Publications by authors named "Britta Weinhausen"

18 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Segmented flow generator for serial crystallography at the European X-ray free electron laser.

Nat Commun 2020 09 9;11(1):4511. Epub 2020 Sep 9.

School of Molecular Sciences, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-1604, USA.

Serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) with X-ray free electron lasers (XFELs) allows structure determination of membrane proteins and time-resolved crystallography. Common liquid sample delivery continuously jets the protein crystal suspension into the path of the XFEL, wasting a vast amount of sample due to the pulsed nature of all current XFEL sources. The European XFEL (EuXFEL) delivers femtosecond (fs) X-ray pulses in trains spaced 100 ms apart whereas pulses within trains are currently separated by 889 ns. Therefore, continuous sample delivery via fast jets wastes >99% of sample. Here, we introduce a microfluidic device delivering crystal laden droplets segmented with an immiscible oil reducing sample waste and demonstrate droplet injection at the EuXFEL compatible with high pressure liquid delivery of an SFX experiment. While achieving ~60% reduction in sample waste, we determine the structure of the enzyme 3-deoxy-D-manno-octulosonate-8-phosphate synthase from microcrystals delivered in droplets revealing distinct structural features not previously reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-18156-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7481229PMC
September 2020

Author Correction: Membrane protein megahertz crystallography at the European XFEL.

Nat Commun 2020 Jan 30;11(1):703. Epub 2020 Jan 30.

Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-5001, USA.

An amendment to this paper has been published and can be accessed via a link at the top of the paper.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-14436-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6992783PMC
January 2020

Membrane protein megahertz crystallography at the European XFEL.

Nat Commun 2019 11 4;10(1):5021. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Biodesign Center for Applied Structural Discovery, Arizona State University, Tempe, AZ, 85287-5001, USA.

The world's first superconducting megahertz repetition rate hard X-ray free-electron laser (XFEL), the European XFEL, began operation in 2017, featuring a unique pulse train structure with 886 ns between pulses. With its rapid pulse rate, the European XFEL may alleviate some of the increasing demand for XFEL beamtime, particularly for membrane protein serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX), leveraging orders-of-magnitude faster data collection. Here, we report the first membrane protein megahertz SFX experiment, where we determined a 2.9 Å-resolution SFX structure of the large membrane protein complex, Photosystem I, a > 1 MDa complex containing 36 protein subunits and 381 cofactors. We address challenges to megahertz SFX for membrane protein complexes, including growth of large quantities of crystals and the large molecular and unit cell size that influence data collection and analysis. The results imply that megahertz crystallography could have an important impact on structure determination of large protein complexes with XFELs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12955-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6828683PMC
November 2019

The Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules and Serial Femtosecond Crystallography instrument of the European XFEL: initial installation.

J Synchrotron Radiat 2019 May 12;26(Pt 3):660-676. Epub 2019 Apr 12.

European XFEL, Holzkoppel 4, 22869 Schenefeld, Germany.

The European X-ray Free-Electron Laser (FEL) became the first operational high-repetition-rate hard X-ray FEL with first lasing in May 2017. Biological structure determination has already benefitted from the unique properties and capabilities of X-ray FELs, predominantly through the development and application of serial crystallography. The possibility of now performing such experiments at data rates more than an order of magnitude greater than previous X-ray FELs enables not only a higher rate of discovery but also new classes of experiments previously not feasible at lower data rates. One example is time-resolved experiments requiring a higher number of time steps for interpretation, or structure determination from samples with low hit rates in conventional X-ray FEL serial crystallography. Following first lasing at the European XFEL, initial commissioning and operation occurred at two scientific instruments, one of which is the Single Particles, Clusters and Biomolecules and Serial Femtosecond Crystallography (SPB/SFX) instrument. This instrument provides a photon energy range, focal spot sizes and diagnostic tools necessary for structure determination of biological specimens. The instrumentation explicitly addresses serial crystallography and the developing single particle imaging method as well as other forward-scattering and diffraction techniques. This paper describes the major science cases of SPB/SFX and its initial instrumentation - in particular its optical systems, available sample delivery methods, 2D detectors, supporting optical laser systems and key diagnostic components. The present capabilities of the instrument will be reviewed and a brief outlook of its future capabilities is also described.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1600577519003308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6510195PMC
May 2019

MHz data collection of a microcrystalline mixture of different jack bean proteins.

