Publications by authors named "Brigham Bastian"

13 Publications

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Regional Differences in the Drugs Most Frequently Involved in Drug Overdose Deaths: United States, 2017.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2019 Oct;68(12):1-16

Objective-This report describes regional differences in the specific drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in the United States in 2017. Methods-Data from the 2017 National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files were linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Drug overdose deaths were identified using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision underlying cause-of-death codes X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14. Drug mentions were identified using established methods for searching the literal text from death certificates. Deaths were assigned to 1 of 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services (HHS) regions based on the decedent's state of residence. The number and age-adjusted death rate was determined for the 10 drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in 2017, both nationally and for each HHS region. Deaths involving more than one drug were counted in all relevant drug categories (i.e., the same death could be counted in more than one drug category). Results-Among drug overdose deaths in 2017 that mentioned at least 1 specific drug on the death certificate, the 10 drugs most frequently involved included fentanyl, heroin, cocaine, methamphetamine, alprazolam, oxycodone, morphine, methadone, hydrocodone, and diphenhydramine. Regionally, 6 drugs (alprazolam, cocaine, fentanyl, heroin, methadone, and oxycodone) were found among the 10 most frequently involved drugs in all 10 HHS regions, although the relative ranking varied by region. Age-adjusted rates of drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl or deaths involving cocaine were higher in the regions east of the Mississippi River, while age-adjusted rates for drug overdose deaths involving methamphetamine were higher in the West. The regional patterns observed did not change after adjustment for differences in the specificity of drug reporting. Conclusions-The drugs most frequently involved in drug overdose deaths in 2017 varied by HHS region. Understanding the regional differences can help inform local prevention and policy efforts.
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October 2019

Healthy People 2020: Rural Areas Lag In Achieving Targets For Major Causes Of Death.

Health Aff (Millwood) 2019 12;38(12):2027-2031

Melonie Heron is a health scientist in the Division of Vital Statistics, NCHS.

For the period 2007-17 rural death rates were higher than urban rates for the seven major causes of death analyzed, and disparities widened for five of the seven. In 2017 urban areas had met national targets for three of the seven causes, while rural areas had met none of the targets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1377/hlthaff.2019.00915DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7365241PMC
December 2019

Potentially Excess Deaths from the Five Leading Causes of Death in Metropolitan and Nonmetropolitan Counties - United States, 2010-2017.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2019 11 8;68(10):1-11. Epub 2019 Nov 8.

Problem/condition: A 2017 report quantified the higher percentage of potentially excess (or preventable) deaths in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas. In that report, CDC compared national, regional, and state estimates of potentially excess deaths among the five leading causes of death in nonmetropolitan and metropolitan counties for 2010 and 2014. This report enhances the geographic detail by using the six levels of the 2013 National Center for Health Statistics (NCHS) urban-rural classification scheme for counties and extending estimates of potentially excess deaths by annual percent change (APC) and for additional years (2010-2017). Trends were tested both with linear and quadratic terms.

Period Covered: 2010-2017.

Description Of System: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death among persons aged <80 years. CDC's NCHS urban-rural classification scheme for counties was used to categorize the deaths according to the urban-rural county classification level of the decedent's county of residence (1: large central metropolitan [most urban], 2: large fringe metropolitan, 3: medium metropolitan, 4: small metropolitan, 5: micropolitan, and 6: noncore [most rural]). Potentially excess deaths were defined as deaths among persons aged <80 years that exceeded the number expected if the death rates for each cause in all states were equivalent to those in the benchmark states (i.e., the three states with the lowest rates). Potentially excess deaths were calculated separately for the six urban-rural county categories nationally, the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions, and the 50 states and District of Columbia.

