulation.

Hemasphere 2020 Dec 26;4(6):e470. Epub 2020 Oct 26.

Department of Hematology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/HS9.0000000000000470DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7593064PMC
December 2020

Endocrine disrupting chemicals during diet-induced weight loss - A post-hoc analysis of the LOWER study.

Environ Res 2021 01 10;192:110262. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands; Genomics Coordination Center, Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

The link between exposure to endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) and the rapid increase in prevalence of obesity has recently been suggested. However, the magnitude and health impact of EDC exposure in at-risk populations remain largely unclear. In this study, we investigated the effect of a dietary intervention driven reduction in adipose tissue on the magnitude of urinary EDC exposure and mobilization, and whether higher EDC exposure leads to impaired weight loss in obese individuals. In this post-hoc analysis of the Lifestyle, OverWeight, Energy Restriction (LOWER) study from the Netherlands, 218 subjects were included. Five parabens, three bisphenols and thirteen metabolites of eight phthalates were measured in 24-h urine using LC-MS/MS, before and after three-months of a calory-restricted weight reduction intervention program. Associations between adiposity-related traits and EDCs were tested using multivariable linear regression and linear mixed effects models. A multiple testing correction based on the false discovery rate (FDR) was applied. After the 3-month intervention, urinary paraben and bisphenol excretions remained similar. Excretions of mono-butyl phthalates and most high-molecular-weight phthalates decreased, whereas mono-ethyl phthalate increased (all FDR<0.05). A reduction in adipose tissue was not associated with higher urinary EDC excretions. Higher baseline EDC excretions were associated with higher post-intervention body-mass index (methyl-, propylparaben), waist circumference (propylparaben, mono-n-butyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate), and body fat percentage (mono-ethyl phthalate, mono-benzyl phthalate). Associations between parabens and body-mass index, and mono-benzyl phthalate and waist circumference and body fat percentage remained after multiple testing correction (all FDR<0.05). In a study of obese participants, we observed a reduction in most phthalates after a weight reduction intervention. A reduction in adipose tissue may not lead to mobilization and successively to higher urinary EDC excretions. Higher baseline paraben and phthalate exposures were associated with reduced weight loss, suggesting obesogenic properties.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envres.2020.110262DOI Listing
January 2021

Relationship between serum B12 concentrations and mortality: experience in NHANES.

BMC Med 2020 10 9;18(1):307. Epub 2020 Oct 9.

Department of Internal Medicine, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: There is conflicting evidence in the literature on the association between (elevated) serum B12 concentrations and subsequent disease or mortality. We evaluated in the NHANES general population the association of serum B12 concentrations as well as vitamin B12 supplement intake with all-cause, cardiovascular, and cancer-related mortality, while taking into account demographic and lifestyle factors and significant other diseases which are known to be associated with poorer outcome.

Methods: The main outcomes of our study were all-cause mortality, cardiovascular mortality, and cancer-related mortality. Mortality status and cause of death were determined by NHANES-linked National Death Index public access files through December 31, 2015. The association of serum B12 concentrations and vitamin B12 supplement intake with mortality was assessed with Cox proportional hazard (PH) models, with adjustment for a number of relevant demographic and lifestyle factors and comorbidity.

Results: The final study population of 24,262 participants had a mean age of 48 (SD 19) years; 50.1% were males. The median follow-up duration was 109 months (range 1-201 months). On the census day of December 31, 2015, 3023 participants were determined as deceased (12.5%). The fully adjusted Cox PH model indicated that low serum B12 concentrations < 140 pmol/l were associated with a small increase in all-cause (hazard ratio, HR 1.39, 95% CI 1.08-1.78, p = 0.011) and cardiovascular (HR 1.64, 95% CI 1.08-2.47, p = 0.020) mortality. Similarly, high serum B12 concentrations > 700 pmol/l were associated with an increase in cardiovascular mortality only (HR 1.45, 95% CI 1.01-2.06, p = 0.042). Participants with a diagnosis of hypertension, dyslipidemia, CVD, and cancer more frequently used vitamin B12-containing supplements than those without these diagnoses. We could not demonstrate an association between vitamin B12 supplement intake and mortality, when adjusted for comorbidity.

