Publications by authors named "Bruce Belanger"

16 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

First-line liposomal irinotecan with oxaliplatin, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (NALIRIFOX) in pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma: A phase I/II study.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 4;151:14-24. Epub 2021 May 4.

St John of God Subiaco Hospital, Subiaco, WA, Australia.

Background: This open-label, phase I/II study evaluated safety and efficacy for first-line liposomal irinotecan + oxaliplatin + 5-fluorouracil + leucovorin (NALIRIFOX).

Methods: Patients (aged ≥18 years) had locally advanced/metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC), with an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group performance status score of 0/1 and adequate organ function. Primary objectives were to determine the maximum tolerated dose (MTD) and to evaluate safety and tolerability. Treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs) were graded using National Cancer Institute Common Terminology Criteria for Adverse Events v4.03. Efficacy end-points included progression-free survival (PFS) and overall survival (OS); disease assessments used Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors 1.1.

Results: The MTD (liposomal irinotecan 50 mg/m [free-base equivalent], oxaliplatin 60 mg/m, 5-fluorouracil 2400 mg/m, leucovorin 400 mg/m every 2 weeks) was based on dose-limiting toxicities and cumulative safety data in four dose-exploration cohorts. The MTD was received by 32 of 56 patients, seven during dose exploration and 25 during dose expansion (median age 58.0 years [range, 39-76], 28 [87.5%] with metastatic disease at diagnosis [29 at study entry], and one receiving study treatment at data cutoff [26 February 2020]). Of these patients, 22 of 32 had grade ≥3 treatment-related TEAEs, most commonly neutropenia (31.3%), febrile neutropenia (12.5%) and hypokalaemia (12.5%); ten had serious treatment-related TEAEs; and three died from TEAEs considered unrelated to treatment. Median PFS and OS were 9.2 (95% CI: 7.69-11.96) and 12.6 (8.74-18.69) months, respectively.

Conclusion: First-line NALIRIFOX for patients with locally advanced/mPDAC was generally manageable and tolerable. A randomised, controlled phase III study is underway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.03.028DOI Listing
July 2021

Early dose reduction/delay and the efficacy of liposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and leucovorin in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC): A post hoc analysis of NAPOLI-1.

Pancreatology 2021 Jan 10;21(1):192-199. Epub 2020 Oct 10.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), Heidelberg, Germany, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital of Essen, Essen, Germany.

Background: Chemotherapy dose modification to manage adverse events is commonplace in clinical practice. This exploratory analysis evaluates the impact of liposomal irinotecan dose modification on overall survival (OS) and progression-free survival (PFS) in the NAPOLI-1 clinical trial (NCT01494506).

Methods: Analysis includes only patients enrolled under protocol version 2 who received at least the first 2 scheduled doses of study drug. Within the liposomal irinotecan +5 fluorouracil/leucovorin (5 FU/LV) arm, patients were grouped according to whether or not they had a dose modification within the first 6 weeks. Dose reduction was defined as any decrease from initial dose; dose delay was any dosing delay >3 days from target date. OS and PFS (Kaplan-Meier estimates) were compared within the liposomal irinotecan+5-FU/LV arm and between treatment arms. Unstratified hazard ratios (HRs) were calculated using Cox regression analysis.

Results: Of the 93 patients from the liposomal irinotecan+5 FU/LV arm included in the analysis, 53 experienced a dose modification (both delay and reduction, n = 30; delay only, n = 19; reduction only, n = 4). No apparent difference in median OS or PFS was observed between patients who did versus patients who did not have a dose modification (OS: 8.4 vs 6.7 months; HR, 0.89; PFS: 4.2 vs 3.1 months; HR, 0.74).

Conclusion: An early dose reduction or delay of liposomal irinotecan+5-FU/LV in the first 6 weeks does not significantly impact OS or PFS compared to patients without dose modifications. This finding suggests that tolerability-guided dose modification of liposomal irinotecan does not adversely affect efficacy outcomes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.pan.2020.10.029DOI Listing
January 2021

Phase I study of liposomal irinotecan in patients with metastatic breast cancer: findings from the expansion phase.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2021 Feb 17;185(3):759-771. Epub 2020 Nov 17.

