Publications by authors named "Brigitte Bressac-de Paillerets"

108 Publications

Germline mutation in the NBR1 gene involved in autophagy detected in a family with renal tumors.

Cancer Genet 2021 Aug 9;258-259:51-56. Epub 2021 Aug 9.

EPHE, PSL Université, Paris, France; CNRS UMR 9019, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, UMR 9019 CNRS, 114 rue Edouard Vaillant, Villejuif 94800, France. Electronic address:

Hereditary Renal Cell Carcinomas (RCC) are caused by mutations in predisposing genes, the major ones including VHL, FLCN, FH and MET. However, many families with inherited RCC have no germline mutation in these genes. Using Whole Exome Sequencing on germline DNA from a family presenting three different histological renal tumors (an angiomyolipoma, a clear-cell RCC and an oncocytic papillary RCC), we identified a frameshift mutation in the Neighbor of BRCA1 gene 1 (NBR1), segregating with the tumors. NBR1 encodes a cargo receptor protein involved in autophagy. Genetic and functional analyses suggested a pathogenic impact of the mutation. Indeed, functional study performed in renal cell lines showed that the mutation alters NBR1 interactions with some of its partners (such as p62/SQSTM1), leading to a dominant negative effect. This results in an altered autophagic process and an increased proliferative capacity in renal cell lines. Our study suggests that NBR1 may be a new predisposing gene for RCC, however its characterization needs to be further investigated in order to confirm its role in renal carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.cancergen.2021.07.003DOI Listing
August 2021

The PI3K/mTOR Pathway Is Targeted by Rare Germline Variants in Patients with Both Melanoma and Renal Cell Carcinoma.

Cancers (Basel) 2021 May 7;13(9). Epub 2021 May 7.

Section of Genetics, International Agency for Research on Cancer (IARC-WHO), 69372 Lyon, France.

: Malignant melanoma and RCC have different embryonic origins, no common lifestyle risk factors but intriguingly share biological properties such as immune regulation and radioresistance. An excess risk of malignant melanoma is observed in RCC patients and vice versa. This bidirectional association is poorly understood, and hypothetic genetic co-susceptibility remains largely unexplored. We hereby provide a clinical and genetic description of a series of 125 cases affected by both malignant melanoma and RCC. Clinical germline mutation testing identified a pathogenic variant in a melanoma and/or RCC predisposing gene in 17/125 cases (13.6%). This included mutually exclusive variants in (p.E318K locus, N = 9 cases), (N = 3), (N = 2), (N = 2), and (N = 1). A subset of 46 early-onset cases, without underlying germline variation, was whole-exome sequenced. In this series, thirteen genes were significantly enriched in mostly exclusive rare variants predicted to be deleterious, compared to 19,751 controls of similar ancestry. The observed variation mainly consisted of novel or low-frequency variants (<0.01%) within genes displaying strong evolutionary mutational constraints along the PI3K/mTOR pathway, including , , , , and related epigenetic modifier . The screening of independently processed germline exomes from The Cancer Genome Atlas confirmed an association with melanoma and RCC but not with cancers of established differing etiology such as lung cancers. Our study highlights that an exome-wide case-control enrichment approach may better characterize the rare variant-based missing heritability of multiple primary cancers. In our series, the co-occurrence of malignant melanoma and RCC was associated with germline variation in the PI3K/mTOR signaling cascade, with potential relevance for early diagnostic and clinical management.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/cancers13092243DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8125037PMC
May 2021

Response to systemic therapy in fumarate hydratase-deficient renal cell carcinoma.

Eur J Cancer 2021 Jul 8;151:106-114. Epub 2021 May 8.

Department of Medical Oncology, Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, France; Réseau National de Référence pour Cancers Rares de l'Adulte PREDIR labellisé par l'INCa, Hôpital Bicêtre, AP-HP, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France. Electronic address:

Purpose: Fumarate hydratase-deficient (FHdef) renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is a rare entity associated with the hereditary leiomyomatosis and RCC syndrome with no standard therapy approved. The aim of this retrospective study was to evaluate the efficacy of different systemic treatments in this population.

Methods: We performed a multicentre retrospective analysis of Fhdef RCC patients to determine the response to systemic treatments. The endpoints were objective response rate (ORR), time-to-treatment failure (TTF), and overall survival (OS). The two latter were estimated using the Kaplan-Meier method.

Results: Twenty-four Fhdef RCC patients were identified, and 21 under systemic therapy were included in the analysis: ten received cabozantinib, 14 received sunitinib, nine received "other antiangiogenics" (sorafenib, pazopanib, and axitinib), three received erlotinib-bevacizumab (E-B), three received mTOR inhibitors, and 11 received immune checkpoint blockers (ICBs). ORR for treatments were 50% for cabozantinib, 43% for sunitinib, 63% for "other antiangiogenics," and 30% for E-B, whereas ORR was 0% for mTOR inhibitors and 18% for ICBs. The median TTF (mTTF) was significantly higher with antiangiogenics (11.6 months) than with mTOR inhibitors (4.4 months) or ICBs (2.7 months). In the first-line setting, antiangiogenics presented a higher ORR compared with nivolumab-ipilimumab (64% versus 25%) and a significantly superior mTTF (11.0 months vs 2.5 months; p = 0.0027). The median OS from the start of the first systemic treatment was 44.0 months (95% confidence interval: 13.0-95.0).

Conclusions: We report the first European retrospective study of Fhdef RCC patients treated with systemic therapy with a remarkably long median OS of 44.0 months. Our results suggest that antiangiogenics may be superior to ICB/mTOR inhibitors in this population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejca.2021.04.009DOI Listing
July 2021

FBXO32 links ubiquitination to epigenetic reprograming of melanoma cells.

Cell Death Differ 2021 Jun 18;28(6):1837-1848. Epub 2021 Jan 18.

Université Nice Côte d'Azur, Nice, France.

