Publications by authors named "Bridget Garner"

26 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

The Course of Microfilaremia in Experimentally Infected Cats.

Vector Borne Zoonotic Dis 2021 Jun 14. Epub 2021 Jun 14.

Department of Infectious Diseases and College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia, USA.

As one of the causative agents of lymphatic filariasis in humans, has been established as the laboratory model of choice for studying this infection owing to its viability in small animal hosts, with the domestic cat being significant among these. The usefulness of individual feline infections is highly dependent on the levels of circulating microfilariae in the blood; thus, characterizing the course of microfilaremia benefits our understanding of this model. In -endemic regions, cats are also known reservoirs of infection, and describing microfilaremia in a controlled setting may improve transmission modeling. We followed the course of infection in 10 experimentally infected cats from inoculation to ultimate resolution. Seven cats developed patency, with a peak microfilaria concentration of 6525/mL. In addition, to identify cellular responses with potential value as predictors of patency, we measured the peripheral blood leukocyte counts during the first 8 months of infection and tested for correlations with lifelong microfilaria production. No strong relationships were observed, though cell values did appear to shift with the maturation phases of the parasite. The data we present reflect the course of microfilaremia in an important laboratory model under controlled conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/vbz.2020.2761DOI Listing
June 2021

A rapid, parasite-dependent cellular response to Dirofilaria immitis in the Mongolian jird (Meriones unguiculatus).

Parasit Vectors 2021 Jan 7;14(1):25. Epub 2021 Jan 7.

Department of Infectious Diseases, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, 30602, USA.

Background: The Mongolian jird (Meriones unguiculatus) has long been recognized as a permissive host for the filarial parasite Brugia malayi; however, it is nonpermissive to another filarial parasite, canine heartworm (Dirofilaria immitis). By elucidating differences in the early response to infection, we sought to identify mechanisms involved in the species-specific clearance of these parasites. We hypothesized that the early clearance of D. immitis in intraperitoneal infection of the jird is immune mediated and parasite species dependent.

Methods: Jird peritoneal exudate cells (PECs) were isolated and their attachment to parasite larvae assessed in vitro under various conditions: D. immitis and B. malayi cultured separately, co-culture of both parasites, incubation before addition of cells, culture of heat-killed parasites, and culture with PECs isolated from jirds with mature B. malayi infection. The cells attaching to larvae were identified by immunohistochemistry.

Results: In vitro cell attachment to live D. immitis was high (mean = 99.6%) while much lower for B. malayi (mean = 5.56%). This species-specific attachment was also observed when both filarial species were co-cultured, with no significant change from controls (U = 58.5, p = 0.999). When we replicated these experiments with PECs derived from jirds subcutaneously infected with B. malayi, the results were similar (99.4% and 4.72% of D. immitis and B. malayi, respectively, exhibited cell attachment). Heat-killing the parasites significantly reduced cell attachment to D. immitis (mean = 71.9%; U = 7.5, p < 0.001) while increasing attachment to B. malayi (mean = 16.7%; U = 20, p = 0.002). Cell attachment to both species was reduced when larvae were allowed a 24-h pre-incubation period prior to the addition of cells. The attaching cells were identified as macrophages by immunohistochemistry.

Conclusions: These results suggest a strongly species-dependent response from which B. malayi could not confer protection by proxy in co-culture. The changes in cell attachment following heat-killing and pre-incubation suggest a role for excretory/secretory products in host immune evasion and/or antigenicity. The nature of this attachment is the subject of ongoing study and may provide insight into filarial host specificity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s13071-020-04455-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7788973PMC
January 2021

Impact of photographer experience and number of images on telecytology accuracy.

Vet Clin Pathol 2019 Sep 12;48(3):419-424. Epub 2019 Sep 12.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: Studies evaluating the potential impact of photographer experience or the number of images evaluated using the "store-and-forward" method of telecytology are not reported.

Objectives: This study aimed to determine the diagnostic sensitivity (Se) and specificity (Sp) of static telecytology when images were taken by experienced and inexperienced cytologists and when the number of images taken varied. Clinical agreement between the diagnoses was compared.