Conclusions: In the general population of NHANES, low serum B12 concentrations were associated with a moderate increase in all-cause mortality. There was a small but significant increase in cardiovascular mortality in the groups with low or high serum B12. High intake of vitamin B12 in the form of supplements was not associated with any adverse effect on mortality and therefore can be regarded as safe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12916-020-01771-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7545540PMC
October 2020

Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors, pharmacological treatment and risk factor control in type 2 diabetes: findings from the Dutch Diabetes Pearl cohort.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 10;8(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, School for Cardiovascular Diseases CARIM, Maastricht University Medical Centre+, Maastricht, The Netherlands.

Introduction: Sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factors and their management in type 2 diabetes (T2D) have not been fully identified. Therefore, we aimed to examine differences in cardiometabolic risk factor levels, pharmacological treatment and achievement of risk factor control between women and men with T2D.

Research Design And Methods: Cross-sectional data from the Dutch Diabetes Pearl cohort were used (n=6637, 40% women). Linear and Poisson regression analyses were used to examine sex differences in cardiometabolic risk factor levels, treatment, and control.

Results: Compared with men, women had a significantly higher body mass index (BMI) (mean difference 1.79 kg/m (95% CI 1.49 to 2.08)), while no differences were found in hemoglobin A (HbA) and systolic blood pressure (SBP). Women had lower diastolic blood pressure (-1.94 mm Hg (95% CI -2.44 to -1.43)), higher total cholesterol (TC) (0.44 mmol/L (95% CI 0.38 to 0.51)), low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-c) (0.26 mmol/L (95% CI 0.22 to 0.31)), and high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-c) sex-standardized (0.02 mmol/L (95% CI 0.00 to 0.04)), and lower TC:HDL ratio (-0.29 (95% CI -0.36 to -0.23)) and triglycerides (geometric mean ratio 0.91 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.98)). Women had a 16% higher probability of being treated with antihypertensive medication in the presence of high cardiovascular disease (CVD) risk and elevated SBP than men (relative risk 0.84 (95% CI 0.73 to 0.98)), whereas no sex differences were found for glucose-lowering medication and lipid-modifying medication. Among those treated, women were less likely to achieve treatment targets of HbA (0.92 (95% CI 0.87 to 0.98)) and LDL-c (0.89 (95% CI 0.85 to 0.92)) than men, while no differences for SBP were found.

Conclusions: In this Dutch T2D population, women had a slightly different cardiometabolic risk profile compared with men and a substantially higher BMI. Women had a higher probability of being treated with antihypertensive medication in the presence of high CVD risk and elevated SBP than men, and were less likely than men to achieve treatment targets for HbA and LDL levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2020-001365DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7539590PMC
October 2020

An epigenome-wide association study identifies multiple DNA methylation markers of exposure to endocrine disruptors.

Environ Int 2020 11 9;144:106016. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

Department of Epidemiology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, the Netherlands; Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, the Netherlands; Genomics Coordination Centre, Department of Genetics, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, 9713 GZ Groningen, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background: Exposure to environmental endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) may play an important role in the epidemic of metabolic diseases. Epigenetic alterations may functionally link EDCs with gene expression and metabolic traits.

Objectives: We aimed to evaluate metabolic-related effects of the exposure to endocrine disruptors including five parabens, three bisphenols, and 13 metabolites of nine phthalates as measured in 24-hour urine on epigenome-wide DNA methylation.

Methods: A blood-based epigenome-wide association study was performed in 622 participants from the Lifelines DEEP cohort using Illumina Infinium HumanMethylation450 methylation data and EDC excretions in 24-hour urine. Out of the 21 EDCs, 13 compounds were detected in >75% of the samples and, together with bisphenol F, were included in these analyses. Furthermore, we explored the putative function of identified methylation markers and their correlations with metabolic traits.

Results: We found 20 differentially methylated cytosine-phosphate-guanines (CpGs) associated with 10 EDCs at suggestive p-value < 1 × 10, of which four, associated with MEHP and MEHHP, were genome-wide significant (Bonferroni-corrected p-value < 1.19 × 10). Nine out of 20 CpGs were significantly associated with at least one of the tested metabolic traits, such as fasting glucose, glycated hemoglobin, blood lipids, and/or blood pressure. 18 out of 20 EDC-associated CpGs were annotated to genes functionally related to metabolic syndrome, hypertension, obesity, type 2 diabetes, insulin resistance and glycemic traits.