Results: The number of potentially excess deaths among persons aged <80 years in the United States increased during 2010-2017 for unintentional injuries (APC: 11.2%), decreased for cancer (APC: -9.1%), and remained stable for heart disease (APC: 1.1%), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (APC: 1.7%), and stroke (APC: 0.3). Across the United States, percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan counties in all years during 2010-2017. When assessed by the six urban-rural county classifications, percentages of potentially excess deaths in the most rural counties (noncore) were consistently higher than in the most urban counties (large central metropolitan) for the study period. Potentially excess deaths from heart disease increased most in micropolitan counties (APC: 2.5%) and decreased most in large fringe metropolitan counties (APC: -1.1%). Potentially excess deaths from cancer decreased in all county categories, with the largest decreases in large central metropolitan (APC: -16.1%) and large fringe metropolitan (APC: -15.1%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes increased, with the largest increases occurring in large central metropolitan (APC: 18.3%), large fringe metropolitan (APC: 17.1%), and medium metropolitan (APC: 11.1%) counties. Potentially excess deaths from CLRD decreased most in large central metropolitan counties (APC: -5.6%) and increased most in micropolitan (APC: 3.7%) and noncore (APC: 3.6%) counties. In all county categories, potentially excess deaths from stroke exhibited a quadratic trend (i.e., decreased then increased), except in micropolitan counties, where no change occurred. Percentages of potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions and across states by urban-rural county classification during 2010-2017.

Interpretation: Nonmetropolitan counties had higher percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes than metropolitan counties during 2010-2017 nationwide, across public health regions, and in the majority of states. The gap between the most rural and most urban counties for potentially excess deaths increased during 2010-2017 for three causes of death (cancer, heart disease, and CLRD), decreased for unintentional injury, and remained relatively stable for stroke. Urban and suburban counties (large central metropolitan and large fringe metropolitan, medium metropolitan, and small metropolitan) experienced increases in potentially excess deaths from unintentional injury during 2010-2017, leading to a narrower gap between the already high (approximately 55%) percentage of excess deaths in noncore and micropolitan counties.

Public Health Action: Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths by urban-rural county classification might help public health departments and decision-makers identify and monitor public health problems and focus interventions to reduce potentially excess deaths in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6810a1DOI Listing
November 2019

Drug Overdose Deaths Involving Fentanyl, 2011-2016.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2019 Mar;68(3):1-19

Objectives-Fentanyl, a synthetic opioid, has been increasingly identified in drug overdose deaths. This report describes trends in drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl by demographic characteristics and geographic regions from 2011 through 2016. Methods-Drug overdose deaths were identified from the National Vital Statistics System-Mortality (NVSS-M) multiple cause-of-death files (2011-2016) using International Classification of Diseases, 10th Revision underlying causes of death (codes X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, or Y10-Y14). NVSS-M records for drug overdose deaths were linked with literal text from death certificates. Drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl were identified using a methodology established collaboratively by the National Center for Health Statistics and U.S. Food and Drug Administration-referred to as the Drugs Mentioned with Involvement (DMI) methodology-supplemented with search terms identified using text analytics software. Fentanyl involvement was determined by the presence of any string term or phrase listing fentanyl, or any fentanyl metabolite, precursor, analog, or misspelling identified in the death certificate literal text fields (i.e., the causes of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred). Trends were evaluated using the National Cancer Institute's Joinpoint Regression Program. Results-The number of drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl was stable in 2011 (1,663) and 2012 (1,615), and began to increase in 2013, rising to 18,335 deaths in 2016. The ageadjusted rate increased from 0.5 per 100,000 standard population in 2011 to 5.9 per 100,000 in 2016, with the increase starting in 2013 (0.6 in 2013 to 1.3 in 2014 and 2.6 in 2015). Numbers and rates increased for all sex, age, and racial and ethnic subgroups, and most public health regions. Adjustment for improved drug reporting over the study period did not change the trend patterns observed.
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March 2019

Drugs Most Frequently Involved in Drug Overdose Deaths: United States, 2011-2016.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2018 Dec;67(9):1-14