Sci Data 2019 04 3;6(1):18. Epub 2019 Apr 3.

Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

We provide a detailed description of a serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) dataset collected at the European X-ray free-electron laser facility (EuXFEL). The EuXFEL is the first high repetition rate XFEL delivering MHz X-ray pulse trains at 10 Hz. The short spacing (<1 µs) between pulses requires fast flowing microjets for sample injection and high frame rate detectors. A data set was recorded of a microcrystalline mixture of at least three different jack bean proteins (urease, concanavalin A, concanavalin B). A one megapixel Adaptive Gain Integrating Pixel Detector (AGIPD) was used which has not only a high frame rate but also a large dynamic range. This dataset is publicly available through the Coherent X-ray Imaging Data Bank (CXIDB) as a resource for algorithm development and for data analysis training for prospective XFEL users.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41597-019-0010-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6472352PMC
April 2019

Megahertz serial crystallography.

Authors:
Max O Wiedorn Dominik Oberthür Richard Bean Robin Schubert Nadine Werner Brian Abbey Martin Aepfelbacher Luigi Adriano Aschkan Allahgholi Nasser Al-Qudami Jakob Andreasson Steve Aplin Salah Awel Kartik Ayyer Saša Bajt Imrich Barák Sadia Bari Johan Bielecki Sabine Botha Djelloul Boukhelef Wolfgang Brehm Sandor Brockhauser Igor Cheviakov Matthew A Coleman Francisco Cruz-Mazo Cyril Danilevski Connie Darmanin R Bruce Doak Martin Domaracky Katerina Dörner Yang Du Hans Fangohr Holger Fleckenstein Matthias Frank Petra Fromme Alfonso M Gañán-Calvo Yaroslav Gevorkov Klaus Giewekemeyer Helen Mary Ginn Heinz Graafsma Rita Graceffa Dominic Greiffenberg Lars Gumprecht Peter Göttlicher Janos Hajdu Steffen Hauf Michael Heymann Susannah Holmes Daniel A Horke Mark S Hunter Siegfried Imlau Alexander Kaukher Yoonhee Kim Alexander Klyuev Juraj Knoška Bostjan Kobe Manuela Kuhn Christopher Kupitz Jochen Küpper Janine Mia Lahey-Rudolph Torsten Laurus Karoline Le Cong Romain Letrun P Lourdu Xavier Luis Maia Filipe R N C Maia Valerio Mariani Marc Messerschmidt Markus Metz Davide Mezza Thomas Michelat Grant Mills Diana C F Monteiro Andrew Morgan Kerstin Mühlig Anna Munke Astrid Münnich Julia Nette Keith A Nugent Theresa Nuguid Allen M Orville Suraj Pandey Gisel Pena Pablo Villanueva-Perez Jennifer Poehlsen Gianpietro Previtali Lars Redecke Winnie Maria Riekehr Holger Rohde Adam Round Tatiana Safenreiter Iosifina Sarrou Tokushi Sato Marius Schmidt Bernd Schmitt Robert Schönherr Joachim Schulz Jonas A Sellberg M Marvin Seibert Carolin Seuring Megan L Shelby Robert L Shoeman Marcin Sikorski Alessandro Silenzi Claudiu A Stan Xintian Shi Stephan Stern Jola Sztuk-Dambietz Janusz Szuba Aleksandra Tolstikova Martin Trebbin Ulrich Trunk Patrik Vagovic Thomas Ve Britta Weinhausen Thomas A White Krzysztof Wrona Chen Xu Oleksandr Yefanov Nadia Zatsepin Jiaguo Zhang Markus Perbandt Adrian P Mancuso Christian Betzel Henry Chapman Anton Barty

Nat Commun 2018 10 2;9(1):4025. Epub 2018 Oct 2.