Conclusions: The identified DNA methylation markers for exposure to the most common EDCs provide suggestive mechanism underlying the contributions of EDCs to metabolic health. Follow-up studies are needed to unravel the causality of EDC-induced methylation changes in metabolic alterations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envint.2020.106016DOI Listing
November 2020

Genotypic diversity and phenotypic spectrum of infantile liver failure syndrome type 1 due to variants in LARS1.

Genet Med 2020 11 23;22(11):1863-1873. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Division of Neuropediatrics and Pediatric Metabolic Medicine, Center for Pediatric and Adolescent Medicine, University Hospital Heidelberg, Heidelberg, Germany.

Purpose: Biallelic variants in LARS1, coding for the cytosolic leucyl-tRNA synthetase, cause infantile liver failure syndrome 1 (ILFS1). Since its description in 2012, there has been no systematic analysis of the clinical spectrum and genetic findings.

Methods: Individuals with biallelic variants in LARS1 were included through an international, multicenter collaboration including novel and previously published patients. Clinical variables were analyzed and functional studies were performed in patient-derived fibroblasts.

Results: Twenty-five individuals from 15 families were ascertained including 12 novel patients with eight previously unreported variants. The most prominent clinical findings are recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure and encephalopathic episodes, both triggered by febrile illness. Magnetic resonance image (MRI) changes during an encephalopathic episode can be consistent with metabolic stroke. Furthermore, growth retardation, microcytic anemia, neurodevelopmental delay, muscular hypotonia, and infection-related seizures are prevalent. Aminoacylation activity is significantly decreased in all patient cells studied upon temperature elevation in vitro.

Conclusion: ILFS1 is characterized by recurrent elevation of liver transaminases up to liver failure in conjunction with abnormalities of growth, blood, nervous system, and musculature. Encephalopathic episodes with seizures can occur independently from liver crises and may present with metabolic stroke.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41436-020-0904-4DOI Listing
November 2020

Identification, Heritability, and Relation With Gene Expression of Novel DNA Methylation Loci for Blood Pressure.

Hypertension 2020 07 10;76(1):195-205. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

Department of Endocrinology (B.H.R.W., J.V.v.V.-O.), University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted an epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis on blood pressure (BP) in 4820 individuals of European and African ancestry aged 14 to 69. Genome-wide DNA methylation data from peripheral leukocytes were obtained using the Infinium Human Methylation 450k BeadChip. The epigenome-wide association study meta-analysis identified 39 BP-related CpG sites with <1×10. In silico replication in the CHARGE consortium of 17 010 individuals validated 16 of these CpG sites. Out of the 16 CpG sites, 13 showed novel association with BP. Conversely, out of the 126 CpG sites identified as being associated (<1×10) with BP in the CHARGE consortium, 21 were replicated in the current study. Methylation levels of all the 34 CpG sites that were cross-validated by the current study and the CHARGE consortium were heritable and 6 showed association with gene expression. Furthermore, 9 CpG sites also showed association with BP with <0.05 and consistent direction of the effect in the meta-analysis of the Finnish Twin Cohort (199 twin pairs and 4 singletons; 61% monozygous) and the Netherlands Twin Register (266 twin pairs and 62 singletons; 84% monozygous). Bivariate quantitative genetic modeling of the twin data showed that a majority of the phenotypic correlations between methylation levels of these CpG sites and BP could be explained by shared unique environmental rather than genetic factors, with 100% of the correlations of systolic BP with cg19693031 () and cg00716257 () determined by environmental effects acting on both systolic BP and methylation levels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1161/HYPERTENSIONAHA.120.14973DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7295009PMC
July 2020

Exposure to Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals in the Dutch general population is associated with adiposity-related traits.