Duke Cancer Institute, Durham, NC, USA.

Purpose: Metastatic breast cancer (mBC) remains incurable and is associated with low survival rates. This study assessed the efficacy and safety of liposomal irinotecan in heavily pretreated patients with mBC, with or without active brain metastases (BM).

Methods: Following the dose escalation phase and determination of recommended phase 2 dose, the expansion phase of this phase I, open-label, non-randomized study, assigned adult women to cohorts based on mBC subtype: cohort 1, hormone receptor +/human epidermal growth factor receptor 2-; cohort 2, triple-negative breast cancer; or cohort 3, any mBC subtype with active BM. Patients received liposomal irinotecan 50 or 70 mg/m free base every 2 weeks. Here, we report secondary outcomes including best overall response (BOR), objective response rate (ORR), and treatment-emergent adverse events (TEAEs).

Results: For non-central nervous system (non-CNS) disease across all cohorts (intent-to-treat population, N = 29), the ORR was 34.5% (95% confidence interval: 17.94-54.33), with a BOR of partial response in 10 patients (34.5%), stable disease in five (17.2%), progressive disease in 10 (34.5%); four patients were unevaluable (13.8%). The ORR for the CNS cohort was 30.0% (95% confidence interval: 6.67-65.25) using modified Response Evaluation Criteria in Solid Tumors. Common grade 3 or higher TEAEs were diarrhea (27.6%), nausea (17.2%), fatigue (13.8%), asthenia (10.3%), and hypokalemia (10.3%). Serious treatment-related TEAEs were reported in six patients (20.7%). No treatment-related TEAEs resulted in death.

Conclusions: Liposomal irinotecan monotherapy demonstrated antitumor activity in heavily pretreated patients with mBC, with or without BM. The observed safety profile was consistent with that in previous studies.

Clinical Trial Registration: Trial registration ID NCT01770353.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-020-05995-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7921078PMC
February 2021

Real-world outcomes associated with liposomal irinotecan dose reductions in metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Future Oncol 2021 Feb 19;17(6):675-688. Epub 2020 Oct 19.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH 43210, USA.

This study sought to understand the association between liposomal irinotecan dose reductions (DRs) and clinical outcomes among patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma. A retrospective study of adult patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma treated with liposomal irinotecan in the Flatiron Health database was conducted to assess treatment and clinical outcomes. DRs occurred in 28.4% of the 320 patients in the study. Patients with DRs had longer overall survival (7.7 [95% CI: 6.2-10.2]) vs 3.6 [3.2-4.1] months) and time to discontinuation (4.2 [3.0-4.9] vs 1.4 [1.0-1.5] months) than patients without DRs. Results were consistent in a validation analysis requiring three cycles of treatment. Liposomal irinotecan DRs were associated with improved clinical outcomes compared with patients without DRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/fon-2020-0902DOI Listing
February 2021

Liposomal Irinotecan + 5-FU/LV in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: Subgroup Analyses of Patient, Tumor, and Previous Treatment Characteristics in the Pivotal NAPOLI-1 Trial.

Pancreas 2020 01;49(1):62-75

Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO.

Objectives: The NAnoliPOsomaL Irinotecan (NAPOLI-1) study (NCT01494506) was the largest global phase 3 study in a post-gemcitabine metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma (mPAC) population (N = 417). The subanalyses reported here investigated the prognostic effect of tumor characteristics and disease stage, prior treatment characteristics, baseline patient characteristics on survival outcomes in NAPOLI-1, and whether liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) + 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) benefited patients with mPAC across subgroups.

Methods: Post hoc analyses were performed in the NAPOLI-1 population (4 across tumor characteristics and disease stage, 6 across prior treatment characteristics, and 4 across patient baseline characteristics). Survival outcomes were estimated by Kaplan-Meier analysis and patient safety data were evaluated.

Results: Mortality and morbidity risk was lower on nal-IRI+5-FU/LV treatment across subgroups. Exceptions were patients who had received prior nonliposomal irinotecan and those who had undergone prior Whipple procedure (overall survival hazard ratio = 1.25 and 1.23, respectively). Decreased appetite, liver metastases, and number of measurable metastatic lesions seemed to be prognostic of survival in this population. Subgroup safety data were generally comparable with those in the overall NAPOLI-1 safety population.

