Publications by authors named "Bridget Salzameda"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Broad disorder and the allosteric mechanism of myosin II regulation by phosphorylation.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2011 May 2;108(20):8218-23. Epub 2011 May 2.

National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, 1800 East Paul Dirac Drive, Tallahassee, FL 32310, USA.

Double electron electron resonance EPR methods was used to measure the effects of the allosteric modulators, phosphorylation, and ATP, on the distances and distance distributions between the two regulatory light chain of myosin (RLC). Three different states of smooth muscle myosin (SMM) were studied: monomers, the short-tailed subfragment heavy meromyosin, and SMM filaments. We reconstituted myosin with nine single cysteine spin-labeled RLC. For all mutants we found a broad distribution of distances that could not be explained by spin-label rotamer diversity. For SMM and heavy meromyosin, several sites showed two heterogeneous populations in the unphosphorylated samples, whereas only one was observed after phosphorylation. The data were consistent with the presence of two coexisting heterogeneous populations of structures in the unphosphorylated samples. The two populations were attributed to an on and off state by comparing data from unphosphorylated and phosphorylated samples. Models of these two states were generated using a rigid body docking approach derived from EM [Wendt T, Taylor D, Trybus KM, Taylor K (2001) Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98:4361-4366] (PNAS, 2001, 98:4361-4366), but our data revealed a new feature of the off-state, which is heterogeneity in the orientation of the two RLC. Our average off-state structure was very similar to the Wendt model reveal a new feature of the off state, which is heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC. As found previously in the EM study, our on-state structure was completely different from the off-state structure. The heads are splayed out and there is even more heterogeneity in the orientations of the two RLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1014137108DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3100986PMC
May 2011

Role of the tail in the regulated state of myosin 2.

J Mol Biol 2011 May 23;408(5):863-78. Epub 2011 Mar 23.

Institute of Molecular and Cellular Biology and Astbury Centre for Structural Molecular Biology, University of Leeds, Leeds, LS2 9JT, UK.

Myosin 2 from vertebrate smooth muscle or non-muscle sources is in equilibrium between compact, inactive monomers and thick filaments under physiological conditions. In the inactive monomer, the two heads pack compactly together, and the long tail is folded into three closely packed segments that are associated chiefly with one of the heads. The molecular basis of the folding of the tail remains unexplained. By using electron microscopy, we show that compact monomers of smooth muscle myosin 2 have the same structure in both the native state and following specific, intramolecular photo-cross-linking between Cys109 of the regulatory light chain (RLC) and segment 3 of the tail. Nonspecific cross-linking between lysine residues of the folded monomer by glutaraldehyde also does not perturb the compact conformation and stabilizes it against unfolding at high ionic strength. Sequence comparisons across phyla and myosin 2 isoforms suggest that the folding of the tail is stabilized by ionic interactions between the positively charged N-terminal sequence of the RLC and a negatively charged region near the start of tail segment 3 and that phosphorylation of the RLC could perturb these interactions. Our results support the view that interactions between the heads and the distal tail perform a critical role in regulating activity of myosin 2 molecules through stabilizing the compact monomer conformation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jmb.2011.03.019DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3776433PMC
May 2011

Structure and activity of CPNGRC: a modified CD13/APN peptidic homing motif.

Chem Biol Drug Des 2010 Jun 30;75(6):551-62. Epub 2010 Mar 30.

Department of Biology, University of San Diego, San Diego, CA 92110, USA.

Asn-Gly-Arg peptides have been designed as vehicles for the delivery of chemotherapeutics, magnetic resonance imaging contrast agents, and fluorescence labels to tumor cells, and cardiac angiogenic tissue. Specificity is derived via an interaction with aminopeptidase N, also known as CD13, a cell surface receptor that is highly expressed in angiogenic tissue. Peptides containing the CNGRC homing sequence tethered to a pro-apoptotic peptide sequence have the ability to specifically induce apoptosis in tumor cells. We have now identified a modification to the Asn-Gly-Arg homing sequence motif that improves overall binding affinity to aminopeptidase N. Through the addition of a proline residue, the new peptide with sequence, CPNGRC, inhibits aminopeptidase N proteolytic activity with an IC(50) of 10 microM, a value that is 30-fold lower than that for CNGRC. Both peptides are cyclized via a disulfide bridge between cysteines. Steady-state kinetic experiments suggest that efficient aminopeptidase N inhibition is achieved through the highly cooperative binding of two molecules of CPNGRC. We have used NMR-derived structural constraints for the elucidation of the solution structures CNGRC and CPNGRC. Resulting structures of CNGRC and CPNGRC have significant differences in the backbone torsion angles, which may contribute to the enhanced binding affinity and demonstrated enzyme inhibition by CPNGRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1747-0285.2010.00974.xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2890305PMC
June 2010

Anti-obesity and anti-tumor pro-apoptotic peptides are sufficient to cause release of cytochrome c from vesicles.