Objective-This report identifies the specific drugs involved most frequently in drug overdose deaths in the United States from 2011 through 2016. Methods-Record-level data from the 2011-2016 National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files were linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Drug overdose deaths were identified using the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision underlying causeof- death codes X40-X44, X60-X64, X85, and Y10-Y14. Drug mentions were identified by searching the literal text in three fields of the death certificate: the causes of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred. Contextual information was used to determine drug involvement in the death. Descriptive statistics were calculated for drug overdose deaths involving the 10 most frequently mentioned drugs. Deaths involving more than one drug (e.g., a death involving both heroin and cocaine) were counted in all relevant drug categories (e.g., the same death was included in counts of heroin deaths and in counts of cocaine deaths). Results-Among drug overdose deaths that mentioned at least one specific drug, the 10 most frequently mentioned drugs during 2011-2016 included fentanyl, heroin, hydrocodone, methadone, morphine, oxycodone, alprazolam, diazepam, cocaine, and methamphetamine. Oxycodone ranked first in 2011, heroin during 2012-2015, and fentanyl in 2016. During the study period, cocaine consistently ranked second or third. From 2011 through 2016, the age-adjusted rate of drug overdose deaths involving heroin more than tripled, as did the rate of drug overdose deaths involving methamphetamine. The rate of drug overdose deaths involving fentanyl and fentanyl analogs doubled each year from 2013 through 2016, from 0.6 per 100,000 in 2013 to 1.3 in 2014, 2.6 in 2015, and 5.9 in 2016. The rate of overdose deaths involving methadone decreased from 1.4 per 100,000 in 2011 to 1.1 in 2016. The 10 most frequently mentioned drugs often were found in combination with each other. The drugs most frequently mentioned varied by the intent of the drug overdose death. In 2016, the drugs most frequently mentioned in unintentional drug overdose deaths were fentanyl, heroin, and cocaine, while the drugs most frequently mentioned in suicides by drug overdose were oxycodone, diphenhydramine, hydrocodone, and alprazolam.
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December 2018

Deaths: Final Data for 2016.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2018 Jul;67(5):1-76

This report presents final 2016 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin and race, state of residence, and cause of death.
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July 2018

Leading Causes of Death in Nonmetropolitan and Metropolitan Areas- United States, 1999-2014.

MMWR Surveill Summ 2017 Jan 13;66(1):1-8. Epub 2017 Jan 13.

Center for Surveillance, Epidemiology, and Laboratory Services, CDC.

Problem/condition: Higher rates of death in nonmetropolitan areas (often referred to as rural areas) compared with metropolitan areas have been described but not systematically assessed.

Period Covered: 1999-2014 DESCRIPTION OF SYSTEM: Mortality data for U.S. residents from the National Vital Statistics System were used to calculate age-adjusted death rates and potentially excess deaths for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas for the five leading causes of death. Age-adjusted death rates included all ages and were adjusted to the 2000 U.S. standard population by the direct method. Potentially excess deaths are defined as deaths among persons aged <80 years that exceed the numbers that would be expected if the death rates of states with the lowest rates (i.e., benchmark states) occurred across all states. (Benchmark states were the three states with the lowest rates for each cause during 2008-2010.) Potentially excess deaths were calculated separately for nonmetropolitan and metropolitan areas. Data are presented for the United States and the 10 U.S. Department of Health and Human Services public health regions.

Results: Across the United States, nonmetropolitan areas experienced higher age-adjusted death rates than metropolitan areas. The percentages of potentially excess deaths among persons aged <80 years from the five leading causes were higher in nonmetropolitan areas than in metropolitan areas. For example, approximately half of deaths from unintentional injury and chronic lower respiratory disease in nonmetropolitan areas were potentially excess deaths, compared with 39.2% and 30.9%, respectively, in metropolitan areas. Potentially excess deaths also differed among and within public health regions; within regions, nonmetropolitan areas tended to have higher percentages of potentially excess deaths than metropolitan areas.

Interpretation: Compared with metropolitan areas, nonmetropolitan areas have higher age-adjusted death rates and greater percentages of potentially excess deaths from the five leading causes of death, nationally and across public health regions.