Sci Rep 2020 06 9;10(1):9311. Epub 2020 Jun 9.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Endocrine Disrupting Chemicals (EDCs) have been linked to a variety of cardiometabolic diseases. Yet, few studies have investigated the exposure to EDCs and cardiometabolic health taking lifestyle into account. We aimed to assess exposure to five parabens, three bisphenols and thirteen metabolites of in total eight phthalates in a general Dutch population and to investigate their association with cardiometabolic traits. In 662 adult subjects from the population-based Lifelines cohort, 21 EDC analytes were measured in 24-hour urine collected in 2012, using LC-MS/MS. Association analyses between cardiometabolic traits and EDC concentrations were performed using multivariate linear models adjusting for age, sex, education, smoking, diabetes, physical activity and caloric intake. Quartile analyses were performed to assess linearity. Bisphenol A, four parabens and eight phthalate metabolites were detected in 84-100% of the samples. Adjusted associations for MiBP and MBzP and adiposity-related traits were robust for multiple testing (Beta's, BMI: 1.12, 2.52; waist circumference: 0.64, 1.56, respectively; FDR < 0.009). Associations for triglyceride, HDL-cholesterol, glucose and blood pressure were not. Linearity was confirmed for significant associations. Exposure to EDCs in the Dutch population is ubiquitous. We found direct associations between phthalates and adiposity-related traits. Prospective studies are needed to confirm these findings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-66284-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7283255PMC
June 2020

Genomic analysis of diet composition finds novel loci and associations with health and lifestyle.

Mol Psychiatry 2021 Jun 11;26(6):2056-2069. Epub 2020 May 11.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, 9713 GZ, Groningen, The Netherlands.

We conducted genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of relative intake from the macronutrients fat, protein, carbohydrates, and sugar in over 235,000 individuals of European ancestries. We identified 21 unique, approximately independent lead SNPs. Fourteen lead SNPs are uniquely associated with one macronutrient at genome-wide significance (P < 5 × 10), while five of the 21 lead SNPs reach suggestive significance (P < 1 × 10) for at least one other macronutrient. While the phenotypes are genetically correlated, each phenotype carries a partially unique genetic architecture. Relative protein intake exhibits the strongest relationships with poor health, including positive genetic associations with obesity, type 2 diabetes, and heart disease (r ≈ 0.15-0.5). In contrast, relative carbohydrate and sugar intake have negative genetic correlations with waist circumference, waist-hip ratio, and neighborhood deprivation (|r| ≈ 0.1-0.3) and positive genetic correlations with physical activity (r ≈ 0.1 and 0.2). Relative fat intake has no consistent pattern of genetic correlations with poor health but has a negative genetic correlation with educational attainment (r ≈-0.1). Although our analyses do not allow us to draw causal conclusions, we find no evidence of negative health consequences associated with relative carbohydrate, sugar, or fat intake. However, our results are consistent with the hypothesis that relative protein intake plays a role in the etiology of metabolic dysfunction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41380-020-0697-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7767645PMC
June 2021

Impact of a Forced Dose-Equivalent Levothyroxine Brand Switch on Plasma Thyrotropin: A Cohort Study.

Thyroid 2020 06 4;30(6):821-828. Epub 2020 May 4.

Department of Endocrinology and Metabolism, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Patients with primary hypothyroidism are treated with levothyroxine (LT4) to normalize their serum thyrotropin (TSH). Finding the optimal dosage is a long-lasting process, and a small change can have major impact. Currently, limited data are available on the impact of dose-equivalent substitution between brands. This study aimed to determine the effect of the shortage of the LT4 brand Thyrax in the Netherlands and the resulting dose-equivalent switch to another brand on plasma TSH concentrations in a large cohort of patients. Observational cohort study. Two registries representative for the Dutch population containing prescription and laboratory test data: the Nivel Primary Care Database and the PHARMO Database Network. Patients using at least 25 μg Thyrax daily for one year or longer were included. Two cohorts were formed: a switch cohort consisting of patients who switched from Thyrax to an alternative brand, and a Thyrax cohort including patients who continued to use Thyrax. Patients in the switch cohort did switch from Thyrax to a different brand of LT4 in 2016 and had two consecutive TSH measurements on the same dose of LT4, one before and one 6 weeks after the switch. Patients in the Thyrax cohort had two consecutive TSH measurements on the same dose of Thyrax that were 6 weeks apart. In the Thyrax cohort, 19% of euthyroid patients using ≤100 μg had a TSH level outside the reference range at the subsequent measurement compared with 24% in the switch cohort ( < 0.0001). For patients using >100 μg Thyrax, these figures were 24% and 63%, respectively ( < 0.0001). Furthermore, patients using >50 μg Thyrax were four to five times more likely to become hyperthyroid after a dose-equivalent switch to a different brand compared with patients who stayed on Thyrax. In euthyroid patients continuing the LT4 product Thyrax at the same dose, TSH was out of range in 19-24% at least 6 weeks later. A dose-equivalent switch from Thyrax to other LT4 brands induced biochemical signs of overdosing in an even larger proportion (24-63%) of patients. The results indicate that a dose-equivalent LT4 brand switch may necessitate a dose adjustment in a large number of patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/thy.2019.0414DOI Listing
June 2020