Methods: Fifty archived cytology cases were randomly chosen. A board-certified clinical pathologist and a recent veterinary graduate took five images of each case. A third pathologist made a preliminary diagnosis after reviewing two images, and a final diagnosis after reviewing all images. The gold standard for comparison was the glass slide cytologic diagnosis.

Results: Se and Sp were higher for the experienced cytologist and the evaluation of more images, but differences were not statistically significant. Clinical agreement between the image and glass slide diagnoses was significantly higher when images were taken by an experienced rather than inexperienced cytologist after the evaluation of two (P = .007) and five images (P = .008). The telecytology diagnoses agreed with the gold standard diagnoses more frequently after evaluation of five images rather than two when images were captured by both the experienced (P < .001) and inexperienced cytologist (P < .001).

Conclusions: There is more clinical agreement when the photographer has more cytology experience and when more images are provided for interpretation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12768DOI Listing
September 2019

Chronic granulomatous pneumonia and lung rupture secondary to aspiration of activated charcoal in a French Bulldog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2019 Mar;48(1):67-70

Department of Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, Georgia.

A 4-year-old, spayed female French Bulldog was presented for respiratory distress and suspected aspiration pneumonia after oral administration of activated charcoal for possible ingestion of a suspected toxic dose of trazodone. The patient had a moderate volume of pleural effusion, which contained free and intracellular black particulate matter consistent with charcoal. Due to presumed charcoal aspiration with subsequent lung rupture, the right middle and right caudal lung lobes were surgically removed. Histology revealed abundant black debris consistent with charcoal and severe granulomatous inflammation. Based on the clinical, gross, and histologic findings, a diagnosis of severe, chronic, locally extensive, aspiration pneumonia and lung rupture with secondary pleuritis and mediastinitis due to charcoal aspiration was made. Aspiration pneumonia is the main complication of activated charcoal administration, which can incite extensive, granulomatous inflammation in the respiratory tract. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report describing the cytologic and histologic findings associated with inadvertent charcoal aspiration in a veterinary species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12700DOI Listing
March 2019

The Educational Resource Preferences and Information-Seeking Behaviors of Veterinary Medical Students and Practitioners.

J Vet Med Educ 2019 21;46(4):470-480. Epub 2019 Feb 21.

Texas A&M University, College of Veterinary Medicine & Biomedical Sciences.

The overall purpose of this study was to assess the information-seeking strategies of individuals representing different stages of veterinary training. More specifically, we conducted a survey to evaluate textbook ownership, to determine the preferred types of educational resources and why these preferences exist, and to determine if changes arise as training progresses. We asked students in the veterinary curriculum, interns, residents, and recent graduates from the University of Georgia (UGA) College of Veterinary Medicine (CVM) to participate in a confidential online survey. A total of 184 individuals participated. Respondents were grouped into one of six categories: recent graduates ( = 6), interns/residents ( = 11), fourth-year students ( = 21), third-year students ( = 46), second-year students ( = 73), and first-year students ( = 27). The results showed that veterinary students used class notes and non-veterinary search engines initially, whereas interns and residents consulted textbooks and the primary literature as their first sources to answer a veterinary question. Veterinary students had accrued textbooks over sequential years in the curriculum, but many interns and residents had almost twice as many textbooks as those who had not pursued additional training after graduation. An ANOVA showed that first-year students reported a preference for printed textbooks significantly more frequently than the third-year and fourth-year students ( = 3.265, .006, and .012, respectively). Decreased cost was most frequently cited as the factor that would increase textbook purchases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3138/jvme.1017-150r1DOI Listing
November 2019

Influence of Cellular Composition and Exogenous Activation on Growth Factor and Cytokine Concentrations in Canine Platelet-Rich Plasmas.

Front Vet Sci 2017 5;4:40. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Small Animal Medicine and Surgery, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Objective: The purposes of this study were to (1) evaluate correlations among platelet, leukocyte, growth factor, and cytokine concentrations in canine platelet-rich plasmas (PRPs) produced from five different canine PRP-concentrating systems and (2) compare the effects of different activation protocols on platelet activation and growth factor release from one of these PRPs.