Public Health Action: Routine tracking of potentially excess deaths in nonmetropolitan areas might help public health departments identify emerging health problems, monitor known problems, and focus interventions to reduce preventable deaths in these areas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.ss6601a1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5829895PMC
January 2017

Using Literal Text From the Death Certificate to Enhance Mortality Statistics: Characterizing Drug Involvement in Deaths.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016 Dec;65(9):1-15

Objectives-This report describes the development and use of a method for analyzing the literal text from death certificates to enhance national mortality statistics on drug-involved deaths. Drug-involved deaths include drug overdose deaths as well as other deaths where, according to death certificate literal text, drugs were associated with or contributed to the death. Methods-The method uses final National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Software programs were designed to search the literal text from three fields of the death certificate (the cause of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to the death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) to identify drug mentions as well as contextual information. The list of drug search terms was developed from existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. Literal text surrounding the identified drug search terms was analyzed to ascertain the context. Drugs mentioned in the death certificate literal text were assumed to be involved in the death unless contextual information suggested otherwise (e.g., "METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION"). The literal text analysis method was assessed by comparing the results from application of the method with results based on ICD-10 codes, and by conducting a manual review of a sample of records.
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December 2016

Using Literal Text From the Death Certificate to Enhance Mortality Statistics: Characterizing Drug Involvement in Deaths.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016 Dec;65(9):1-15

Objectives-This report describes the development and use of a method for analyzing the literal text from death certificates to enhance national mortality statistics on drug-involved deaths. Drug-involved deaths include drug overdose deaths as well as other deaths where, according to death certificate literal text, drugs were associated with or contributed to the death. Methods-The method uses final National Vital Statistics System-Mortality files linked to electronic files containing literal text information from death certificates. Software programs were designed to search the literal text from three fields of the death certificate (the cause of death from Part I, significant conditions contributing to the death from Part II, and a description of how the injury occurred from Box 43) to identify drug mentions as well as contextual information. The list of drug search terms was developed from existing drug classification systems as well as from manual review of the literal text. Literal text surrounding the identified drug search terms was analyzed to ascertain the context. Drugs mentioned in the death certificate literal text were assumed to be involved in the death unless contextual information suggested otherwise (e.g., "METHICILLIN RESISTANT STAPHYLOCOCCUS AUREUS INFECTION"). The literal text analysis method was assessed by comparing the results from application of the method with results based on ICD-10 codes, and by conducting a manual review of a sample of records.
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December 2016

Potentially Preventable Deaths Among the Five Leading Causes of Death - United States, 2010 and 2014.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2016 Nov 18;65(45):1245-1255. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

Death rates by specific causes vary across the 50 states and the District of Columbia.* Information on differences in rates for the leading causes of death among states might help state health officials determine prevention goals, priorities, and strategies. CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System data to provide national and state-specific estimates of potentially preventable deaths among the five leading causes of death in 2014 and compared these estimates with estimates previously published for 2010. Compared with 2010, the estimated number of potentially preventable deaths changed (supplemental material at https://stacks.cdc.gov/view/cdc/42472); cancer deaths decreased 25% (from 84,443 to 63,209), stroke deaths decreased 11% (from 16,973 to 15,175), heart disease deaths decreased 4% (from 91,757 to 87,950), chronic lower respiratory disease (CLRD) (e.g., asthma, bronchitis, and emphysema) deaths increased 1% (from 28,831 to 29,232), and deaths from unintentional injuries increased 23% (from 36,836 to 45,331). A better understanding of progress made in reducing potentially preventable deaths in the United States might inform state and regional efforts targeting the prevention of premature deaths from the five leading causes in the United States.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6545a1DOI Listing
November 2016

The Effect of Changes in Selected Age-specific Causes of Death on Non-Hispanic White Life Expectancy Between 2000 and 2014.