Ubiquitination by serving as a major degradation signal of proteins, but also by controlling protein functioning and localization, plays critical roles in most key cellular processes. Here, we show that MITF, the master transcription factor in melanocytes, controls ubiquitination in melanoma cells. We identified FBXO32, a component of the SCF E3 ligase complex as a new MITF target gene. FBXO32 favors melanoma cell migration, proliferation, and tumor development in vivo. Transcriptomic analysis shows that FBXO32 knockdown induces a global change in melanoma gene expression profile. These include the inhibition of CDK6 in agreement with an inhibition of cell proliferation and invasion upon FBXO32 silencing. Furthermore, proteomic analysis identifies SMARC4, a component of the chromatin remodeling complexes BAF/PBAF, as a FBXO32 partner. FBXO32 and SMARCA4 co-localize at loci regulated by FBXO32, such as CDK6 suggesting that FBXO32 controls transcription through the regulation of chromatin remodeling complex activity. FBXO32 and SMARCA4 are the components of a molecular cascade, linking MITF to epigenetics, in melanoma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41418-020-00710-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8184796PMC
June 2021

Melanoma Risk and Melanocyte Biology.

Acta Derm Venereol 2020 Jun 3;100(11):adv00139. Epub 2020 Jun 3.

Curie Institute, PSL Research University, INSERM U1021, Normal and Pathological Development of Melanocytes, Orsay, France.

Cutaneous melanoma arises from melanocytes following genetic, epigenetic and allogenetic (i.e. other than epi/genetic) modifications. An estimated 10% of cutaneous melanoma cases are due to inherited variants or de novo mutations in approximately 20 genes, found using linkage, next-generation sequencing and association studies. Based on these studies, 3 classes of predisposing melanoma genes have been defined based on the frequency of the variants in the general population and lifetime risk of developing a melanoma: (i) ultra-rare variants with a high risk, (ii) rare with a moderate risk, and (iii) frequent variants with a low risk. Most of the proteins encoded by these genes have been shown to be involved in melanoma initiation, including proliferation and senescence bypass. This paper reviews the role(s) of these genes in the transformation of melanocytes into melanoma. It also describes their function in the establishment and renewal of melanocytes and the biology of pigment cells, if known.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2340/00015555-3494DOI Listing
June 2020

Germline mutations in the new E1' cryptic exon of the gene in patients with tumours of von Hippel-Lindau disease spectrum or with paraganglioma.

J Med Genet 2020 11 29;57(11):752-759. Epub 2020 Jan 29.

Université de Paris, PARCC, INSERM, Equipe Labellisée par la Ligue contre le Cancer, F-75015, Paris, France.

Backgrounds: The incidence of germline mutations in the newly discovered cryptic exon (E1') of gene in patients with von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease and in patients with paraganglioma or pheochromocytoma (PPGL) is not currently known.

Methods: We studied a large international multicentre cohort of 1167 patients with a previous negative genetic testing. Germline DNA from 75 patients with a single tumour of the VHL spectrum ('Single VHL tumour' cohort), 70 patients with multiple tumours of the VHL spectrum ('Multiple VHL tumours' cohort), 76 patients with a VHL disease as described in the literature ('VHL-like' cohort) and 946 patients with a PPGL were screened for E1' genetic variants.

Results: Six different genetic variants in E1' were detected in 12 patients. Two were classified as pathogenic, 3 as variants of unknown significance and 1 as benign. The rs139622356 was found in seven unrelated patients but described in only 16 patients out of the 31 390 of the Genome Aggregation Database (p<0.0001) suggesting that this variant might be either a recurrent mutation or a modifier mutation conferring a risk for the development of tumours and cancers of the VHL spectrum.

Conclusions: E1' cryptic exon mutations contribute to 1.32% (1/76) of 'VHL-like' cohort and to 0.11% (1/946) of PPGL cohort and should be screened in patients with clinical suspicion of VHL, and added to panels for Next Generation Sequencing (NGS) diagnostic testing of hereditary PPGL. Our data highlight the importance of studying variants identified in deep intronic sequences, which would have been missed by examining only coding sequences of genes/exomes. These variants will likely be more frequently detected and studied with the upcoming implementation of whole-genome sequencing into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2019-106519DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7387210PMC
November 2020

MC1R variants in childhood and adolescent melanoma: a retrospective pooled analysis of a multicentre cohort.

Lancet Child Adolesc Health 2019 05 12;3(5):332-342. Epub 2019 Mar 12.

Department of Pathophysiology and Transplantation, University of Milan, Foundation IRCCS Ca' Granda Ospedale Maggiore Policlinico, Milan, Italy.

Background: Germline variants in the melanocortin 1 receptor gene (MC1R) might increase the risk of childhood and adolescent melanoma, but a clear conclusion is challenging because of the low number of studies and cases. We assessed the association of MC1R variants with childhood and adolescent melanoma in a large study comparing the prevalence of MC1R variants in child or adolescent patients with melanoma to that in adult patients with melanoma and in healthy adult controls.

Methods: In this retrospective pooled analysis, we used the M-SKIP Project, the Italian Melanoma Intergroup, and other European groups (with participants from Australia, Canada, France, Greece, Italy, the Netherlands, Serbia, Spain, Sweden, Turkey, and the USA) to assemble an international multicentre cohort. We gathered phenotypic and genetic data from children or adolescents diagnosed with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma at age 20 years or younger, adult patients with sporadic single-primary cutaneous melanoma diagnosed at age 35 years or older, and healthy adult individuals as controls. We calculated odds ratios (ORs) for childhood and adolescent melanoma associated with MC1R variants by multivariable logistic regression. Subgroup analysis was done for children aged 18 or younger and 14 years or younger.

Findings: We analysed data from 233 young patients, 932 adult patients, and 932 healthy adult controls. Children and adolescents had higher odds of carrying MC1R r variants than did adult patients (OR 1·54, 95% CI 1·02-2·33), including when analysis was restricted to patients aged 18 years or younger (1·80, 1·06-3·07). All investigated variants, except Arg160Trp, tended, to varying degrees, to have higher frequencies in young patients than in adult patients, with significantly higher frequencies found for Val60Leu (OR 1·60, 95% CI 1·05-2·44; p=0·04) and Asp294His (2·15, 1·05-4·40; p=0·04). Compared with those of healthy controls, young patients with melanoma had significantly higher frequencies of any MC1R variants.