Methods: PRP was made using blood from 15 dogs and each of 5 different PRP systems in a cross-over design. Complete blood counts were performed to quantify platelet and leukocyte concentrations. PRPs were activated, or not, according to manufacturer instructions, and transforming growth factor-β1 (TGF-β1), platelet-derived growth factor-BB (PDGF-BB), vascular endothelial growth factor, and tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α) were quantified. Differences among platelet, leukocyte, and growth factor concentration were compared among the different systems. Correlations between platelet and anabolic growth factor concentrations were assessed. Subsequently, PRP was made from 12 additional dogs using one of the devices. Each PRP was divided into three aliquots that were activated with calcium chloride (CaCl), human γ-thrombin (HGT), or not activated. Expression of CD62P and platelet-bound fibrinogen (CAP1) was quantified for each activation group. Concentrations of TGF-β1, PDGF-BB, and TNF-α were also quantified for each activation group and a fourth group that was frozen/thawed. Differences among activation groups were assessed by a Friedman test.

Results: There were statistically significant differences among the PRPs made with difference devices with regard to platelet, leukocyte, TGF-β1, and PDGF-BB concentrations ( < 0.0001). There were weak to moderate correlations ( = 0.07-0.58) between platelet and anabolic growth factor concentrations but it appeared that activation had a greater effect on growth factor concentration than did cellular composition. Intentional platelet activation significantly increased CD62P and CAP1 expression as well as TGF-β1 and PDGF-BB concentrations in the one PRP in which all activation methods were assessed. Activation with HGT resulted in the greatest platelet activation, and CaCl and freeze/thaw elicited moderate increases in either growth factor release or CD62P and CAP1 expression.

Conclusion: There are positive correlations between platelet and anabolic growth factor concentrations in canine PRPs. However, intentional platelet activation has a greater effect on growth factor delivery than platelet concentration. Thrombin provides more robust activation than CaCl.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fvets.2017.00040DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5380674PMC
April 2017

Atypical cytologic presentation of a histiocytic sarcoma in a Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Jul 5;29(4):541-543. Epub 2017 Apr 5.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA.

A Cavalier King Charles Spaniel dog was presented because of a 10-d history of progressive vomiting, inappetence, and lethargy, with mild neurologic signs. Fine-needle aspirates of splenic nodules seen on ultrasound were suggestive of a carcinoma. On autopsy, a disseminated neoplasm was present in the lung, spleen, and adrenal glands. Additionally, there was a Chiari-like malformation of the skull with corresponding syringomyelia of the cranial spinal cord. Histologically, the neoplasm was comprised of a pleomorphic population of round cells with a high mitotic rate. Cells stained positive for vimentin and CD18 and negative for cytokeratin, chromogranin A, CD3, CD20, MHC II, and CD11d, and hence the tumor was diagnosed as a histiocytic sarcoma. The cytologic presentation in this case is uncommon for this type of tumor, as was the clinical presentation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638717701521DOI Listing
July 2017

Eosinophilic leukemia in three African pygmy hedgehogs ( Atelerix albiventris) and validation of Luna stain.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2017 Mar 24;29(2):217-223. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Loving Hands Animal Clinic (Martínez-Jiménez), Alpharetta, GA.

Neoplasia is usually encountered in the African pygmy hedgehog at a mean age of 3.5 y, and malignancy is common. Myelogenous leukemias are rarely reported in hedgehogs. We describe 3 cases of eosinophilic leukemia in adult, middle-aged (mean age: 2.3 y) hedgehogs, for which prognosis appears grave. In 1 case, attempted treatment was unsuccessful, and in all 3 cases, the disease course was rapid and all died soon after diagnosis. Blood smear evaluation, along with complete blood count, was critical in making the diagnosis in all cases. Luna stain was validated and used to better visualize eosinophils in cytologic and histologic sections. Electron microscopy confirmed the presence of specific granules in hedgehog eosinophils.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638716687603DOI Listing
March 2017

The fluorescent foible of Heinz bodies.

Vet Clin Pathol 2017 03 17;46(1):9-10. Epub 2017 Jan 17.

University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12444DOI Listing
March 2017

MANDIBULAR SQUAMOUS CELL CARCINOMA IN A BOBCAT (LYNX RUFUS).