Conclusions: A diverse population of patients with mPAC that progressed on gemcitabine-based therapy benefited from nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV, potentially helping guide treatment decisions for challenging cases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MPA.0000000000001455DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6946097PMC
January 2020

Liposomal irinotecan in metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma in Asian patients: Subgroup analysis of the NAPOLI-1 study.

Cancer Sci 2020 Feb 20;111(2):513-527. Epub 2019 Dec 20.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes (NHRI), Tainan, Taiwan.

The global, randomized NAPOLI-1 phase 3 trial reported a survival benefit with liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (nal-IRI+5-FU/LV) in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) after previous gemcitabine-based therapy. Median overall survival (OS) with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV was 6.1 vs 4.2 months with 5-FU/LV alone (unstratified hazard ratio [HR] = 0.67, P = .012). Herein, we report efficacy and safety results from a post-hoc subgroup analysis of Asian patients treated at Asian centers. Primary study endpoint was OS; secondary endpoints included progression-free survival (PFS), objective response rate (ORR), and safety. Patients receiving nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 34) had significantly longer median OS versus 5-FU/LV (n = 35) (8.9 vs 3.7 months; unstratified HR = 0.51, P = .025). Patients had significantly increased median PFS with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (4.0 vs 1.4; unstratified HR = 0.48, P = .011), and increased ORR (8.8% vs 0; P = .114). nal-IRI monotherapy (n = 50) numerically improved efficacy endpoints versus 5-FU/LV (n = 48): median OS was 5.8 versus 4.3 months (HR = 0.83, P = .423) and median PFS was 2.8 versus 1.4 months (HR = 0.69, P = .155). Grade ≥3 neutropenia was reported more frequently with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV (54.5% vs 3.4%), and incidence of grade ≥3 diarrhea was comparable between the two arms (3.0% vs 6.9%). This subgroup analysis confirms nal-IRI+5-FU/LV as an efficacious treatment option that improves survival in Asian patients with mPDAC that progressed after gemcitabine-based therapy, with a safety profile agreeing with previous findings. The nal-IRI+5-FU/LV regimen should represent a new standard of care for these patients in Asia. (Clinicaltrials.gov: NCT01494506).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cas.14264DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7004519PMC
February 2020

Nomogram for Predicting Survival in Patients Treated with Liposomal Irinotecan Plus Fluorouracil and Leucovorin in Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer.

Cancers (Basel) 2019 Jul 28;11(8). Epub 2019 Jul 28.

German Cancer Consortium (DKTK) and German Cancer Research Center (DKFZ), 69120 Heidelberg, Germany.

NAPOLI-1 (NCT01494506) was a phase III study of liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil/leucovorin (5-FU/LV) in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. This post hoc analysis of NAPOLI-1 aimed to develop a predictive nomogram for overall survival (OS) at 6 and 12 months. Analyses were derived from all patients in NAPOLI-1 randomized to receive nal-IRI+5-FU/LV, nal-IRI monotherapy, or 5-FU/LV combination therapy. OS was associated with baseline factors using univariate and multivariable Cox analyses. A predictive nomogram was derived and validated using a concordance index and calibration plots. The univariate analyses identified 21 independent factors that contributed to OS, with eight factors significantly associated with OS. The Karnofsky Performance Score contributed the largest number of points (100), followed by presence of liver metastasis (98) and randomization to nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (96). The other baseline factors showing effects were albumin (g/dL), neutrophil/lymphocyte ratio, carbohydrate antigen 19-9 (U/mL), disease stage at diagnosis, and body mass index (kg/m). The nomogram was used to predict the 6- and 12-month survival probability. The mean absolute errors between the observed and predicted probabilities for OS at 3, 6, and 9 months were 0.07, 0.08, and 0.07, respectively. This nomogram, based on NAPOLI-1, provides additional insight to aid decision-making for patients with mPDAC after previous gemcitabine-based therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers11081068DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6721419PMC
July 2019

NAPOLI-1 phase 3 study of liposomal irinotecan in metastatic pancreatic cancer: Final overall survival analysis and characteristics of long-term survivors.