High prevalence of impaired awareness of hypoglycemia and severe hypoglycemia among people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes: The Dutch Diabetes Pearl Cohort.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2020 02;8(1)

Department of Internal Medicine, Radboud University Medical Center, Nijmegen, The Netherlands.

Objective: People with type 2 diabetes on insulin are at risk for hypoglycemia. Recurrent hypoglycemia can cause impaired awareness of hypoglycemia (IAH), and increase the risk for severe hypoglycemia. The aim of this study was to assess the prevalence and determinants of self-reported IAH and severe hypoglycemia in a Dutch nationwide cohort of people with insulin-treated type 2 diabetes.

Research Design And Methods: Observational study of The Dutch Diabetes Pearl, a cohort of people with type 2 diabetes treated in primary, secondary and tertiary diabetes care centers. The presence of IAH and the occurrence of severe hypoglycemia in the past year, defined as an event requiring external help to recover, were assessed using the validated Dutch version of the Clarke questionnaire. In addition, clinical variables were collected including age, diabetes duration, hemoglobin A1c, ethnicity and education.

Results: 2350 people with type 2 diabetes on insulin were included: 59.1% men, mean age 61.1±10.4 years, mean diabetes duration 14.8±9.2 years and 79.5% on basal-bolus therapy. A total of 229 patients (9.7%) were classified as having IAH and 742 patients (31.6%) reported severe hypoglycemia. Increased odds for IAH were found with complex insulin regimens and lower odds with having a partner and body mass index ≥30 kg/m. Severe hypoglycemia was associated with complex insulin regimens, non-Caucasian ethnicity and use of psychoactive drugs, and inversely with metformin use.

Conclusions: In this nationwide cohort, almost one out of ten people with type 2 diabetes on insulin had IAH and >30% had a history of severe hypoglycemia in the past year.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000935DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7206921PMC
February 2020

The effects of bariatric surgery on clinical profile, DNA methylation, and ageing in severely obese patients.

Clin Epigenetics 2020 01 20;12(1):14. Epub 2020 Jan 20.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Background: Severe obesity is a growing, worldwide burden and conventional therapies including radical change of diet and/or increased physical activity have limited results. Bariatric surgery has been proposed as an alternative therapy showing promising results. It leads to substantial weight loss and improvement of comorbidities such as type 2 diabetes. Increased adiposity is associated with changes in epigenetic profile, including DNA methylation. We investigated the effect of bariatric surgery on clinical profile, DNA methylation, and biological age estimated using Horvath's epigenetic clock.

Results: To determine the impact of bariatric surgery and subsequent weight loss on clinical traits, a cohort of 40 severely obese individuals (BMI = 30-73 kg/m) was examined at the time of surgery and at three follow-up visits, i.e., 3, 6, and 12 months after surgery. The majority of the individuals were women (65%) and the mean age at surgery was 45.1 ± 8.1 years. We observed a significant decrease over time in BMI, fasting glucose, HbA1c, HOMA-IR, insulin, total cholesterol, triglycerides, LDL and free fatty acids levels, and a significant small increase in HDL levels (all p values < 0.05). Epigenome-wide association analysis revealed 4857 differentially methylated CpG sites 12 months after surgery (at Bonferroni-corrected p value < 1.09 × 10). Including BMI change in the model decreased the number of significantly differentially methylated CpG sites by 51%. Gene set enrichment analysis identified overrepresentation of multiple processes including regulation of transcription, RNA metabolic, and biosynthetic processes in the cell. Bariatric surgery in severely obese patients resulted in a decrease in both biological age and epigenetic age acceleration (EAA) (mean = - 0.92, p value = 0.039).