J Zoo Wildl Med 2016 Mar;47(1):370-3

A 23-yr-old female spayed bobcat (Lynx rufus) presented with a 1-wk history of hypersalivation. On examination, the right mandible was markedly thickened, the right mandibular dental arcade was missing, and the oral mucosa over the right mandible was ulcerated and thickened. Skull radiographs and fine needle aspirate cytology were supportive of squamous cell carcinoma. The bobcat was euthanized as a result of its poor prognosis. Necropsy confirmed a diagnosis of oral squamous cell carcinoma of the mandible. To the authors' knowledge, this is the first report of oral squamous cell carcinoma in a bobcat.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1638/2015-0197.1DOI Listing
March 2016

Pathology of Haemonchus contortus in New World camelids in the southeastern United States: a retrospective review.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2016 Mar;28(2):105-9

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, Texas A&M University, College Station, TX (Edwards)Departments of Pathology (Garner, Sakamoto), College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GALarge Animal Medicine and Surgery (Williamson), College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GAInfectious Diseases (Storey), College of Veterinary Medicine, The University of Georgia, Athens, GA

Most small ruminant farms in tropical climates are plagued by Haemonchus contortus, a hematophagous, abomasal parasite. Heavy burdens of this parasite can cause anemia, hypoproteinemia, weight loss, and mortality in susceptible animals. Haemonchus contortus is becoming a major health concern in New World camelids as well, namely llamas (Llama glama) and alpacas (Vicugna pacos), yet little research has been conducted regarding its prevalence or pathology in these species. Herein, we present a retrospective review of llamas and alpacas that were admitted to The University of Georgia Veterinary Teaching Hospital and Athens Diagnostic Laboratory between the years 2002 and 2013. Antemortem fecal egg count (FEC) estimates performed on 30 alpacas were negatively correlated with hematocrit, hemoglobin, and red blood cell count. Total protein was not significantly correlated with FEC. On postmortem examination, 55 of 198 camelids, including 2 from the aforementioned antemortem review, were infected with H. contortus, with llamas (42.6%) having a significantly higher infection rate than alpacas (22.2%). In 15.7% of the total cases, the parasite was the major cause of death. Common gross lesions included peritoneal, thoracic, and pericardial effusions, visceral pallor, subcutaneous edema, and serous atrophy of fat. Histologic lesions included centrilobular hepatic necrosis, hepatic atrophy, lymphoplasmacytic inflammation of the mucosa of the third gastric compartment (C3), extramedullary hematopoiesis in both the liver and spleen, and the presence of nematodes in C3. Our study emphasizes the importance of H. contortus diagnosis and herd monitoring in New World camelids, particularly llamas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638716628587DOI Listing
March 2016

Characteristics of canine platelet-rich plasma prepared with five commercially available systems.

Am J Vet Res 2015 Sep;76(9):822-7

Objective: To characterize platelet-rich plasma (PRP) products obtained from canine blood by use of a variety of commercially available devices.

Sample: Blood samples from 15 dogs between 18 months and 9 years of age with no concurrent disease, except for osteoarthritis in some dogs.

Procedures: PRP products were produced from blood obtained from each of the 15 dogs by use of each of 5 commercially available PRP-concentrating systems. Complete blood counts were performed on each whole blood sample and PRP product. The degree of platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentration or reduction for PRP, compared with results for the whole blood sample, was quantified for each dog and summarized for each concentrating system.

Results: The various PRP-concentrating systems differed substantially in the amount of blood processed, method of PRP preparation, amount of PRP produced, and platelet, leukocyte, and erythrocyte concentrations or reductions for PRP relative to results for whole blood.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: The characteristics of PRP products differed considerably. Investigators evaluating the efficacy of PRPs need to specify the characteristics of the product they are assessing. Clinicians should be aware of the data (or lack of data) supporting use of a particular PRP for a specific medical condition.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.76.9.822DOI Listing
September 2015

Identification of Synovial Fluid Biomarkers for Knee Osteoarthritis and Correlation with Radiographic Assessment.

J Knee Surg 2016 Apr 30;29(3):242-7. Epub 2015 Apr 30.

Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, Missouri.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a costly and debilitating condition that is typically not diagnosed early enough to prevent progression of disease. The purpose of this study was to evaluate synovial fluid from knees with and without OA for potential markers of joint inflammation and degradation and to correlate these findings with radiographic severity of disease. With Institutional Review Board approval, synovial fluid samples were collected before the patient undergoing total knee arthroplasty. Control knees (n = 3) were patients younger than 30 years of age with no history of anterior cruciate ligament, posterior cruciate ligament, or meniscal injury, and no surgical history for either knee. Weight-bearing, anterior-posterior radiographic views were used to determine radiographic OA severity using the modified Kellgren and Lawrence scale. Synovial fluid samples from 18 patients (21 knees) were analyzed using a multiplex assay. Matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 (p < 0.001), interleukin (IL)-6 (p < 0.013), IL-8 (p < 0.024), and Chemokine (C-C motif) ligand 5 (CCL5) (p < 0.006) were significantly higher in the synovial fluid of OA patients compared with normal patients. The radiographic score was significantly higher in patients with OA compared with normal knees (p < 0.002). MMP-1 had a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2, IL-6, IL-8, and CCL5. IL-6 had a strong positive correlation with IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MMP-2. Monocyte chemotactic protein 1 had a moderate positive correlation with IL-6 and a strong positive correlation with IL-8. Radiographic scores had a strong positive correlation with IL-6 and IL-8 and a moderate positive correlation with MCP-1. These data provide novel and clinically relevant information for the investigation of synovial fluid biomarkers for knee OA.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0035-1549022DOI Listing
April 2016

Morphologic, molecular, and ultrastructural characterization of a feline synovial cell sarcoma and derived cell line.

J Vet Diagn Invest 2015 May 21;27(3):369-76. Epub 2015 Apr 21.

Departments of Pathology (Garner, Howerth, Sakamoto) College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GASmall Animal Medicine and Surgery (Torres, Northrup), College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GAUniversity of Glasgow, College of Medical, Veterinary and Life Sciences, Glasgow, United Kingdom (Cazzini)Department of Basic Veterinary Sciences, School of Veterinary Medicine, University of the West Indies, St. Augustine, Trinidad (Frontera-Acevedo)

A 2.5-year-old, male, neutered cat presented with a 5-month history of progressive right hind limb lameness and an enlarged right popliteal lymph node. Radiographs revealed significant bony lysis of the tarsus and distal tibia, and fine-needle aspirate of the bone lesion and lymph node revealed a neoplastic population of cells with uncertain origin. Amputation was elected, and the mass was submitted for histology and cellular culture for better characterization. Histologic examination revealed a mixture of spindle-shaped cells and larger, round to polygonal cells. All cells were immunoreactive for vimentin, and only the larger polygonal cells were also positive for cytokeratin. All cells were negative for desmin, smooth muscle actin, cluster of differentiation (CD)3, CD18, CD79a, macrophage antibody (MAC)387, and glial fibrillary acidic protein. Cultured neoplastic cells failed to express CD18, and were not able to secrete the pro-inflammatory cytokines tumor necrosis factor-α, interleukin-1 (IL-1)β, and IL-6 when stimulated by lipopolysaccharide, disproving that the cells originated from the macrophage or monocyte line. Ultrastructurally, neoplastic cells were characterized by abundant rough endoplasmic reticulum, interdigitating cellular processes, and membrane condensations. Based on location and cytologic, histologic, ultrastructural, and functional studies, this neoplasm was considered a synovial cell sarcoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1040638715583529DOI Listing
May 2015

Effect of delayed serum separation and storage temperature on serum glucose concentration in horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

Vet Clin Pathol 2015 Mar 4;44(1):120-7. Epub 2014 Dec 4.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Background: Although delays between blood sample collection and analysis are common in veterinary medicine, the effect of prolonged serum-clot contact time on serum glucose concentration is not well established and species differences have not been elucidated.

Objectives: The objective was to investigate the effect of storage time and temperature on serum glucose concentration in stored whole blood samples from horse, dog, alpaca, and sturgeon.

Methods: Whole blood specimens were divided into 7 no-additive tubes and serum was separated from one sample within one hour, serving as the reference sample. The remaining samples were stored at 4°C and 25°C, then centrifuged and serum glucose measured by automated analysis at 2, 4, and 8 hours postcollection. Glucose concentrations were compared using linear mixed models.