Eur J Cancer 2019 02 14;108:78-87. Epub 2019 Jan 14.

National Health Research Institutes - National Institute of Cancer Research, No. 367, Sheng-Li Road, Tainan, 70456, Taiwan.

Background: Liposomal irinotecan (nal-IRI) plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (5-FU/LV) is approved for patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (mPDAC) previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. This approval was based on significantly improved median overall survival compared with 5-FU/LV alone (6.1 vs 4.2 months; hazard ratio [HR], 0.67) in the global phase 3 NAPOLI-1 trial. Here, we report the final survival analysis and baseline characteristics associated with long-term survivors (survival of ≥1 year) in the NAPOLI-1 trial.

Patients And Methods: Patients with mPDAC were randomised to receive nal-IRI + 5-FU/LV (n = 117), nal-IRI (n = 151), or 5-FU/LV (n = 149) for the first 4 weeks of 6-week cycles. Baseline characteristics and efficacy in the overall population were compared with those in patients who survived ≥1 year. Through 16th November 2015, 382 overall survival events had occurred.

Results: The overall survival advantage for nal-IRI+5-FU/LV vs 5-FU/LV was maintained from the original nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy (NAPOLI-1) analysis (6.2 vs 4.2 months, respectively; HR, 0.75; 95% confidence interval: 0.57-0.99). Median progression-free survival, objective response rate and disease control rate also favoured nal-IRI+5-FU/LV therapy. Estimated one-year overall survival rates were 26% with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV and 16% with 5-FU/LV. Baseline characteristics associated with long-term survival in the nal-IRI+5-FU/LV arm were Karnofsky performance status ≥90, age ≤65 years, lower CA19-9 levels, neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio ≤5 and no liver metastases. No new safety concerns were detected.

Conclusions: The survival benefits of nal-IRI+5-FU/LV versus 5-FU/LV were maintained over an extended follow-up, and prognostic markers of survival ≥1 year were identified.

Clinical Trial Registration Number: NCT01494506.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.12.007DOI Listing
February 2019

Quality of life in metastatic pancreatic cancer patients receiving liposomal irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin.

Eur J Cancer 2019 01 17;106:24-33. Epub 2018 Nov 17.

Division of Solid Tumor Translational Oncology, West German Cancer Center, University Hospital Essen, Hufelandstrasse 55, 45147, Essen, Germany; German Cancer Consortium (DKTK, Partner Site Essen) and German Cancer Research Center, DKFZ, Im Neuenheimer Feld 280, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

Background: The NAPOLI-1 study (NCT01494506) reported that liposomal irinotecan plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (nal-IRI+5-FU/LV) improved overall survival vs 5-FU/LV with manageable toxicity in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy. Yet, clinicians need treatment strategies that also maintain the patient's health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Here, we report the HRQOL data.

Methods: Patients completed the European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer QOL core questionnaire C30 (EORTC QLQ-C30) at baseline, every 6 weeks, and at 30 days after discontinuation of study treatment. Patient-reported outcomes (PROs) were scored according to EORTC guidelines. nal-IRI+5-FU/LV HRQOL was compared with 5-FU/LV. The PRO population comprised intent-to-treat patients who completed baseline and at least one subsequent assessment on the EORTC QLQ-C30. Data were also analysed for missingness.

Results: Of 236 patients in the intent-to-treat population, 128 (54.2%) comprised the PRO population (71 in the nal-IRI+5-FU/LV arm; 57 the in 5-FU/LV arm). Of the remaining 108 patients (45.8%) not included in the PRO population, most progressed rapidly, making participation difficult. Median change from baseline was ≤10 points at weeks 6 and 12 in global health status or functional and symptom scale scores, except for fatigue, which deteriorated by 11.1 points with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV but did not change vs 5-FU/LV. The proportion of patients whose HRQOL improved or deteriorated was not significantly different between the arms.