Center for Free-Electron Laser Science, Deutsches Elektronen-Synchrotron DESY, Notkestrasse 85, 22607, Hamburg, Germany.

The new European X-ray Free-Electron Laser is the first X-ray free-electron laser capable of delivering X-ray pulses with a megahertz inter-pulse spacing, more than four orders of magnitude higher than previously possible. However, to date, it has been unclear whether it would indeed be possible to measure high-quality diffraction data at megahertz pulse repetition rates. Here, we show that high-quality structures can indeed be obtained using currently available operating conditions at the European XFEL. We present two complete data sets, one from the well-known model system lysozyme and the other from a so far unknown complex of a β-lactamase from K. pneumoniae involved in antibiotic resistance. This result opens up megahertz serial femtosecond crystallography (SFX) as a tool for reliable structure determination, substrate screening and the efficient measurement of the evolution and dynamics of molecular structures using megahertz repetition rate pulses available at this new class of X-ray laser source.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-06156-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6168542PMC
October 2018

Megahertz data collection from protein microcrystals at an X-ray free-electron laser.

Nat Commun 2018 08 28;9(1):3487. Epub 2018 Aug 28.

Max Planck Institute for Medical Research, Jahnstrasse 29, 69120, Heidelberg, Germany.

X-ray free-electron lasers (XFELs) enable novel experiments because of their high peak brilliance and femtosecond pulse duration. However, non-superconducting XFELs offer repetition rates of only 10-120 Hz, placing significant demands on beam time and sample consumption. We describe serial femtosecond crystallography experiments performed at the European XFEL, the first MHz repetition rate XFEL, delivering 1.128 MHz X-ray pulse trains at 10 Hz. Given the short spacing between pulses, damage caused by shock waves launched by one XFEL pulse on sample probed by subsequent pulses is a concern. To investigate this issue, we collected data from lysozyme microcrystals, exposed to a ~15 μm XFEL beam. Under these conditions, data quality is independent of whether the first or subsequent pulses of the train were used for data collection. We also analyzed a mixture of microcrystals of jack bean proteins, from which the structure of native, magnesium-containing concanavalin A was determined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-018-05953-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6113309PMC
August 2018

Myelin structure in unfixed, single nerve fibers: Scanning X-ray microdiffraction with a beam size of 200nm.

J Struct Biol 2017 12 8;200(3):229-243. Epub 2017 Jul 8.

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, MA, USA. Electronic address:

Previous raster-scanning with a 1μm X-ray beam of individual, myelinated fibers from glutaraldehyde-fixed rat sciatic nerve revealed a spatially-dependent variation in the diffraction patterns from single fibers. Analysis indicated differences in the myelin periodicity, membrane separations, distribution of proteins, and orientation of membrane lamellae. As chemical fixation is known to produce structural artifacts, we sought to determine in the current study whether the structural heterogeneity is intrinsic to unfixed myelin. Using a 200nm-beam that was about five-fold smaller than before, we raster-scanned individual myelinated fibers from both the peripheral (PNS; mouse and rat sciatic nerves) and central (CNS; rat corpus callosum) nervous systems. As expected, the membrane stacking in the internodal region was nearly parallel to the fiber axis and in the paranodal region it was perpendicular to the axis. A myelin lattice was also frequently observed when the incident beam was injected en face to the sheath. Myelin periodicity and diffracted intensity varied with axial position along the fiber, as did the calculated membrane profiles. Raster-scanning with an X-ray beam at sub-micron resolution revealed for the first time that the individual myelin sheaths in unfixed nerve are heterogeneous in both membrane structure and packing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsb.2017.07.001DOI Listing
December 2017

Rapid Acquisition of X-Ray Scattering Data from Droplet-Encapsulated Protein Systems.

Chemphyschem 2017 May 10;18(10):1220-1223. Epub 2017 Apr 10.

Institute for X-ray Physics, Georg-August-University Göttingen, 37077, Göttingen, Germany.