Results: The decline in serum glucose concentration for all samples stored at 4°C was not statistically significant, except for the 8-hour samples from sturgeon and dog. At 25°C, serum glucose concentration was comparable to reference values at 2 hours in sturgeon and alpaca, but significantly lower at 4 and 8 hours in those species, and at all time points in equine and canine specimens, being most prominent after 8 hours of storage in canine specimens.

Conclusions: Storage at 4°C limits serum glucose decline for at least 4 hours in all species tested and up to 8 hours in specimens of horse and alpaca. At 25°C, serum-clot contact time should not exceed 1 hour in equine and canine samples, and 2 hours in specimens from alpaca and sturgeon.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12217DOI Listing
March 2015

Pseudo-hypoproteinemia in a hyperbilirubinemic dog with immune-mediated hemolytic anemia.

Vet Clin Pathol 2014 Jun 14;43(2):266-9. Epub 2014 Mar 14.

University of Georgia College of Veterinary Medicine, Athens, GA, USA.

A 10-year-old spayed female Miniature Poodle was presented to the University of Georgia veterinary teaching hospital for evaluation of lethargy, vomiting and anorexia of 4 days' duration. Physical examination, history and a minimum database led to a diagnosis of immune-mediated hemolytic anemia accompanied by marked hyperbilirubinemia. Refractometric protein determination was within the reference interval, whereas the biuret method indicated hypoproteinemia. This discrepancy was attributed to interference of bilirubin and biliverdin with the spectrophotometric read-out of the biuret total protein assay. The albumin concentration, determined by bromcresol green, and refractometric total protein were less affected by this interference.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12134DOI Listing
June 2014

Erythrocyte dysplasia in peripheral blood smears from 5 thrombocytopenic dogs treated with vincristine sulfate.

Vet Clin Pathol 2013 Dec 18;42(4):458-64. Epub 2013 Oct 18.

Veterinary Pathology Department, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

Secondary dyserythropoiesis has been associated with vincristine administration in dogs. Evaluation of bone marrow aspirates for the presence of morphologic abnormalities in the erythroid lineage aids in the diagnosis. However, morphologic features of circulating erythroid precursors in these cases have not been described previously. The purpose of this report was to describe the cytologic features of dyserythropoiesis in peripheral blood and also bone marrow smears in a case series of dogs with immune-mediated thrombocytopenia (IMT) treated with vincristine sulfate. Nineteen dogs receiving vincristine for treatment of IMT were identified by retrospectively searching a computerized medical record system. There were 5 dogs that had dysplastic erythroid precursors in peripheral blood smears within 7 days of vincristine treatment. Two of those 5 dogs also had evidence for erythrodysplasia in modified Wright's-stained bone marrow smears obtained postvincristine administration. Morphologic changes included bizarre or inappropriate mitotic figures, abnormal nuclear configurations (fragmentation, elongation, indentation, and binucleation), atypical nuclear remnants (Howell-Jolly bodies), or nuclear and cytoplasmic asynchrony within the erythroid precursors. A brief review of the literature with discussion of the etiologies for dyserythropoiesis is provided. The dyserythropoiesis was clinically insignificant in all 5 cases and resolved. However, pathologists and clinicians should be aware of these potential findings to prevent misdiagnosis of other conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12089DOI Listing
December 2013

What is your diagnosis? Renal mass in a dog.

Vet Clin Pathol 2013 Sep 25;42(3):389-90. Epub 2013 Jun 25.

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/vcp.12051DOI Listing
September 2013

Systemic immune responses in Cytauxzoon felis-infected domestic cats.

Am J Vet Res 2013 Jun;74(6):901-9

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

Objective: To characterize systemic immune responses in Cytauxzoon felis-infected cats.

Sample: Blood and lung samples obtained from 27 cats.