Conclusion: In the NAPOLI-1 study, HRQOL was maintained with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV in patients with metastatic pancreatic adenocarcinoma previously treated with a gemcitabine-based regimen, while survival was significantly extended.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.09.029DOI Listing
January 2019

Survival with nal-IRI (liposomal irinotecan) plus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin versus 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin in per-protocol and non-per-protocol populations of NAPOLI-1: Expanded analysis of a global phase 3 trial.

Eur J Cancer 2018 12 8;105:71-78. Epub 2018 Nov 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, The Christie Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, 550 Wilmslow Rd, M20 4BX Manchester, UK.

Background: In the phase 3 randomised NAPOLI-1 clinical study, a 45% increase in median overall survival (OS) was shown with liposomal irinotecan, 5-fluorouracil and leucovorin (nal-IRI+5-FU/LV) versus 5-FU/LV in patients with metastatic pancreatic cancer progressing after gemcitabine-based therapy. Here, we report data from a pre-specified, expanded analysis of outcomes in the per-protocol (PP) population.

Materials And Methods: The PP population comprised patients receiving ≥80% of planned treatment during the first 6 weeks, with no major protocol violations. A post-hoc analysis of the non-PP population was also performed.

Results: For PP patients, median OS was 8.9 (95% confidence interval: 6.4-10.5) months with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 66) vs 5.1 (4.0-7.2) months with 5-FU/LV (n = 71; unstratified hazard ratio [HR] 0.57, p = 0.011). For non-PP patients, it was 4.4 (3.3-5.3) months with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV (n = 51) vs 2.8 (1.7-3.2) months with 5-FU/LV (n = 48; unstratified HR 0.64, p = 0.0648).

Conclusion: A statistically significant survival advantage was observed with nal-IRI+5-FU/LV vs 5-FU/LV in the PP patient population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2018.09.010DOI Listing
December 2018

Nanoliposomal Irinotecan in the Clinical Practice Guideline for Metastatic Pancreatic Cancer: Applicability to Clinical Situations.

J Clin Oncol 2017 02 5;35(6):689-690. Epub 2016 Dec 5.

Andrea Wang-Gillam, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO; Daniel Von Hoff, TGen, Phoenix; and HonorHealth, Scottsdale, AZ; Jens Siveke, Klinikum rechts der Isar der T U München, Germany; Richard Hubner, The Christie NHS Foundation Trust, Manchester, United Kingdom; Bruce Belanger and J. Marc Pipas, Merrimack Pharmaceuticals, Cambridge, MA; and Li-Tzong Chen, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, Taiwan.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1200/JCO.2016.70.1607DOI Listing
February 2017

Nanoliposomal irinotecan with fluorouracil and folinic acid in metastatic pancreatic cancer after previous gemcitabine-based therapy (NAPOLI-1): a global, randomised, open-label, phase 3 trial.

Lancet 2016 Feb 29;387(10018):545-557. Epub 2015 Nov 29.

National Institute of Cancer Research, National Health Research Institutes, Tainan, and Kaohsiung Medical University Hospital, Kaohsiung Medical University, Kaohsiung, Taiwan; National Cheng Kung University Hospital, National Cheng Kung University, Tainan, Taiwan. Electronic address:

Background: Nanoliposomal irinotecan showed activity in a phase 2 study in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapies. We assessed the effect of nanoliposomal irinotecan alone or combined with fluorouracil and folinic acid in a phase 3 trial in this population.

Methods: We did a global, phase 3, randomised, open-label trial at 76 sites in 14 countries. Eligible patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma previously treated with gemcitabine-based therapy were randomly assigned (1:1) using an interactive web response system at a central location to receive either nanoliposomal irinotecan monotherapy (120 mg/m(2) every 3 weeks, equivalent to 100 mg/m(2) of irinotecan base) or fluorouracil and folinic acid. A third arm consisting of nanoliposomal irinotecan (80 mg/m(2), equivalent to 70 mg/m(2) of irinotecan base) with fluorouracil and folinic acid every 2 weeks was added later (1:1:1), in a protocol amendment. Randomisation was stratified by baseline albumin, Karnofsky performance status, and ethnic origin. Treatment was continued until disease progression or intolerable toxic effects. The primary endpoint was overall survival, assessed in the intention-to-treat population. The primary analysis was planned after 305 events. Safety was assessed in all patients who had received study drug. This trial is registered at ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT01494506.