Encapsulating reacting biological or chemical samples in microfluidic droplets has the great advantage over single-phase flows of providing separate reaction compartments. These compartments can be filled in a combinatoric way and prevent the sample from adsorbing to the channel walls. In recent years, small-angle X-ray scattering (SAXS) in combination with microfluidics has evolved as a nanoscale method of such systems. Here, we approach two major challenges associated with combining droplet microfluidics and SAXS. First, we present a simple, versatile, and reliable device, which is both suitable for stable droplet formation and compatible with in situ X-ray measurements. Second, we solve the problem of "diluting" the sample signal by the signal from the oil separating the emulsion droplets by multiple fast acquisitions per droplet and data thresholding. We show that using our method, even the weakly scattering protein vimentin provides high signal-to-noise ratio data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/cphc.201700221DOI Listing
May 2017

In Situ Ptychography of Heterogeneous Catalysts using Hard X-Rays: High Resolution Imaging at Ambient Pressure and Elevated Temperature.

Microsc Microanal 2016 Feb;22(1):178-88

1Institute for Chemical Technology and Polymer Chemistry,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology,76131 Karlsruhe,Germany.

A new closed cell is presented for in situ X-ray ptychography which allows studies under gas flow and at elevated temperature. In order to gain complementary information by transmission and scanning electron microscopy, the cell makes use of a Protochips E-chipTM which contains a small, thin electron transparent window and allows heating. Two gold-based systems, 50 nm gold particles and nanoporous gold as a relevant catalyst sample, were used for studying the feasibility of the cell. Measurements showing a resolution around 40 nm have been achieved under a flow of synthetic air and during heating up to temperatures of 933 K. An elevated temperature exhibited little influence on image quality and resolution. With this study, the potential of in situ hard X-ray ptychography for investigating annealing processes of real catalyst samples is demonstrated. Furthermore, the possibility to use the same sample holder for ex situ electron microscopy before and after the in situ study underlines the unique possibilities available with this combination of electron microscopy and X-ray microscopy on the same sample.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S1431927615015573DOI Listing
February 2016

X-rays Reveal the Internal Structure of Keratin Bundles in Whole Cells.

ACS Nano 2016 Mar 26;10(3):3553-61. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Institute for X-ray Physics, University of Göttingen , Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

In recent years, X-ray imaging of biological cells has emerged as a complementary alternative to fluorescence and electron microscopy. Different techniques were established and successfully applied to macromolecular assemblies and structures in cells. However, while the resolution is reaching the nanometer scale, the dose is increasing. It is essential to develop strategies to overcome or reduce radiation damage. Here we approach this intrinsic problem by combing two different X-ray techniques, namely ptychography and nanodiffraction, in one experiment and on the same sample. We acquire low dose ptychography overview images of whole cells at a resolution of 65 nm. We subsequently record high-resolution nanodiffraction data from regions of interest. By comparing images from the two modalities, we can exclude strong effects of radiation damage on the specimen. From the diffraction data we retrieve quantitative structural information from intracellular bundles of keratin intermediate filaments such as a filament radius of 5 nm, hexagonal geometric arrangement with an interfilament distance of 14 nm and bundle diameters on the order of 70 nm. Thus, we present an appealing combined approach to answer a broad range of questions in soft-matter physics, biophysics and biology.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acsnano.5b07871DOI Listing
March 2016

Raster-scanning serial protein crystallography using micro- and nano-focused synchrotron beams.

Acta Crystallogr D Biol Crystallogr 2015 May 25;71(Pt 5):1184-96. Epub 2015 Apr 25.

Université Grenoble Alpes, IBS, 38044 Grenoble, France.