Interpretation: Our pooled analysis of MC1R genetic data of young patients with melanoma showed that MC1R r variants were more prevalent in childhood and adolescent melanoma than in adult melanoma, especially in patients aged 18 years or younger. Our findings support the role of MC1R in childhood and adolescent melanoma susceptibility, with a potential clinical relevance for developing early melanoma detection and preventive strategies.

Funding: SPD-Pilot/Project-Award-2015; AIRC-MFAG-11831.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/S2352-4642(19)30005-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6942319PMC
May 2019

Optimization of Next-Generation Sequencing Technologies for von Hippel Lindau (VHL) Mosaic Mutation Detection and Development of Confirmation Methods.

J Mol Diagn 2019 05 5;21(3):462-470. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

UMR-S 1172-Jean-Pierre Aubert Research Center, University of Lille, Lille, France; INSERM, UMR-S 1172, Team on Mucins, Epithelial Differentiation and Carcinogenesis, Lille, France; Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, Centre Hospitalier Régional et Universitaire de Lille, Lille, France. Electronic address:

Von Hippel-Lindau disease (VHL) is a monogenic disorder characterized by the development of tumors affecting the central nervous system, kidney, pancreas, or adrenal glands, and due to germline mutations in the VHL tumor suppressor gene. About 5% of patients with a typical VHL phenotype have no mutation detected by conventional techniques, so a postzygotic VHL mosaicism can be suspected. The aim of this study was therefore to implement a next-generation sequencing (NGS) strategy for VHL mosaic mutation detection, including an optimization of the original Personal Genome Machine design by enrichment with oligonucleotides corresponding to amplicons with insufficient depth of coverage. Two complementary strategies were developed for the confirmation of mosaic mutations identified by NGS, SNaPshot for variants present at an allelic ratio greater than 5%, and droplet digital PCR for allelic ratio above 1%. VHL mutant plasmids were generated to assess VHL mosaic mutation detection in different exons and to set up an internal quality control that could be included in each run or regularly to validate the assay. This strategy was applied to 47 patients with a suggestive or clinical VHL disease, and mosaic mutations were identified in 8.5% of patients. In conclusion, NGS technologies combined with SNaPshot or droplet digital PCR allow the detection and confirmation of mosaic mutations in a clinical laboratory setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmoldx.2019.01.005DOI Listing
May 2019

Estimating CDKN2A mutation carrier probability among global familial melanoma cases using GenoMELPREDICT.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2019 Aug 5;81(2):386-394. Epub 2019 Feb 5.

Department of Clinical Sciences, Lund University Hospital Lund, Sweden; Department of Surgery, Lund University Hospital, Lund, Sweden.

Background: Although rare in the general population, highly penetrant germline mutations in CDKN2A are responsible for 5%-40% of melanoma cases reported in melanoma-prone families. We sought to determine whether MELPREDICT was generalizable to a global series of families with melanoma and whether performance improvements can be achieved.

Methods: In total, 2116 familial melanoma cases were ascertained by the international GenoMEL Consortium. We recapitulated the MELPREDICT model within our data (GenoMELPREDICT) to assess performance improvements by adding phenotypic risk factors and history of pancreatic cancer. We report areas under the curve (AUC) with 95% confidence intervals (CIs) along with net reclassification indices (NRIs) as performance metrics.

Results: MELPREDICT performed well (AUC 0.752, 95% CI 0.730-0.775), and GenoMELPREDICT performance was similar (AUC 0.748, 95% CI 0.726-0.771). Adding a reported history of pancreatic cancer yielded discriminatory improvement (P < .0001) in GenoMELPREDICT (AUC 0.772, 95% CI 0.750-0.793, NRI 0.40). Including phenotypic risk factors did not improve performance.

Conclusion: The MELPREDICT model functioned well in a global data set of familial melanoma cases. Adding pancreatic cancer history improved model prediction. GenoMELPREDICT is a simple tool for predicting CDKN2A mutational status among melanoma patients from melanoma-prone families and can aid in directing these patients to receive genetic testing or cancer risk counseling.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jaad.2019.01.079DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6634996PMC
August 2019

Association of the POT1 Germline Missense Variant p.I78T With Familial Melanoma.

JAMA Dermatol 2019 05;155(5):604-609

Experimental Cancer Genetics, The Wellcome Trust Sanger Institute, Hinxton, England.

Importance: The protection of telomeres 1 protein (POT1) is a critical component of the shelterin complex, a multiple-protein machine that regulates telomere length and protects telomere ends. Germline variants in POT1 have been linked to familial melanoma, and somatic mutations are associated with a range of cancers including cutaneous T-cell lymphoma (CTCL).

Objective: To characterize pathogenic variation in POT1 in families with melanoma to inform clinical management.

Design, Setting, And Participants: In this case study and pedigree evaluation, analysis of the pedigree of 1 patient with melanoma revealed a novel germline POT1 variant (p.I78T, c.233T>C, chromosome 7, g.124870933A>G, GRCh38) that was subsequently found in 2 other pedigrees obtained from the GenoMEL Consortium.

Main Outcomes And Measures: (1) Identification of the POT1 p.I78T variant; (2) evaluation of the clinical features and characteristics of patients with this variant; (3) analysis of 3 pedigrees; (4) genomewide single-nucleotide polymorphism genotyping of germline DNA; and (5) a somatic genetic analysis of available nevi and 1 melanoma lesion.

Results: The POT1 p.I78T variant was found in 3 melanoma pedigrees, all of persons who self-reported as being of Jewish descent, and was shown to disrupt POT1-telomere binding. A UV mutation signature was associated with nevus and melanoma formation in POT1 variant carriers, and somatic mutations in driver genes such as BRAF, NRAS, and KIT were associated with lesion development in these patients.

Conclusions And Relevance: POT1 p.I78T is a newly identified, likely pathogenic, variant meriting screening for in families with melanoma after more common predisposition genes such as CDKN2A have been excluded. It could also be included as part of gene panel testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2018.3662DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6506889PMC
May 2019

Comprehensive Study of the Clinical Phenotype of Germline BAP1 Variant-Carrying Families Worldwide.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 12;110(12):1328-1341

Medical Oncology Unit, Ospedale Policlinico San Martino, Genoa, Italy.