Findings: Between Jan 11, 2012, and Sept 11, 2013, 417 patients were randomly assigned either nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid (n=117), nanoliposomal irinotecan monotherapy (n=151), or fluorouracil and folinic acid (n=149). After 313 events, median overall survival in patients assigned nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid was 6.1 months (95% CI 4.8-8.9) vs 4.2 months (3.3-5.3) with fluorouracil and folinic acid (hazard ratio 0.67, 95% CI 0.49-0.92; p=0.012). Median overall survival did not differ between patients assigned nanoliposomal irinotecan monotherapy and those allocated fluorouracil and folinic acid (4.9 months [4.2-5.6] vs 4.2 months [3.6-4.9]; 0.99, 0.77-1.28; p=0.94). The grade 3 or 4 adverse events that occurred most frequently in the 117 patients assigned nanoliposomal irinotecan plus fluorouracil and folinic acid were neutropenia (32 [27%]), diarrhoea (15 [13%]), vomiting (13 [11%]), and fatigue (16 [14%]).

Interpretation: Nanoliposomal irinotecan in combination with fluorouracil and folinic acid extends survival with a manageable safety profile in patients with metastatic pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma who previously received gemcitabine-based therapy. This agent represents a new treatment option for this population.

Funding: Merrimack Pharmaceuticals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S0140-6736(15)00986-1DOI Listing
February 2016

Metabolites of PPI-2458, a selective, irreversible inhibitor of methionine aminopeptidase-2: structure determination and in vivo activity.

Drug Metab Dispos 2013 Apr 25;41(4):814-26. Epub 2013 Jan 25.

GlaxoSmithKline, 830 Winter Street, Waltham, MA 02451-1420, USA.

The natural product fumagillin exhibits potent antiproliferative and antiangiogenic properties. The semisynthetic analog PPI-2458, [(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxiran-2-yl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl] N-[(2R)-1-amino-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-yl]carbamate, demonstrates rapid inactivation of its molecular target, methionine aminopeptidase-2 (MetAP2), and good efficacy in several rodent models of cancer and inflammation with oral dosing despite low apparent oral bioavailability. To probe the basis of its in vivo efficacy, the metabolism of PPI-2458 was studied in detail. Reaction phenotyping identified CYP3A4/5 as the major source of metabolism in humans. Six metabolites were isolated from liver microsomes and characterized by mass spectrometry and nuclear resonance spectroscopy, and their structures were confirmed by chemical synthesis. The synthetic metabolites showed correlated inhibition of MetAP2 enzymatic activity and vascular endothelial cell growth. In an ex vivo experiment, MetAP2 inhibition in white blood cells, thymus, and lymph nodes in rats after single dosing with PPI-2458 and the isolated metabolites was found to correlate with the in vitro activity of the individual species. In a phase 1 clinical study, PPI-2458 was administered to patients with non-Hodgkin lymphoma. At 15 mg administered orally every other day, MetAP2 in whole blood was 80% inactivated for up to 48 hours, although the exposure of the parent compound was only ∼10% that of the summed cytochrome P450 metabolites. Taken together, the data confirm the participation of active metabolites in the in vivo efficacy of PPI-2458. The structures define a metabolic pathway for PPI-2458 that is distinct from that of TNP-470 ([(3R,4S,5S,6R)-5-methoxy-4-[(2R,3R)-2-methyl-3-(3-methylbut-2-enyl)oxiran-2-yl]-1-oxaspiro[2.5]octan-6-yl] N-(2-chloroacetyl)carbamate). The high level of MetAP2 inhibition achieved in vivo supports the value of fumagillin-derived therapeutics for angiogenic diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.112.048355DOI Listing
April 2013

Baseline characteristics and early on-treatment response predict the outcomes of 2 years of telbivudine treatment of chronic hepatitis B.

J Hepatol 2009 Jul 12;51(1):11-20. Epub 2009 Feb 12.