Conclusions: Our study shows that bariatric surgery leads to substantial BMI decrease and improvement of clinical outcomes observed 12 months after surgery. These changes explained part of the association between bariatric surgery and DNA methylation. We also observed a small, but significant improvement of biological age. These epigenetic changes may be modifiable by environmental lifestyle factors and could be used as potential biomarkers for obesity and in the future for obesity related comorbidities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13148-019-0790-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6972025PMC
January 2020

Once-weekly semaglutide for patients with type 2 diabetes: a cost-effectiveness analysis in the Netherlands.

BMJ Open Diabetes Res Care 2019 1;7(1):e000705. Epub 2019 Oct 1.

University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Objective: Choosing therapies for type 2 diabetes that are both effective and cost-effective is vital as healthcare systems worldwide aim to maximize health of the population. The present analysis assessed the cost-effectiveness of once-weekly semaglutide (a novel glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) receptor agonist) versus insulin glargine U100 (the most commonly used basal insulin) and versus dulaglutide (an alternative once-weekly GLP-1 receptor agonist), from a societal perspective in the Netherlands.

Research Design And Methods: The IQVIA CORE Diabetes Model was used to project outcomes for once-weekly semaglutide 0.5 mg and 1 mg versus insulin glargine U100, once-weekly semaglutide 0.5 mg versus dulaglutide 0.75 mg, and once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg versus dulaglutide 1.5 mg. Clinical data were taken from the SUSTAIN 4 and SUSTAIN 7 clinical trials. The analysis captured direct and indirect costs, mortality, and the impact of diabetes-related complications on quality of life.

Results: Projections of outcomes suggested that once-weekly semaglutide 0.5 mg was associated with improved quality-adjusted life expectancy by 0.19 quality-adjusted life years (QALYs) versus insulin glargine U100 and 0.07 QALYs versus dulaglutide 0.75 mg. Once-weekly semaglutide 1 mg was associated with mean increases in quality-adjusted life expectancy of 0.27 QALYs versus insulin glargine U100 and 0.13 QALYs versus dulaglutide 1.5 mg. Improvements came at an increased cost versus insulin glargine U100, with incremental cost-effectiveness ratios from a societal perspective of €4988 and €495 per QALY gained for once-weekly semaglutide 0.5 mg and 1 mg, respectively, falling below Netherlands-specific willingness-to-pay thresholds. Improvements versus dulaglutide came at a reduced cost from a societal perspective for both doses of once-weekly semaglutide.

Conclusions: Once-weekly semaglutide is cost-effective versus insulin glargine U100, and dominant versus dulaglutide 0.75 and 1.5 mg for the treatment of type 2 diabetes, and represents a good use of healthcare resources in the Netherlands.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/bmjdrc-2019-000705DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6777406PMC
April 2020

Biomarkers of Micronutrients in Regular Follow-Up for Tyrosinemia Type 1 and Phenylketonuria Patients.

Nutrients 2019 Aug 27;11(9). Epub 2019 Aug 27.

Division of Metabolic Diseases, Groningen, Beatrix Children's Hospital, University Medical Center Groningen, University of Groningen, 9700 RB Groningen, The Netherlands.

Phenylketonuria (PKU) is treated with dietary restrictions and sometimes tetrahydrobiopterin (BH4). PKU patients are at risk for developing micronutrient deficiencies, such as vitamin B12 and folic acid, likely due to their diet. Tyrosinemia type 1 (TT1) is similar to PKU in both pathogenesis and treatment. TT1 patients follow a similar diet, but nutritional deficiencies have not been investigated yet. In this retrospective study, biomarkers of micronutrients in TT1 and PKU patients were investigated and outcomes were correlated to dietary intake and anthropometric measurements from regular follow-up measurements from patients attending the outpatient clinic. Data was analyzed using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's exact and Spearman correlation tests. Furthermore, descriptive data were used. Overall, similar results for TT1 and PKU patients (with and without BH4) were observed. In all groups high vitamin B12 concentrations were seen rather than B12 deficiencies. Furthermore, all groups showed biochemical evidence of vitamin D deficiency. This study shows that micronutrients in TT1 and PKU patients are similar and often within the normal ranges and that vitamin D concentrations could be optimized.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/nu11092011DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6769775PMC
August 2019

Prevalence of hypoglycaemia in a random population after Roux-en-Y gastric bypass after a meal test.

Endocr Connect 2019 Jul;8(7):969-978

Centre for Obesity Northern-Netherlands (CON), Medical Centre Leeuwarden, Leeuwarden, The Netherlands.