FEBS Lett 2007 Nov 5;581(28):5464-8. Epub 2007 Nov 5.

Department of Chemistry and Biochemistry, University of San Diego, 5998 Alcala Park, San Diego, CA 92110, USA.

Peptides that target tissue for an apoptotic death have potential as therapeutics in a variety of disease conditions. The class of peptides described herein enters the cell through a specific receptor-mediated interaction. Once inside the cell, the peptide migrates toward the mitochondria, where the membrane barrier is disrupted. These experiments demonstrate that upon treatment with these short peptides large unilamellar vesicles are not lysed, a graded mode of leakage is observed and the transient pores formed by these peptides are large enough to release entrapped cytochrome c from the vesicles.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.febslet.2007.10.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2173911PMC
November 2007

The N-terminal lobes of both regulatory light chains interact with the tail domain in the 10 S-inhibited conformation of smooth muscle myosin.

J Biol Chem 2006 Dec 29;281(50):38801-11. Epub 2006 Sep 29.

Department of Biochemistry and Molecular Biology, School of Medicine, University of Nevada, 1664 N. Virginia Street, Reno, NV 89557, USA.

In the presence of ATP, unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin can form a catalytically inactive monomer that sediments at 10 Svedbergs (10 S). The tail of 10 S bends into thirds and interacts with the regulatory domain. ADP-P(i) is "trapped" at the active site, and consequently the ATPase activity is extremely low. We are interested in the structural basis for maintenance of this off state. Our prior photocross-linking work with 10 S showed that tail residues 1554-1583 are proximal to position 108 in the C-terminal lobe of one of the two regulatory light chains ( Olney, J. J., Sellers, J. R., and Cremo, C. R. (1996) J. Biol. Chem. 271, 20375-20384 ). These data suggested that the tail interacts with only one of the two regulatory light chains. Here we present data, using a photocross-linker on position 59 on the N-terminal lobe of the regulatory light chain (RLC), demonstrating that both regulatory light chains of a single molecule can cross-link to the light meromyosin portion of the tail. Mass spectrometric data show four specific cross-linked regions spanning residues 1428-1571 in the light meromyosin portion of the tail, consistent with cross-linking two RLC to one light meromyosin. In addition, we find that position 59 can cross-link internally to residues 42-45 within the same RLC subunit. The internal cross-link only forms in 10 S and not in unphosphorylated heavy meromyosin (lacking the light meromyosin), suggesting a structural rearrangement within the RLC attributed to the interaction of the tail with the head.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M606555200DOI Listing
December 2006

Regulatory and catalytic domain dynamics of smooth muscle myosin filaments.

Biochemistry 2006 May;45(19):6212-21

Biology Department, Institute of Molecular Biophysics and the National High Magnetic Field Laboratory, Florida State University, Tallahassee, Florida 32306, USA.

Domain dynamics of the chicken gizzard smooth muscle myosin catalytic domain (heavy chain Cys-717) and regulatory domain (regulatory light chain Cys-108) were determined in the absence of nucleotides using saturation-transfer electron paramagnetic resonance. In unphosphorylated synthetic filaments, the effective rotational correlation times, tau(r), were 24 +/- 6 micros and 441 +/- 79 micros for the catalytic and regulatory domains, respectively. The corresponding amplitudes of motion were 42 +/- 4 degrees and 24 +/- 9 degrees as determined from steady-state phosphorescence anisotropy. These results suggest that the two domains have independent mobility due to a hinge between the two domains. Although a similar hinge was observed for skeletal myosin (Adhikari and Fajer (1997) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A. 94, 9643-9647. Brown et al. (2001) Biochemistry 40, 8283-8291), the latter displayed higher regulatory domain mobility, tau(r)= 40 +/- 3 micros, suggesting a smooth muscle specific mechanism of constraining regulatory domain dynamics. In the myosin monomers the correlation times for both domains were the same (approximately 4 micros) for both smooth and skeletal myosin, suggesting that the motional difference between the two isoforms in the filaments was not due to intrinsic variation of hinge stiffness. Heavy chain/regulatory light chain chimeras of smooth and skeletal myosin pinpointed the origin of the restriction to the heavy chain and established correlation between the regulatory domain dynamics with the ability of myosin to switch off but not to switch on the ATPase and the actin sliding velocity. Phosphorylation of smooth muscle myosin filaments caused a small increase in the amplitude of motion of the regulatory domain (from 24 +/- 4 degrees to 36 +/- 7 degrees ) but did not significantly affect the rotational correlation time of the regulatory domain (441 to 408 micros) or the catalytic domain (24 to 17 micros). These data are not consistent with a stable interaction between the two catalytic domains in unphosphorylated smooth muscle myosin filaments in the absence of nucleotides.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/bi060037hDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5090715PMC
May 2006