High-resolution structural information was obtained from lysozyme microcrystals (20 µm in the largest dimension) using raster-scanning serial protein crystallography on micro- and nano-focused beamlines at the ESRF. Data were collected at room temperature (RT) from crystals sandwiched between two silicon nitride wafers, thereby preventing their drying, while limiting background scattering and sample consumption. In order to identify crystal hits, new multi-processing and GUI-driven Python-based pre-analysis software was developed, named NanoPeakCell, that was able to read data from a variety of crystallographic image formats. Further data processing was carried out using CrystFEL, and the resultant structures were refined to 1.7 Å resolution. The data demonstrate the feasibility of RT raster-scanning serial micro- and nano-protein crystallography at synchrotrons and validate it as an alternative approach for the collection of high-resolution structural data from micro-sized crystals. Advantages of the proposed approach are its thriftiness, its handling-free nature, the reduced amount of sample required, the adjustable hit rate, the high indexing rate and the minimization of background scattering.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1107/S1399004715004514DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4427202PMC
May 2015

Revealing the structure of stereociliary actin by X-ray nanoimaging.

ACS Nano 2014 Dec 1;8(12):12228-37. Epub 2014 Dec 1.

Institute for X-ray Physics, Georg-August-University Göttingen , Göttingen, Germany.

Hair cell stereocilia are crucial for hearing and the sense of balance. They include an array of accurately packed, parallel actin filaments and act as levers, which transform mechanical deformation into neuronal signals. The length of vestibular stereocilia reaches several micrometers, whereas, for individual microfilaments, the diameter and therefore the characteristic length scale in the lateral direction is on the order of a few nanometers. These orders of magnitude render X-rays an ideal tool for investigating actin packing, and numerous studies on reconstituted in vitro systems have revealed important information. Here we report on the characterization of intact stereocilia using two nanoscale X-ray techniques. We use X-ray ptychography to image stereocilia with quantitative phase contrast and high dose efficiency, showing stereocilia with diameters and lengths in the expected range. We further employ X-ray nanodiffraction using a nanofocused X-ray beam on the same order of magnitude as the width of a stereocilium. Despite the small probe volume we can clearly visualize the stereocilia bundles. From the individual diffraction patterns we determine the local orientation of the actin structures and can clearly correlate them with the corresponding visible-light fluorescence images. Furthermore, azimuthal integration of individual diffraction patterns reveals distinct intensity curves, showing modulations of the signal, which reflect the relevant length scales and pronounced order in the biological system. The applied techniques are not limited to the studies on stereocilia but have the potential of being applied to many biological and soft-matter systems, in particular if a pronounced degree of order is present.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/nn5041526DOI Listing
December 2014

A superhydrophobic chip based on SU-8 photoresist pillars suspended on a silicon nitride membrane.

Lab Chip 2014 Oct;14(19):3705-9

European Synchrotron Radiation Facility, B.P.220, F-38043 Grenoble Cedex, France.

We developed a new generation of superhydrophobic chips optimized for probing ultrasmall sample quantities by X-ray scattering and fluorescence techniques. The chips are based on thin Si3N4 membranes with a tailored pattern of SU-8 photoresist pillars. Indeed, aqueous solution droplets can be evaporated and concentrated at predefined positions using a non-periodic pillar pattern. We demonstrated quantitatively the deposition and aggregation of gold glyconanoparticles from the evaporation of a nanomolar droplet in a small spot by raster X-ray nanofluorescence. Further, raster nanocrystallography of biological objects such as rod-like tobacco mosaic virus nanoparticles reveals crystalline macro-domain formation composed of highly oriented nanorods.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c4lc00750fDOI Listing
October 2014

Microfluidic devices for X-ray studies on hydrated cells.

Lab Chip 2013 Jan 3;13(2):212-5. Epub 2012 Dec 3.

Institute for X-Ray Physics & Courant Research Centre Nano-Spectroscopy and X-Ray Imaging, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

X-ray studies of biological cells in microfluidic devices provide a method to probe cellular structures or structural changes at the molecular level in a precisely controlled environment. However, the device design and the used materials must be compatible with X-ray scattering techniques as well as the cell culture in the devices. For this purpose, we develop new types of X-ray compatible microfluidic devices, which are based on a UV-curable adhesive as a moldable material, and thin Kapton films and silicon nitride membrane windows as a growth substrate for cells and as a window material for X-rays. Using these devices, we perform scanning X-ray diffraction experiments with a nano-focused beam on fixed cells in buffer solution. In principle, these microfluidic devices also allow for X-ray studies on living cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/c2lc41014aDOI Listing
January 2013

Acyl-chain correlation in membrane fusion intermediates: x-ray diffraction from the rhombohedral lipid phase.