Objective: Roux-en-Y gastric bypass (RYGB) is an effective way to induce sustainable weight loss and can be complicated by postprandial hyperinsulinaemic hypoglycaemia (PHH). To study the prevalence and the mechanisms behind the occurrence of hypoglycaemia after a mixed meal tolerance test (MMTT) in patients with primary RYGB.

Design: This is a cross-sectional study of patients 4 years after primary RYGB.

Methods: From a total population of 550 patients, a random sample of 44 patients completed the total test procedures. A standardized mixed meal was used as stimulus. Venous blood samples were collected at baseline, every 10 min during the first half hour and every 30 min until 210 min after the start. Symptoms were assessed by questionnaires. Hypoglycaemia is defined as a blood glucose level below 3.3 mmol/L.

Results: The prevalence of postprandial hypoglycaemia was 48% and was asymptomatic in all patients. Development of hypoglycaemia was more frequent in patients with lower weight at surgery (P = 0.045), with higher weight loss after surgery (P = 0.011), and with higher insulin sensitivity calculated by the homeostasis model assessment indexes (HOMA2-IR, P = 0.014) and enhanced beta cell function (insulinogenic index at 20 min, P = 0.001).

Conclusion: In a randomly selected population 4 years after primary RYGB surgery, 48% of patients developed a hypoglycaemic event during an MMTT without symptoms, suggesting the presence of hypoglycaemia unawareness in these patients. The findings in this study suggest that the pathophysiology of PHH is multifactorial.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/EC-19-0268DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6612232PMC
July 2019

The Many Faces of Cobalamin (Vitamin B) Deficiency.

Mayo Clin Proc Innov Qual Outcomes 2019 Jun 27;3(2):200-214. Epub 2019 May 27.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, NL-9700 RB, The Netherlands.

Although cobalamin (vitamin B) deficiency was described over a century ago, it is still difficult to establish the correct diagnosis and prescribe the right treatment. Symptoms related to vitamin B deficiency may be diverse and vary from neurologic to psychiatric. A number of individuals with vitamin B deficiency may present with the classic megaloblastic anemia. In clinical practice, many cases of vitamin B deficiency are overlooked or sometimes even misdiagnosed. In this review, we describe the heterogeneous disease spectrum of patients with vitamin B deficiency in whom the diagnosis was either based on low serum B levels, elevated biomarkers like methylmalonic acid and/or homocysteine, or the improvement of clinical symptoms after the institution of parenteral vitamin B therapy. We discuss the possible clinical signs and symptoms of patients with B deficiency and the various pitfalls of diagnosis and treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mayocpiqo.2019.03.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6543499PMC
June 2019

Development and Interlaboratory Validation of Two Fast UPLC-MS-MS Methods Determining Urinary Bisphenols, Parabens and Phthalates.

J Anal Toxicol 2019 Jul;43(6):452-464

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, the Netherlands.

People are constantly exposed to a wide variety of chemicals. Some of these compounds, such as parabens, bisphenols and phthalates, are known to have endocrine disrupting potencies. Over the years, these endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) have been a rising cause for concern. In this study, we describe setup and validation of two methods to measure EDCs in human urine, using ultra-performance liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The phenol method determines methyl-, ethyl-, propyl-, n-butyl- and benzylparaben and bisphenol A, F and S. The phthalate method determines in total 13 metabolites of dimethyl, diethyl, diisobutyl, di-n-butyl, di(2-ethylhexyl), butylbenzyl, diiso-nonyl and diisodecyl phthalate. Runtime was 7 and 8 min per sample for phenols and phthalates, respectively. The methods were validated by the National Institute of Standards & Technology (NIST) for 13 compounds. In addition, EDCs were measured in forty 24-h urine samples, of which 12 EDCs were compared with the same samples measured in an established facility (Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark). The intra-assay coefficient of variability (CV) was highest at 10% and inter-assay CV was highest at 12%. Recoveries ranged from 86 to 115%. The limit of detection ranged from 0.06 to 0.43 ng/mL. Of 21 compounds, 10 were detected above limit of detection in ≥93% of the samples. Eight compounds were in accordance to NIST reference concentrations. Differences in intercept were found for two compounds whereas slope differed for six compounds between our method and that used in the Danish facility. In conclusion, we set up and validated two high-throughput methods with very short runtime capable of measuring 5 parabens, 3 bisphenols and 13 different metabolites of 8 phthalates. Sensitivity of the phenol method was increased by using ammonium fluoride in the mobile phase.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jat/bkz027DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6655542PMC
July 2019

Eye movement disorders and neurological symptoms in late-onset inborn errors of metabolism.