Background: The BRCA1-associated protein-1 (BAP1) tumor predisposition syndrome (BAP1-TPDS) is a hereditary tumor syndrome caused by germline pathogenic variants in BAP1 encoding a tumor suppressor associated with uveal melanoma, mesothelioma, cutaneous melanoma, renal cell carcinoma, and cutaneous BAP1-inactivated melanocytic tumors. However, the full spectrum of tumors associated with the syndrome is yet to be determined. Improved understanding of the BAP1-TPDS is crucial for appropriate clinical management of BAP1 germline variant carriers and their families, including genetic counseling and surveillance for new tumors.

Methods: We collated germline variant status, tumor diagnoses, and information on BAP1 immunohistochemistry or loss of somatic heterozygosity on 106 published and 75 unpublished BAP1 germline variant-positive families worldwide to better characterize the genotypes and phenotypes associated with the BAP1-TPDS. Tumor spectrum and ages of onset were compared between missense and null variants. All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: The 181 families carried 140 unique BAP1 germline variants. The collated data confirmed the core tumor spectrum associated with the BAP1-TPDS and showed that some families carrying missense variants can exhibit this phenotype. A variety of noncore BAP1-TPDS -associated tumors were found in families of variant carriers. Median ages of onset of core tumor types were lower in null than missense variant carriers for all tumors combined (P < .001), mesothelioma (P < .001), cutaneous melanoma (P < .001), and nonmelanoma skin cancer (P < .001).

Conclusions: This analysis substantially increases the number of pathogenic BAP1 germline variants and refines the phenotype. It highlights the need for a curated registry of germline variant carriers for proper assessment of the clinical phenotype of the BAP1-TPDS and pathogenicity of new variants, thus guiding management of patients and informing areas requiring further research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djy171DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6292796PMC
December 2018

Guidelines for reporting secondary findings of genome sequencing in cancer genes: the SFMPP recommendations.

Eur J Hum Genet 2018 12 8;26(12):1732-1742. Epub 2018 Aug 8.

APHP, INSERM U938, IUC-UPMC, Sorbonne Université, Paris, France.

In oncology, the expanding use of multi-gene panels to explore familial cancer predisposition and tumor genome analysis has led to increased secondary findings discoveries (SFs) and has given rise to important medical, ethical, and legal issues. The American College of Medical Genetics and Genomics published a policy statement for managing SFs for a list of genes, including 25 cancer-related genes. Currently, there are few recommendations in Europe. From June 2016 to May 2017, the French Society of Predictive and Personalized Medicine (SFMPP) established a working group of 47 experts to elaborate guidelines for managing information given on the SFs for genes related to cancers. A subgroup of ethicists, lawyers, patients' representatives, and psychologists provided ethical reflection, information guidelines, and materials (written consent form and video). A subgroup with medical expertise, including oncologists and clinical and molecular geneticists, provided independent evaluation and classification of 60 genes. The main criteria were the "actionability" of the genes (available screening or prevention strategies), the risk evaluation (severity, penetrance, and age of disease onset), and the level of evidence from published data. Genes were divided into three classes: for class 1 genes (n = 36), delivering the information on SFs was recommended; for class 2 genes (n = 5), delivering the information remained questionable because of insufficient data from the literature and/or level of evidence; and for class 3 genes (n = 19), delivering the information on SFs was not recommended. These guidelines for managing SFs for cancer-predisposing genes provide new insights for clinicians and laboratories to standardize clinical practices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41431-018-0224-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6244405PMC
December 2018

Integrative analysis of dysregulated microRNAs and mRNAs in multiple recurrent synchronized renal tumors from patients with von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Int J Oncol 2018 Oct 19;53(4):1455-1468. Epub 2018 Jul 19.

Oncogenetics Laboratory, EPHE, PSL Research University, 75014 Paris, France.

Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) disease is a rare autosomal dominant syndrome that is the main cause of inherited clear-cell renal cell carcinoma (ccRCC), which generally occurs in the form of multiple recurrent synchronized tumors. Affected patients are carriers of a germline mutation in the VHL tumor suppressor gene. Somatic mutations of this gene are also found in sporadic ccRCC and numerous pan-genomic studies have reported a dysregulation of microRNA (miRNA) expression in these sporadic tumors. In order to investigate the molecular mechanisms underlying the pathogenesis of VHL-associated ccRCC, particularly in the context of multiple tumors, the present study characterized the mRNA and miRNA transcriptome through an integrative analysis compared with sporadic renal tumors. In the present study, two series of ccRCC samples were used. The first set consisted of several samples from different tumors occurring in the same patient, for two independent patients affected with VHL disease. The second set consisted of 12 VHL-associated tumors and 22 sporadic ccRCC tumors compared with a pool of normal renal tissue. For each sample series, an expression analysis of miRNAs and mRNAs was conducted using microarrays. The results indicated that multiple tumors within the kidney of a patient with VHL disease featured a similar pattern of miRNA and gene expression. In addition, the expression levels of miRNA were able to distinguish VHL-associated tumors from sporadic ccRCC, and it was identified that 103 miRNAs and 2,474 genes were differentially expressed in the ccRCC series compared with in normal renal tissue. The majority of dysregulated genes were implicated in 'immunity' and 'metabolism' pathways. Taken together, these results allow a better understanding of the occurrence of ccRCC in patients with VHL disease, by providing insights into dysregulated miRNA and mRNA. In the set of patients with VHL disease, there were few differences in miRNA and mRNA expression, thus indicating a similar molecular evolution of these synchronous tumors and suggesting that the same molecular mechanisms underlie the pathogenesis of these hereditary tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2018.4490DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086628PMC
October 2018

Identification of a new exon and complex splicing alterations in familial erythrocytosis or von Hippel-Lindau disease.

Blood 2018 08 11;132(5):469-483. Epub 2018 Jun 11.

Faculty of Medicine Alexandroupolis, Democritus University of Thrace, Thrace, Greece.