Procedures: Cats were allocated into 4 groups: cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, acutely ill C felis-infected cats, healthy survivors of C felis infection, and healthy uninfected cats. Serum concentrations of tumor necrosis factor-α and interleukin-1 β were measured and serum proteins characterized. Blood smears were stained immunocytochemically and used to assess immunoglobulin deposition. Immunohistochemical expression of CD18 and tumor necrosis factor-α were compared in lung tissues obtained from cats that died and healthy uninfected cats. A real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay for CD18 expression was performed on selected blood samples from all groups.

Results: Concentrations of both cytokines were greater and serum albumin concentrations were significantly lower in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis, compared with results for all other groups. Erythrocytes from acutely ill cats and survivors of C felis infection had staining for plasmalemmal IgM, whereas erythrocytes from the other groups did not. Increased staining of C felis-infected monocytes and interstitial neutrophils for CD18 was detected. The real-time reverse-transcription PCR assay confirmed a relative increase in CD18 expression in cats that died of cytauxzoonosis and acutely ill cats, compared with expression in other groups. Immunostaining for TNF-α in lung samples confirmed a local proinflammatory response.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Results indicated immunopathologic responses were greater in cats that died of C felis infection than in cats that survived C felis infection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.6.901DOI Listing
June 2013

Pathology in practice. Cryptococcal osteomyelitis in a dog.

J Am Vet Med Assoc 2013 Apr;242(8):1079-81

Department of Pathology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30602, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/javma.242.8.1079DOI Listing
April 2013

Expression of proteins in serum, synovial fluid, synovial membrane, and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament disease and dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

Am J Vet Res 2013 Mar;74(3):386-94

Comparative Orthopaedic Laboratory, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO 65211, USA.

Objective: To identify proteins with differential expression between healthy dogs and dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis secondary to cranial cruciate ligament (CCL) disease.

Sample: Serum and synovial fluid samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis before (n = 10) and after (8) surgery and control dogs without osteoarthritis (9) and archived synovial membrane and articular cartilage samples obtained from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis (5) and dogs without arthritis (5).

Procedures: Serum and synovial fluid samples were analyzed via liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry; results were compared against a nonredundant protein database. Expression of complement component 3 in archived tissue samples was determined via immunohistochemical methods.

Results: No proteins had significantly different expression between serum samples of control dogs versus those of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis. Eleven proteins (complement component 3 precursor, complement factor I precursor, apolipoprotein B-100 precursor, serum paraoxonase and arylesterase 1, zinc-alpha-2-glycoprotein precursor, serum amyloid A, transthyretin precursor, retinol-binding protein 4 precursor, alpha-2-macroglobulin precursor, angiotensinogen precursor, and fibronectin 1 isoform 1 preproprotein) had significantly different expression (> 2.0-fold) between synovial fluid samples obtained before surgery from dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis versus those obtained from control dogs. Complement component 3 was strongly expressed in all (5/5) synovial membrane samples of dogs with stifle joint osteoarthritis and weakly expressed in 3 of 5 synovial membrane samples of dogs without stifle joint arthritis.

Conclusions And Clinical Relevance: Findings suggested that the complement system and proteins involved in lipid and cholesterol metabolism may have a role in stifle joint osteoarthritis, CCL disease, or both.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.74.3.386DOI Listing
March 2013

Theileriosis in a reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) associated with a potentially novel Theileria sp.

Vet Clin Pathol 2012 Dec 1;41(4):497-501. Epub 2012 Oct 1.

Department of Pathobiology, College of Veterinary Medicine, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO, USA.

A 5-year-old male neutered reindeer (Rangifer tarandus tarandus) from Missouri was presented with a 3-week history of anorexia, respiratory distress, lethargy, and weight loss. Blood smear review revealed that a small percentage of RBCs contained small (1-2 μm in length) pleomorphic piroplasms (signet ring, rod- or pear-shaped, and elongate forms) with an eccentric magenta nucleus and basophilic cytoplasm. Nested PCR to specifically amplify a portion of the piroplasm small subunit ribosomal RNA (SSU rRNA) gene was performed on DNA extracted from an EDTA specimen of whole blood. Subsequent sequence analyses showed similarity between the reindeer hemoparasite and Theileria spp SSU rRNA gene sequences in the GenBank database, with highest similarity to those of a Theileria sp in a White-tailed deer from North Texas (AY735132, AY735133). The reindeer and North Texas Theileria sp are genetically distinct from, albeit closely related to, the White-tailed deer Theileria sp (subsequently referred to as T cervi). To the authors' knowledge, this is the first identification of Theileria of this genotype in a reindeer. Historically, T tarandirangiferis infection was found with associated mortality in reindeer in Russia, but reports predate molecular characterization. Hence, the relationship of T tarandirangiferis with either T cervi or this agent remains unknown. T cervi is not typically pathogenic in White-tailed deer in the US unless the animal is immune-compromised by stress or disease; however, mortality from T cervi infection in reindeer has been reported.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165x.2012.00475.xDOI Listing
December 2012