NCHS Data Brief 2016 Jun(250):1-8

Key Findings: Data from the National Vital Statistics System, Mortality •Between 2000 and 2014, life expectancy increased by 3.6, 2.6, and 1.4 years, respectively, for non-Hispanic black, Hispanic, and non-Hispanic white persons. •The 1.4-year increase in life expectancy for non-Hispanic white persons would have been greater if not for increases in death rates due to unintentional injuries, suicide, Alzheimer's disease, chronic liver disease, and hypertension. •Increases in death rates due to unintentional injuries, suicide, and chronic liver disease were large enough to increase all-cause non-Hispanic white death rates for ages 25-34, 35-44, and 45-54. •Increases in death rates due to unintentional poisonings for ages 25-34, 35-44, and 45-54 had the greatest impact on the change in life expectancy for non-Hispanic white persons.
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June 2016

Deaths: Final Data for 2013.

Natl Vital Stat Rep 2016 Feb;64(2):1-119

Objectives: This report presents final 2013 data on U.S. deaths, death rates, life expectancy, infant mortality, and trends, by selected characteristics such as age, sex, Hispanic origin, race, state of residence, and cause of death.

Methods: Information reported on death certificates, which are completed by funeral directors, attending physicians, medical examiners, and coroners, is presented in descriptive tabulations. The original records are filed in state registration offices. Statistical information is compiled in a national database through the Vital Statistics Cooperative Program of the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention’s National Center for Health Statistics. Causes of death are processed in accordance with the International Classification of Diseases, Tenth Revision.

Results: In 2013, a total of 2,596,993 deaths were reported in the United States. The age-adjusted death rate was 731.9 deaths per 100,000 U.S. standard population, a record low figure, but the decrease in 2013 from 2012 was not statistically significant. Life expectancy at birth was 78.8 years, the same as in 2012. Age-specific death rates decreased in 2013 from 2012 for age groups 15–24 and 75–84. Age-specific death rates increased only for age group 55–64. The 15 leading causes of death in 2013 remained the same as in 2012, although Accidents (unintentional injuries), the 5th leading cause of death in 2012, became the 4th leading cause in 2013, while Cerebrovascular diseases (stroke), the 4th leading cause in 2012, became the 5th leading cause of death in 2013. The infant mortality rate of 5.96 deaths per 1,000 live births in 2013 was a historically low value, but it was not significantly different from the 2012 rate.

Conclusions: Although statistically unchanged from 2012, the decline in the age-adjusted death rate is consistent with long-term trends in mortality. Life expectancy in 2013 remained the same as in 2012.
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February 2016

Potentially preventable deaths from the five leading causes of death--United States, 2008-2010.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2014 May;63(17):369-74

In 2010, the top five causes of death in the United States were 1) diseases of the heart, 2) cancer, 3) chronic lower respiratory diseases, 4) cerebrovascular diseases (stroke), and 5) unintentional injuries. The rates of death from each cause vary greatly across the 50 states and the District of Columbia (2). An understanding of state differences in death rates for the leading causes might help state health officials establish disease prevention goals, priorities, and strategies. States with lower death rates can be used as benchmarks for setting achievable goals and calculating the number of deaths that might be prevented in states with higher rates. To determine the number of premature annual deaths for the five leading causes of death that potentially could be prevented ("potentially preventable deaths"), CDC analyzed National Vital Statistics System mortality data from 2008-2010. The number of annual potentially preventable deaths per state before age 80 years was determined by comparing the number of expected deaths (based on average death rates for the three states with the lowest rates for each cause) with the number of observed deaths. The results of this analysis indicate that, when considered separately, 91,757 deaths from diseases of the heart, 84,443 from cancer, 28,831 from chronic lower respiratory diseases, 16,973 from cerebrovascular diseases (stroke), and 36,836 from unintentional injuries potentially could be prevented each year. In addition, states in the Southeast had the highest number of potentially preventable deaths for each of the five leading causes. The findings provide disease-specific targets that states can use to measure their progress in preventing the leading causes of deaths in their populations.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4584887PMC
May 2014