Chuvash polycythemia is an autosomal recessive form of erythrocytosis associated with a homozygous p.Arg200Trp mutation in the von Hippel-Lindau () gene. Since this discovery, additional mutations have been identified in patients with congenital erythrocytosis, in a homozygous or compound-heterozygous state. is a major tumor suppressor gene, mutations in which were first described in patients presenting with VHL disease, which is characterized by the development of highly vascularized tumors. Here, we identify a new cryptic exon (termed E1') deep in intron 1 that is naturally expressed in many tissues. More importantly, we identify mutations in E1' in 7 families with erythrocytosis (1 homozygous case and 6 compound-heterozygous cases with a mutation in E1' in addition to a mutation in coding sequences) and in 1 large family with typical VHL disease but without any alteration in the other exons. In this study, we show that the mutations induced a dysregulation of splicing with excessive retention of E1' and were associated with a downregulation of VHL protein expression. In addition, we demonstrate a pathogenic role for synonymous mutations in exon 2 that altered splicing through E2-skipping in 5 families with erythrocytosis or VHL disease. In all the studied cases, the mutations differentially affected splicing, correlating with phenotype severity. This study demonstrates that cryptic exon retention and exon skipping are new alterations and reveals a novel complex splicing regulation of the gene. These findings open new avenues for diagnosis and research regarding the VHL-related hypoxia-signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1182/blood-2018-03-838235DOI Listing
August 2018

Novel diagnostic tool for prediction of variant spliceogenicity derived from a set of 395 combined in silico/in vitro studies: an international collaborative effort.

Nucleic Acids Res 2018 09;46(15):7913-7923

Inserm UMR1078, Genetics, Functional Genomics and Biotechnology, Université de Bretagne Occidentale, 29200 Brest, France.

Variant interpretation is the key issue in molecular diagnosis. Spliceogenic variants exemplify this issue as each nucleotide variant can be deleterious via disruption or creation of splice site consensus sequences. Consequently, reliable in silico prediction of variant spliceogenicity would be a major improvement. Thanks to an international effort, a set of 395 variants studied at the mRNA level and occurring in 5' and 3' consensus regions (defined as the 11 and 14 bases surrounding the exon/intron junction, respectively) was collected for 11 different genes, including BRCA1, BRCA2, CFTR and RHD, and used to train and validate a new prediction protocol named Splicing Prediction in Consensus Elements (SPiCE). SPiCE combines in silico predictions from SpliceSiteFinder-like and MaxEntScan and uses logistic regression to define optimal decision thresholds. It revealed an unprecedented sensitivity and specificity of 99.5 and 95.2%, respectively, and the impact on splicing was correctly predicted for 98.8% of variants. We therefore propose SPiCE as the new tool for predicting variant spliceogenicity. It could be easily implemented in any diagnostic laboratory as a routine decision making tool to help geneticists to face the deluge of variants in the next-generation sequencing era. SPiCE is accessible at (https://sourceforge.net/projects/spicev2-1/).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/nar/gky372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6125621PMC
September 2018

Pattern multiplicity and fumarate hydratase (FH)/S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) staining but not eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas from kidney tumors without FH gene alteration.

Mod Pathol 2018 06 6;31(6):974-983. Epub 2018 Feb 6.

Réseau National pour Cancers Rares de l'Adulte PREDIR AP-HP labellisé par l'Institut National du Cancer (INCa), Hôpital de Bicêtre, 94275, Le Kremlin Bicêtre, France.

Hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome is characterized by an increased risk of agressive renal cell carcinoma, often of type 2 papillary histology, and is caused by FH germline mutations. A prominent eosinophilic macronucleolus with a perinucleolar clear halo is distinctive of hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma syndrome-associated renal cell carcinoma according to the 2012 ISUP and 2016 WHO kidney tumor classification. From an immunohistochemistry perspective, tumors are often FH-negative and S-(2-succino)-cysteine (2SC) positive. We performed a pathology review of 24 renal tumors in 23 FH mutation carriers, and compared them to 12 type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from FH wild-type patients. Prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos were present in almost all FH-deficient renal cell carcinomas (23/24). Unexpectedly, they were also present in 58% of type 2 papillary renal cell carcinomas from wild-type patients. Renal cell carcinoma in mutation carriers displayed a complex architecture with multiple patterns, typically papillary, tubulopapillary, and tubulocystic, but also sarcomatoid and rhabdoid. Such pattern diversity was not seen in non-carriers. FH/2SC immunohistochemistry was informative as all hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinomas were either FH- or 2SC+. For FH and 2SC immunohistochemistries taken separately, sensitivity of negative anti-FH immunohistochemistry was 87.5% and specificity was 100%. For positive anti-2SC immunohistochemistry, sensitivity, and specificity were 91.7% and 91.7%, respectively. All FH wild-type renal cell carcinoma were FH-positive, and all but one were 2SC-negative. In conclusion, multiplicity of architectural patterns, rhabdoid/sarcomatoid components and combined FH/2SC staining, but not prominent eosinophilic nucleoli with perinucleolar halos, differentiate hereditary leiomyomatosis and renal cell carcinoma-associated renal cell carcinoma from type 2 papillary renal cell carcinoma with efficient FH gene. Our findings are crucial in identifying who should be referred to Cancer Genetics clinics for genetic counseling and testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41379-018-0017-7DOI Listing
June 2018

Germline SUFU mutation carriers and medulloblastoma: clinical characteristics, cancer risk, and prognosis.

Neuro Oncol 2018 07;20(8):1122-1132

Département de Cancérologie de l'Enfant et de l'Adolescent, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: Germline mutations of suppressor of fused homolog (SUFU) predispose to sonic hedgehog (SHH) medulloblastoma. Germline SUFU mutations have been reported in nevoid basal cell carcinoma syndrome (NBCCS), but little is known about the cancer risk and clinical spectrum.

Methods: We performed a retrospective review of all patients with medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation in France.