Using animal models in osteoarthritis biomarker research.

J Knee Surg 2011 Dec;24(4):251-64

Department of Veterinary Pathology, University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605, USA.

Osteoarthritis (OA) is a disease that commonly affects human and veterinary patients. Animal models are routinely used for OA research, and the dog is a nearly ideal species for translational investigation of human OA biomarkers. The cytokine, chemokine, and matrix metalloprotease (MMP) profiles of synovial fluid, serum, and urine from dogs with surgically induced and naturally occurring OA were compared with dogs without OA using xMAP technology (Qiagen Inc., Valencia, CA). Markers that exhibited significant differences between groups were identified (monocyte chemoattractant protein 1 [MCP1], interleukin 8 [IL8], keratinocyte-derived chemoattractant [KC], and MMP2 and MMP3), and their sensitivities and specificities were calculated to determine their diagnostic usefulness in a future biomarker panel. Synovial fluid IL8 was the most sensitive, but MCP1 was also highly sensitive and specific. The alterations in KC suggested that it may differentiate between cruciate disease and other types of OA, and the MMPs were most sensitive and specific in the serum. This study provided additional insight to the participation of cytokines, chemokines, and MMPs in OA, and potential diagnostic biomarker candidates were identified. A brief literature review of other biomarker candidates previously examined using animal models is discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1055/s-0031-1297361DOI Listing
December 2011

Unique urinalysis.

Vet Clin Pathol 2011 Sep;40(3):279

University of Georgia, GA, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165X.2011.00350.xDOI Listing
September 2011

Comparison of a semiquantitative point-of-care assay for the detection of canine microalbuminuria with routine semiquantitative methods for proteinuria.

Vet Clin Pathol 2007 Sep;36(3):240-4

Department of Veterinary Pathobiology, Veterinary Medical Diagnostic Laboratory, University of Missouri-Columbia, College of Veterinary Medicine, Columbia, MO, USA.

Background: It has been speculated that renal disease can be identified through the detection and quantification of microalbuminuria, however, reliable measurement of albuminuria in any quantity can be challenging. Recently, a new point-of-care immunoassay was validated for the specific detection of microalbuminuria and early renal disease in dogs.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine if measurement of microalbuminuria by the point-of-care immunoassay correlated with results from routine semiquantitative methods for detecting proteinuria in dogs.

Methods: One hundred and thirty-eight urine samples, from 133 different dogs, submitted for urinalysis to the Clinical Pathology Laboratory at the University of Missouri-Columbia Veterinary Medical Teaching Hospital were eligible for the study. Samples that contained >20 RBC/high power field (hpf) or >20 WBC/hpf were excluded, as were samples with insufficient volume to complete all tests. All samples were evaluated with a urinary dipstick with or without a sulfosalicylic acid turbidimetric test, a urine protein:creatinine (UPC) ratio, and the immunoassay for microalbuminuria. Data were analyzed by the Spearman rank order correlation.

Results: Microalbuminuria results correlated significantly with those of the dipstick (r = 0.715), sulfosalicylic acid test (r = 0.742), and UPC ratio (r = 0.830). Correlation between the immunoassay and UPC ratio was the same (r = 0.830) when only samples with trace or 1+ proteinuria by dipstick were analyzed (n = 51).

Conclusions: The point-of-care immunoassay results for microalbuminuria correlated with the results of semiquantitative methods for detecting total proteinuria in dogs. Routine methods for canine proteinuria appear to be adequate for determining whether further testing for renal disease is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1939-165x.2007.tb00218.xDOI Listing
September 2007