Klinikum der Johann Wolfgang Goethe-Universität, Theodor-Stern-Kai 7, 60590 Frankfurt a. Main, Germany.

Background/aims: In the GLOBE trial, telbivudine treatment was identified as a significant, independent predictor of better outcomes at 2 years. We analyzed all telbivudine recipients in this trial to determine the predictors of optimal outcomes.

Methods: The intent-to-treat population comprised 458 HBeAg-positive and 222 HBeAg-negative telbivudine-treated patients. Multivariate logistic regression analyses were employed to evaluate baseline and/or early on-treatment variables.

Results: Baseline HBV DNA<9 log(10)copies/mL, or ALT levels > or = 2x above normal were strong pretreatment predictors for HBeAg-positive, but not for HBeAg-negative patients. However, non-detectable serum HBV DNA at treatment week 24 (TW24) was the strongest predictor for better outcomes for both groups. A combination of pretreatment characteristics plus TW24 response identified subgroups with the best outcomes: (1) HBeAg-positive patients with baseline HBV DNA<9 log(10)copies/mL, ALT > or = 2x above normal and non-detectable HBV DNA at TW24 achieved at 2 years: non-detectable HBV DNA in 89%, HBeAg seroconversion in 52%, telbivudine resistance in 1.8%; and (2) HBeAg-negative patients with baseline HBV DNA<7 log(10)copies/mL and non-detectable serum HBV DNA at TW24 achieved at 2 years: non-detectable HBV DNA in 91%, telbivudine resistance in 2.3%.

Conclusion: During telbivudine treatment, non-detectable serum HBV DNA at treatment week 24 is the strongest predictor for optimal outcomes at 2 years.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jhep.2008.12.019DOI Listing
July 2009

Single-dose escalation and multiple-dose safety, tolerability, and pharmacokinetics of IDX899, a candidate human immunodeficiency virus type 1 nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor, in healthy subjects.

Antimicrob Agents Chemother 2009 May 17;53(5):1739-46. Epub 2009 Feb 17.

Idenix Pharmaceuticals Inc., One Kendall Square, Building 1400, Cambridge, MA 02139, USA.

IDX899 is a novel nonnucleoside reverse transcriptase inhibitor (NNRTI) with potent in vitro activity against wild-type and NNRTI-resistant strains of human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) and with a high genetic barrier to resistance. Single rising doses of 50 and 100 (given by use of a 50-mg capsule) and 200, 400, 800, and 1,200 mg (given by use of a 200-mg capsule) of IDX899 or matching placebo were administered sequentially to cohorts of healthy male subjects, followed by the administration of multiple doses of 800 mg once daily (QD) or 400 mg twice daily (BID) for 7 days. A single dose of 400 mg was also administered to a cohort of females. IDX899 was administered orally under fasted (50- to 400-mg doses) and then fed (> or = 200-mg doses) conditions. Exposure to IDX899 was dose proportional and comparable in males and females. With a different drug-to-excipient ratio, the 50-mg capsule led to a higher exposure but a shorter mean terminal half-life (t(1/2)) of 6.2 to 6.8 h. The 200-mg capsule resulted in a more sustained exposure with a longer mean t(1/2) of 7.9 to 14.6 h. Food enhanced absorption by approximately twofold, while it delayed the time to the maximum concentration. The mean concentration at 24 h following the administration of a single 200-mg dose under fed conditions exceeded the in vitro protein binding-adjusted 90% inhibitory concentration by fourfold. The levels of plasma exposure were similar between the single dosing and the repeat dosing with 800 mg QD and was approximately twofold higher with 400 mg BID. Mean steady-state trough levels were 0.9 microg/ml (range, 0.2 to 2.5 microg/ml) and 2.1 microg/ml (range, 0.5 to 4.5 microg/ml) for the 800-mg QD and 400-mg BID regimens, respectively. The level of excretion of unchanged drug in urine was negligible. IDX899 was well tolerated; and no serious adverse events, dose-dependent adverse events, or laboratory abnormalities were detected. These favorable safety and pharmacokinetic results support further clinical studies with patients with HIV-1 infection by the use of a QD regimen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1128/AAC.01479-08DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2681571PMC
May 2009