Results: Twenty-two patients from 17 families were identified with medulloblastoma and a germline SUFU mutation (median age at diagnosis: 16.5 mo). Macrocrania was present in 20 patients, but only 5 met the diagnostic criteria for NBCCS. Despite treatment with surgery and chemotherapy, to avoid radiotherapy in all patients except one, the outcome was worse than expected for SHH medulloblastoma, due to the high incidence of local relapses (8/22 patients) and second malignancies (n = 6 in 4/22 patients). The 5-year progression-free survival and overall survival rates were 42% and 66%. Mutations were inherited in 79% of patients, and 34 additional SUFU mutation carriers were identified within 14 families. Medulloblastoma penetrance was incomplete, but higher than in Patched 1 (PTCH1) mutation carriers. Besides medulloblastoma, 19 other tumors were recorded among the 56 SUFU mutation carriers, including basal cell carcinoma (BCC) in 2 patients and meningioma in 3 patients.

Conclusion: Germline SUFU mutations strongly predispose to medulloblastoma in the first years of life, with worse prognosis than usually observed for SHH medulloblastoma. The clinical spectrum differs between SUFU and PTCH1 mutation carriers, and BCC incidence is much lower in SUFU mutation carriers. The optimal treatment of SUFU mutation-associated medulloblastoma has not been defined.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/neuonc/nox228DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6280147PMC
July 2018

Contribution of de novo and mosaic mutations to Li-Fraumeni syndrome.

J Med Genet 2018 03 25;55(3):173-180. Epub 2017 Oct 25.

Department of Genetics, Normandy Centre for Genomic and Personalized Medicine, Normandie University, UNIROUEN, Inserm U1245 and Rouen University Hospital, Rouen, France.

Background: Development of tumours such as adrenocortical carcinomas (ACC), choroid plexus tumours (CPT) or female breast cancers before age 31 or multiple primary cancers belonging to the Li-Fraumeni (LFS) spectrum is, independently of the familial history, highly suggestive of a germline mutation. The aim of this study was to determine the contribution of de novo and mosaic mutations to LFS.

Methods And Results: Among 328 unrelated patients harbouring a germline mutation identified by Sanger sequencing and/or QMPSF, we could show that the mutations had occurred de novo in 40 cases, without detectable parental age effect. Sanger sequencing revealed two mosaic mutations in a child with ACC and in an unaffected father of a child with medulloblastoma. Re-analysis of blood DNA by next-generation sequencing, performed at a depth above 500X, from 108 patients suggestive of LFS without detectable mutations, allowed us to identify 6 additional cases of mosaic mutations, in 2/49 children with ACC, 2/21 children with CPT, in 1/31 women with breast cancer before age 31 and in a patient who developed an osteosarcoma at age 12, a breast carcinoma and a breast sarcoma at age 35.

Conclusions: This study performed on a large series of mutation carriers allows estimating the contribution to LFS of de novo mutations to at least 14% (48/336) and suggests that approximately one-fifth of these de novo mutations occur during embryonic development. Considering the medical impact of mutation identification, medical laboratories in charge of testing should ensure the detection of mosaic mutations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2017-104976DOI Listing
March 2018

Identification of ten variants associated with risk of estrogen-receptor-negative breast cancer.

Nat Genet 2017 Dec 23;49(12):1767-1778. Epub 2017 Oct 23.

Department of Epidemiology, University of California, Irvine, Irvine, California, USA.

Most common breast cancer susceptibility variants have been identified through genome-wide association studies (GWAS) of predominantly estrogen receptor (ER)-positive disease. We conducted a GWAS using 21,468 ER-negative cases and 100,594 controls combined with 18,908 BRCA1 mutation carriers (9,414 with breast cancer), all of European origin. We identified independent associations at P < 5 × 10 with ten variants at nine new loci. At P < 0.05, we replicated associations with 10 of 11 variants previously reported in ER-negative disease or BRCA1 mutation carrier GWAS and observed consistent associations with ER-negative disease for 105 susceptibility variants identified by other studies. These 125 variants explain approximately 16% of the familial risk of this breast cancer subtype. There was high genetic correlation (0.72) between risk of ER-negative breast cancer and breast cancer risk for BRCA1 mutation carriers. These findings may lead to improved risk prediction and inform further fine-mapping and functional work to better understand the biological basis of ER-negative breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/ng.3785DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5808456PMC
December 2017

Improvement of Genetic Testing for Cutaneous Melanoma in Countries With Low to Moderate Incidence: The Rule of 2 vs the Rule of 3.

JAMA Dermatol 2017 11;153(11):1122-1129

Service de Dermatologie Centre Hospitalier, Lyon Sud, France.

Importance: Genetic testing for melanoma-prone mutation in France, a country with low to moderate incidence of melanoma, is proposed in cases with 2 invasive cutaneous melanomas and/or related cancers in the same patient, or in first- or second-degree relatives (rule of 2). In preclinical studies, these rules led to disclosure of mutation(s) in more than 10% of these families, the threshold widely accepted to justify genetic testing for cancers.

Objective: To reconsider these criteria in a general population testing of patients.

Design, Setting, And Participants: This was a retrospective study, performed from 2004 to 2015 at Angers and Lyons University Hospitals, of a cohort of 1032 patients who underwent genetic testing.

Main Outcomes And Measures: Frequency of mutation in high (CDKN2A, CDK4, and BAP1) and intermediate (MITF) susceptibility genes; statistical effect of histologic subtype, age, dysplastic nevi syndrome, and associated cancers on mutation rate; and evaluation of cases with anamnestic uncertainty.

Results: The mutation rate was 67 of 1032 patients (6.5%). Their mean (SD) age was 54.5 (14.2) years [range, 18-89 years], and 543 (52.6%) were men. It increased to 38 of 408 patients (9.3%) when applying a rule of 3 (those with ≥3 primary melanomas or genetically related cancers) (P = .68) and to 27 of 150 patients (18.0%) with a rule of 4 (4 primary melanomas or related cancer) (P < .001). The impact of age at first melanoma was observed only in those younger than 40 years, with a rate of 32 of 263 (12.1%) (P = .12) for the rule of 2 and 22 of 121 (18.2%) (P = .001) for the rule of 3. Use of the rule of 2 in patients younger than 40 years reduced the number of missed CDKN2A-mutated-families when applying the rule of 3 from 14 of 43 to 7 of 43. Anamnestic uncertainty, found in 88 families (8.5%), if excluded, would have led us to withdraw of only 21 cases (23.8%), and only 1 mutation would have been missed.

