Publications by authors named "Brianne K Bakken"

4 Publications

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Clinician burnout during the COVID-19 pandemic before vaccine administration.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Apr 20. Epub 2021 Apr 20.

Background: Coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) has disrupted pharmacy practice. Little research has been done to assess how COVID-19 has affected pharmacists' employment, workload, and feelings of burnout.

Objectives: The objectives of this study were to characterize the impact of COVID-19 on pharmacists' employment status, workload, and feelings of burnout, as well as to examine emotional health concerns related to COVID-19.

Methods: Wisconsin pharmacists were surveyed using an online instrument between August 25, 2020, and September 22, 2020. The data analysis, performed in December 2020, examined employment status, 3 common burnout risk factors (workload, rewards, and social depersonalization), and emotional health concerns related to COVID-19.

Results: Of the 1300 pharmacists, 439 completed the survey (33.8%). The study analysis included pharmacists in community (n = 127) and hospital or health system (n = 107) settings. With regard to employment changes and workload, hospital pharmacists (36%) were more likely to have their hours reduced than community pharmacists (13%) (P < 0.01), and, conversely, community pharmacists (19%) were more likely to have their hours increased than hospital pharmacists (8%) (P = 0.01). For the burnout domain of workload, 45% of the pharmacists reported increased feelings of physical exhaustion at work, and 53% reported increased feelings of emotional exhaustion at work, with no difference between settings. Regarding the burnout domain of rewards, 6% of the hospital pharmacists and 1% of the community pharmacists experienced a reduction in hourly wages or salaries as a result of COVID-19. For the burnout domain of depersonalization, 25% of the pharmacists reported that their ability to connect with colleagues and patients decreased during the COVID-19 pandemic. Additional emotional health concerns reported by the pharmacists included 40% experiencing more anxiety and 25% experiencing more sadness or depression during the COVID-19 pandemic, with no difference between settings.

Conclusion: This study found that the burnout domains related to workload, rewards, and depersonalization were negatively affected by COVID-19. Pharmacy managers need to proactively combat burnout as well as be reactive when employees show signs of burnout to maintain their workforce and meet the COVID-19-associated challenges.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.04.009DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8056845PMC
April 2021

An intersectional review of discrimination and harassment experiences in pharmacy: Findings from the 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey.

J Am Pharm Assoc (2003) 2021 Apr 15. Epub 2021 Apr 15.

Background: Most pharmacists in the United States are women, and the profession is becoming more racially diverse. The recent increase in political and social movements in the United States has heightened our awareness of the importance of better understanding the experiences of underrepresented individuals and groups. Little is known about discrimination and harassment in the profession of pharmacy in the United States.

Objectives: The purpose of this study was to provide evidence that discrimination and harassment exist in the pharmacy profession and explore differences in discrimination and harassment using the intersectionality of race and sex.

Methods: The 2019 National Pharmacist Workforce Survey (NPWS) utilized an electronic survey that was distributed using a 3-contact Dillman approach by email to a randomized sample of 96,110 licensed pharmacists from all 50 U.S. states using the National Association of Boards of Pharmacy Foundation e-profile system. The 2019 NPWS included a new battery of questions to assess the prevalence of discrimination and harassment in pharmacy.

Results: The most common bases of discrimination experienced were based on age (31.2%), sex (29%), and race or ethnicity (16.6%). The most common type of harassment experienced was "hearing demeaning comments related to race or ethnicity" at 15.6%. The intersectionality analysis revealed different experiences among sex or race combinations. Black and Asian male pharmacists had the highest rate of "hearing demeaning comments about race or ethnicity." Nonwhite pharmacists were more likely to experience harassment from customers or patients compared with their white colleagues. Black female pharmacists had the highest rate of being "very unsatisfied" with the results of reporting discrimination and harassment to their employer.

Conclusion: Discrimination, including harassment and sexual harassment, is illegal, immoral, and unjust. As the profession of pharmacy continues to become more diverse, there must be a conscious, systemic, and sustained effort to create and maintain workplaces that are safe, equitable, and free of discrimination.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.japh.2021.04.002DOI Listing
April 2021

National Pharmacist Workforce Study (NPWS): Description of 2019 Survey Methods and Assessment of Nonresponse Bias.

Pharmacy (Basel) 2021 Jan 13;9(1). Epub 2021 Jan 13.

College of Pharmacy, University of Iowa, Iowa City, IA 52242, USA.

National Pharmacist Workforce Studies (NPWS) have been conducted in the U.S. every five years since 2000. This article describes the online survey methods used for the latest NPWS conducted in 2019 and provides an assessment for nonresponse bias. Three waves of emails containing a link to the online survey were sent to a random sample of about 96,000 pharmacists licensed in the United States. The survey asked about pharmacist employment, work activities, work-life balance, practice characteristics, pharmacist demographics and training. A total of 5467 usable responses were received, for a usable response rate of 5.8%. To assess for nonresponse bias, respondent characteristics were compared to the population of U.S. pharmacists and a benchmark, while a wave analysis compared early and late respondents. The pharmacist sample-population comparison and the benchmark comparison showed that the NPWS respondents had a higher percentage of female pharmacists and a lower proportion of young pharmacists compared to the population of U.S. pharmacists and the benchmark sample. In some contrast, the wave analysis showed that the early respondents had a higher percentage of males and older pharmacists compared to the late respondents. Both the wave analysis and the benchmark comparison showed that the NPWS respondents (and early respondents) had a lower percent of pharmacists with a PharmD degree than did the late respondents and the benchmark group. These differences should be considered when interpreting the findings from the 2019 NPWS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/pharmacy9010020DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7838781PMC
January 2021

Informal learning processes in support of clinical service delivery in a service-oriented community pharmacy.

Res Social Adm Pharm 2017 Jan - Feb;13(1):224-232. Epub 2016 Feb 2.

Towncrest Pharmacy, Iowa City, IA, USA.

The evolving health care system necessitates pharmacy organizations' adjustments by delivering new services and establishing inter-organizational relationships. One approach supporting pharmacy organizations in making changes may be informal learning by technicians, pharmacists, and pharmacy owners. Informal learning is characterized by a four-step cycle including intent to learn, action, feedback, and reflection. This framework helps explain individual and organizational factors that influence learning processes within an organization as well as the individual and organizational outcomes of those learning processes. A case study of an Iowa independent community pharmacy with years of experience in offering patient care services was made. Nine semi-structured interviews with pharmacy personnel revealed initial evidence in support of the informal learning model in practice. Future research could investigate more fully the informal learning model in delivery of patient care services in community pharmacies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.sapharm.2016.01.008DOI Listing
July 2017