Mov Disord 2018 12 28;33(12):1844-1856. Epub 2018 Nov 28.

University of Groningen, Division of Metabolic Diseases, University Medical Center Groningen, Groningen, The Netherlands.

Inborn errors of metabolism in adults are still largely unexplored. Despite the fact that adult-onset phenotypes have been known for many years, little attention is given to these disorders in neurological practice. The adult-onset presentation differs from childhood-onset phenotypes, often leading to considerable diagnostic delay. The identification of these patients at the earliest stage of disease is important, given that early treatment may prevent or lessen further brain damage. Neurological and psychiatric symptoms occur more frequently in adult forms. Abnormalities of eye movements are also common and can be the presenting sign. Eye movement disorders can be classified as central or peripheral. Central forms are frequently observed in lysosomal storage disorders, whereas peripheral forms are a key feature of mitochondrial disease. Furthermore, oculogyric crisis is an important feature in disorders affecting dopamine syntheses or transport. Ocular motor disorders are often not reported by the patient, and abnormalities can be easily overlooked in a general examination. In adults with unexplained psychiatric and neurological symptoms, a special focus on examination of eye movements can serve as a relatively simple clinical tool to detect a metabolic disorder. Eye movements can be easily quantified and analyzed with video-oculography, making them a valuable biomarker for following the natural course of disease or the response to therapies. Here, we review, for the first time, eye movement disorders that can occur in inborn errors of metabolism, with a focus on late-onset forms. We provide a step-by-step overview that will help clinicians to examine and interpret eye movement disorders. © 2018 The Authors. Movement Disorders published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc. on behalf of International Parkinson and Movement Disorder Society.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mds.27484DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6587951PMC
December 2018

Skin autofluorescence predicts incident type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease and mortality in the general population.

Diabetologia 2019 02 21;62(2):269-280. Epub 2018 Nov 21.

Department of Endocrinology, University of Groningen, University Medical Center Groningen, Hanzeplein 1, P.O. Box 30001, HPC AA31 9700 RB, Groningen, the Netherlands.

Aims/hypothesis: Earlier studies have shown that skin autofluorescence measured with an AGE reader estimates the accumulation of AGEs in the skin, which increases with ageing and is associated with the metabolic syndrome and type 2 diabetes. In the present study, we examined whether the measurement of skin autofluorescence can predict 4 year risk of incident type 2 diabetes, cardiovascular disease (CVD) and mortality in the general population.

Methods: For this prospective analysis, we included 72,880 participants of the Dutch Lifelines Cohort Study, who underwent baseline investigations between 2007 and 2013, had validated baseline skin autofluorescence values available and were not known to have diabetes or CVD. Individuals were diagnosed with incident type 2 diabetes by self-report or by a fasting blood glucose ≥7.0 mmol/l or HbA ≥48 mmol/mol (≥6.5%) at follow-up. Participants were diagnosed as having incident CVD (myocardial infarction, coronary interventions, cerebrovascular accident, transient ischaemic attack, intermittent claudication or vascular surgery) by self-report. Mortality was ascertained using the Municipal Personal Records Database.

Results: After a median follow-up of 4 years (range 0.5-10 years), 1056 participants (1.4%) had developed type 2 diabetes, 1258 individuals (1.7%) were diagnosed with CVD, while 928 (1.3%) had died. Baseline skin autofluorescence was elevated in participants with incident type 2 diabetes and/or CVD and in those who had died (all p < 0.001), compared with individuals who survived and remained free of the two diseases. Skin autofluorescence predicted the development of type 2 diabetes, CVD and mortality, independent of several traditional risk factors, such as the metabolic syndrome, glucose and HbA.

Conclusions/interpretation: The non-invasive skin autofluorescence measurement is of clinical value for screening for future risk of type 2 diabetes, CVD and mortality, independent of glycaemic measures and the metabolic syndrome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00125-018-4769-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6323092PMC
February 2019
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