Conclusions And Relevance: We propose using the rule of 3 to recommend genetic testing in France and countries with low to moderate incidence of melanoma, except in families and patients with a first melanoma occurrence before age 40 years in whom the rule of 2 could be maintained.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1001/jamadermatol.2017.2926DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5710425PMC
November 2017

Germline Variation at CDKN2A and Associations with Nevus Phenotypes among Members of Melanoma Families.

J Invest Dermatol 2017 12 19;137(12):2606-2612. Epub 2017 Aug 19.

Melanoma Institute Australia, Westmead, New South Wales, Australia; Westmead Institute for Cancer Research, University of Sydney at Westmead Millennium Institute, New South Wales, Australia.

Germline mutations in CDKN2A are frequently identified among melanoma kindreds and are associated with increased atypical nevus counts. However, a clear relationship between pathogenic CDKN2A mutation carriage and other nevus phenotypes including counts of common acquired nevi has not yet been established. Using data from GenoMEL, we investigated the relationships between CDKN2A mutation carriage and 2-mm, 5-mm, and atypical nevus counts among blood-related members of melanoma families. Compared with individuals without a pathogenic mutation, those who carried one had an overall higher prevalence of atypical (odds ratio = 1.64; 95% confidence interval = 1.18-2.28) nevi but not 2-mm nevi (odds ratio = 1.06; 95% confidence interval = 0.92-1.21) or 5-mm nevi (odds ratio = 1.26; 95% confidence interval = 0.94-1.70). Stratification by case status showed more pronounced positive associations among non-case family members, who were nearly three times (odds ratio = 2.91; 95% confidence interval = 1.75-4.82) as likely to exhibit nevus counts at or above the median in all three nevus categories simultaneously when harboring a pathogenic mutation (vs. not harboring one). Our results support the hypothesis that unidentified nevogenic genes are co-inherited with CDKN2A and may influence carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jid.2017.07.829DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5701856PMC
December 2017

Germline /P16INK4A mutations contribute to genetic determinism of sarcoma.

J Med Genet 2017 09 7;54(9):607-612. Epub 2017 Jun 7.

Département de Biologie et Pathologie Médicales, Gustave Roussy, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, France.

Background: Sarcomas are rare mesenchymal malignancies whose pathogenesis is poorly understood; both environmental and genetic risk factors could contribute to their aetiology.

Methods And Results: We performed whole-exome sequencing (WES) in a familial aggregation of three individuals affected with soft-tissue sarcoma (STS) without TP53 mutation (Li-Fraumeni-like, LFL) and found a shared pathogenic mutation in tumour suppressor gene. We searched for individuals with sarcoma among 474 melanoma-prone families with a -/+ genotype and for mutations in 190 -negative LFL families where the index case was a sarcoma. Including the initial family, eight independent sarcoma cases carried a germline mutation in the /p16 gene. In five out of seven formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded sarcomas, heterozygosity was lost at germline mutations sites demonstrating complete loss of function. As sarcomas are rare in /p16 carriers, we searched in constitutional WES of nine carriers for potential modifying rare variants and identified three in platelet-derived growth factor receptor () gene. Molecular modelling showed that two never-described variants could impact the PDGFRA extracellular domain structure.

Conclusion: Germline mutations in /P16, a gene known to predispose to hereditary melanoma, pancreatic cancer and tobacco-related cancers, account also for a subset of hereditary sarcoma. In addition, we identified as a candidate modifier gene.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1136/jmedgenet-2016-104402DOI Listing
September 2017

Occurrence of BAP1 germline mutations in cutaneous melanocytic tumors with loss of BAP1-expression: A pilot study.

Genes Chromosomes Cancer 2017 09 23;56(9):691-694. Epub 2017 Jun 23.

Département of Biopathology, Centre Leon Bérard, Lyon, France.

Melanocytic BAP1-associated intradermal tumors (MBAITs) can either be sporadic or associated with a cancer-predisposition syndrome. In this study we explored the clinical status of 136 patients in which at least one MBAIT was found. 49/136 (36%) of them gave their signed consent for an oncogenetic BAP1 blood test. 28/136 patients (20%) diagnosed with an MBAIT had other MBAITs and/or a personal or familial history of BAP1-related cancers that could clinically designate them as potential carriers of a BAP1 germline mutation. 17 of these 28 patients underwent oncogenetic testing. A deleterious mutation of BAP1 was confirmed in 12/17 cases. 4/17 cases were wild-type; all had a single MBAIT and a history of skin melanoma. A variant of unknown significance was found in one case with multiple MBAITs. Among the 12 mutated cases, multiple MBAITs were present in 10/12 cases and were the only clinical sign in 4/12 cases. The remaining 32/49 blood-tested cases with an isolated MBAIT were wild type for BAP1 in 25/32 cases or showed a variant of unknown significance in 7/32 cases. We recommend, following the diagnosis of a MBAIT, performing a BAP1 immunohistochemistry in all other cutaneous melanocytic tumors removed previously or simultaneously and all skin melanomas. This screening could help clinicians prioritize which patients would most benefit from oncogenetic testing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/gcc.22473DOI Listing
September 2017

Deciphering the Role of Oncogenic MITFE318K in Senescence Delay and Melanoma Progression.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2017 08;109(8)

INSERM, U1065 (équipe 1), Equipe labélisée ARC 2016, C3M, Nice, France.

Background: MITF encodes an oncogenic lineage-specific transcription factor in which a germline mutation ( MITFE318K ) was identified in human patients predisposed to both nevus formation and, among other tumor types, melanoma. The molecular mechanisms underlying the oncogenic activity of MITF E318K remained uncharacterized.

Methods: Here, we compared the SUMOylation status of endogenous MITF by proximity ligation assay in melanocytes isolated from wild-type (n = 3) or E318K (n = 4) MITF donors. We also used a newly generated Mitf E318K knock-in (KI) mouse model to assess the role of Mitf E318K (n = 7 to 13 mice per group) in tumor development in vivo and performed transcriptomic analysis of the tumors to identify the molecular mechanisms. Finally, using immortalized or normal melanocytes (wild-type or E318K MITF, n = 2 per group), we assessed the role of MITF E318K on the induction of senescence mediated by BRAF V600E . All statistical tests were two-sided.