Biophys J 2012 May;102(9):2121-9

Institut für Röntgenphysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Göttingen, Germany.

We have studied the acyl-chain conformation in stalk phases of model membranes by x-ray diffraction from oriented samples. As an equilibrium lipid phase induced by dehydration, the stalk or rhombohedral phase exhibits lipidic passages (stalks) between adjacent bilayers, representing a presumed intermediate state in membrane fusion. From the detailed analysis of the acyl-chain correlation peak, we deduce the structural parameters of the acyl-chain fluid above, at, and below the transition from the lamellar to rhombohedral state, at the molecular level.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bpj.2012.03.069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3341562PMC
May 2012

Energetics of stalk intermediates in membrane fusion are controlled by lipid composition.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2012 Jun 15;109(25):E1609-18. Epub 2012 May 15.

Institut für Röntgenphysik, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Friedrich-Hund-Platz 1, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

We have used X-ray diffraction on the rhombohedral phospholipid phase to reconstruct stalk structures in different pure lipids and lipid mixtures with unprecedented resolution, enabling a quantitative analysis of geometry, as well as curvature and hydration energies. Electron density isosurfaces are used to study shape and curvature properties of the bent lipid monolayers. We observe that the stalk structure is highly universal in different lipid systems. The associated curvatures change in a subtle, but systematic fashion upon changes in lipid composition. In addition, we have studied the hydration interaction prior to the transition from the lamellar to the stalk phase. The results indicate that facilitating dehydration is the key to promote stalk formation, which becomes favorable at an approximately constant interbilayer separation of 9.0 ± 0.5 Å for the investigated lipid compositions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1119442109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3382523PMC
June 2012

Peptide model helices in lipid membranes: insertion, positioning, and lipid response on aggregation studied by X-ray scattering.

Eur Biophys J 2011 Apr 23;40(4):417-36. Epub 2010 Dec 23.

Institut für Organische und Biomolekulare Chemie, Georg-August-Universität Göttingen, Tammannstr. 2, 37077 Göttingen, Germany.

Studying membrane active peptides or protein fragments within the lipid bilayer environment is particularly challenging in the case of synthetically modified, labeled, artificial, or recently discovered native structures. For such samples the localization and orientation of the molecular species or probe within the lipid bilayer environment is the focus of research prior to an evaluation of their dynamic or mechanistic behavior. X-ray scattering is a powerful method to study peptide/lipid interactions in the fluid, fully hydrated state of a lipid bilayer. For one, the lipid response can be revealed by observing membrane thickening and thinning as well as packing in the membrane plane; at the same time, the distinct positions of peptide moieties within lipid membranes can be elucidated at resolutions of up to several angstroms by applying heavy-atom labeling techniques. In this study, we describe a generally applicable X-ray scattering approach that provides robust and quantitative information about peptide insertion and localization as well as peptide/lipid interaction within highly oriented, hydrated multilamellar membrane stacks. To this end, we have studied an artificial, designed β-helical peptide motif in its homodimeric and hairpin variants adopting different states of oligomerization. These peptide lipid complexes were analyzed by grazing incidence diffraction (GID) to monitor changes in the lateral lipid packing and ordering. In addition, we have applied anomalous reflectivity using synchrotron radiation as well as in-house X-ray reflectivity in combination with iodine-labeling in order to determine the electron density distribution ρ(z) along the membrane normal (z axis), and thereby reveal the hydrophobic mismatch situation as well as the position of certain amino acid side chains within the lipid bilayer. In the case of multiple labeling, the latter technique is not only applicable to demonstrate the peptide's reconstitution but also to generate evidence about the relative peptide orientation with respect to the lipid bilayer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00249-010-0645-4DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3070074PMC
April 2011