Results: We demonstrated a decrease in endogenous MITF SUMOylation in melanocytes from MITF E318K patients (mean of cells with hypoSUMOylated MITF, MITF E318K vs MITF WT , 94% vs 44%, difference = 50%, 95% CI = 21.8% to 67.2%, P  = .004). The Mitf E318K mice were slightly hypopigmented (mean melanin content Mitf WT vs Mitf E318K/+ , 0.54 arbitrary units [AU] vs 0.36 AU, difference = -0.18, 95% CI = -0.36 to -0.007, P  = .04). We provided genetic evidence that Mitf E318K enhances BRaf V600E -induced nevus formation in vivo (mean nevus number for Mitf E318K , BRaf V600E vs Mitf WT , BRaf V600E , 68 vs 44, difference = 24, 95% CI = 9.1 to 38.9, P  = .006). Importantly, although Mitf E318K was not sufficient to cooperate with BRaf V600E alone in promoting metastatic melanoma, it accelerated tumor formation on a BRaf V600E , Pten-deficient background (median survival, Mitf E318K/+  = 42 days, 95% CI = 31 to 46 vs Mitf WT  = 51 days, 95% CI = 50 to 55, P  < .001). Transcriptome analysis suggested a decrease in senescence in tumors from Mitf E318K mice. We confirmed this hypothesis by in vitro experiments, demonstrating that Mitf E318K impaired the ability of human melanocytes to undergo BRAF V600E -induced senescence.

Conclusions: We characterized the functions of melanoma-associated MITF E318K mutations. Our results demonstrate that MITF E318K reduces the program of senescence to potentially favor melanoma progression in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djw340DOI Listing
August 2017

The MITF, p.E318K Variant, as a Risk Factor for Pheochromocytoma and Paraganglioma.

J Clin Endocrinol Metab 2016 12 28;101(12):4764-4768. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

INSERM (L.J.C.-V., S.R.K., N.K., A.B., L.A., N.B.-N., J.F., A.-P.G.-R.), UMR970, Paris-Cardiovascular Research Center, F-75015, Paris, France; Université Paris Descartes (L.J.C.-V., S.R.K., N.B., A.B., L.A., N.B.-N., J.F., A.-P.G.-R.), PRES Sorbonne Paris Cité, Faculté de Médecine, F-75006 Paris, France; Service de Génétique, Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris (N.B., C.S., A.-P.G.-R.), F-75015, Paris, France; Unité Hypertension artérielle (L.A.), Hôpital Européen Georges Pompidou, Assistance Publique-Hôpitaux de Paris, F-75015, Paris, France; Département de Cancérologie endocrinienne and Université Paris-Saclay (A.B., M.S.), Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, F-94805, France; Université Paris 13 (P.G.), Equipe de Recherche en Epidémiologie Nutritionnelle (EREN), Centre d'Epidémiologie et Statistiques Sorbonne Paris Cité, INSERM (U1153), Inra (U1125), Cnam, COMUE Sorbonne Paris Cité, Bobigny; INSERM (B.B.-d.P.), U1186, Université Paris-Sud, Université Paris-Saclay, Villejuif, F-94805, France; Département de Biopathologie (B.B.-d.P.), Gustave Roussy, Villejuif, F-94805, France; and Rare Adrenal Cancer Network COMETE (L.A., A.-P.G.-R.), F-75006, Paris, France.

Context: The microphthalmia-associated transcription factor (MITF) regulates the survival, proliferation, and differentiation of neural crest-derived lineages. Recent studies reported an increased risk of melanoma in individuals carrying the rare variant MITF, p.E318K (rs149617956). Whether this variant plays a role in other neural crest-derived tumors is unknown.

Objective: In the present study, we aimed at determining the prevalence of the MITF, p.E318K variant, in a well-characterized French cohort of pheochromocytomas/paragangliomas (PCC/PGL).

Design And Methods: Genomic DNA from 555 unrelated patients with PCC/PGL was genotyped for the p.E318K variant in MITF using Sanger sequencing.

Main Outcome Measure: The prevalence of the mutation in the PCC/PGL cohort was compared with a population-based sample of 2348 ethnically matched controls.

Results: We identified seven carriers (five patients with sporadic PCCs, two with PGLs). The prevalence of the MITF, p.E318K variant, was higher in the PCC/PGL cohort than in controls, and appears to be a significant risk factor (odds ratio, 3.19; 95% confidence interval, 1.34-7.59; P = .005). Noteworthy, two patients were homozygous for the p.E318K risk allele, a patient with metastatic PCC and an SDHB-mutated patient with PGL.

Conclusion: Our results indicate that the germline variant MITF, p.E318K is associated with an increased risk of other neural crest-derived tumors such as PCC/PGL.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1210/jc.2016-2103DOI Listing
December 2016

BRCA Share: A Collection of Clinical BRCA Gene Variants.

Hum Mutat 2016 12 28;37(12):1318-1328. Epub 2016 Sep 28.

Institut Claudius Régaud, Toulouse, France.

As next-generation sequencing increases access to human genetic variation, the challenge of determining clinical significance of variants becomes ever more acute. Germline variants in the BRCA1 and BRCA2 genes can confer substantial lifetime risk of breast and ovarian cancer. Assessment of variant pathogenicity is a vital part of clinical genetic testing for these genes. A database of clinical observations of BRCA variants is a critical resource in that process. This article describes BRCA Share™, a database created by a unique international alliance of academic centers and commercial testing laboratories. By integrating the content of the Universal Mutation Database generated by the French Unicancer Genetic Group with the testing results of two large commercial laboratories, Quest Diagnostics and Laboratory Corporation of America (LabCorp), BRCA Share™ has assembled one of the largest publicly accessible collections of BRCA variants currently available. Although access is available to academic researchers without charge, commercial participants in the project are required to pay a support fee and contribute their data. The fees fund the ongoing curation effort, as well as planned experiments to functionally characterize variants of uncertain significance. BRCA Share™ databases can therefore be considered as models of successful data sharing between private companies and the academic world.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/humu.23113DOI Listing
December 2016
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