Publications by authors named "Brianna N Leitzelar"

9 Publications

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Exercise and Neuropathic Pain: A General Overview of Preclinical and Clinical Research.

Sports Med Open 2021 Mar 22;7(1):21. Epub 2021 Mar 22.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 1300 University Ave., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

Neuropathic pain is a disease of the somatosensory system that is characterized by tingling, burning, and/or shooting pain. Medication is often the primary treatment, but it can be costly, thus there is an interest in understanding alternative low-cost treatments such as exercise. The following review includes an overview of the preclinical and clinical literature examining the influence of exercise on neuropathic pain. Preclinical studies support the hypothesis that exercise reduces hyperalgesia and allodynia in animal models of neuropathic pain. In human research, observational studies suggest that those who are more physically active have lower risk of developing neuropathic pain compared to those who are less active. Exercise studies suggest aerobic exercise training (e.g., 16 weeks); a combination of aerobic and resistance exercise training (e.g., 10-12 weeks); or high-intensity interval training (e.g., 15 weeks) reduces aspects of neuropathic pain such as worst pain over the past month, pain over the past 24 h, pain scores, or pain interference. However, not all measures of pain improve following exercise training (e.g., current pain, heat pain threshold). Potential mechanisms and future directions are also discussed to aid in the goal of understanding the role of exercise in the management of neuropathic pain. Future research using standardized methods to further understanding of the dose of exercise needed to manage neuropathic pain is warranted.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s40798-021-00307-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984211PMC
March 2021

The Feasibility and Effectiveness of a Community-Based Intervention to Reduce Sedentary Behavior in Older Adults.

J Appl Gerontol 2021 Jan 27:733464820987919. Epub 2021 Jan 27.

University of Wisconsin-Madison, USA.

The purpose of this study was to examine the effectiveness and feasibility of translating a 4-week "Stand Up and Move More" (SUMM) intervention by state aging units to older adults ( = 56, age = 74 years). A randomized controlled trial assessed sedentary behavior, physical function, and health-related quality of life (HRQoL) before and after the intervention. Participants included healthy community-dwelling, sedentary (sit > 6 hr/day) and aged ≥ 55 years adults. For the primary outcome, the SUMM group ( = 31) significantly ( < .05) reduced total sedentary time post-intervention by 68 min/day on average (Cohen's = -0.56) compared with no change in the wait-list control group ( = 25, Cohen's = 0.12). HRQoL and function also improved ( < .05) in the SUMM group post-intervention. Workshop facilitators indicated the intervention was easy to implement, and participants expressed high satisfaction. The SUMM intervention reduced sedentary time, improved physical function and HRQoL, and was feasible to implement in community settings.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0733464820987919DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8313650PMC
January 2021

Regulatory Fit: Impact on Anxiety, Arousal, and Performance in College-Level Soccer Players.

Int J Exerc Sci 2020 1;13(5):1430-1447. Epub 2020 Sep 1.

School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

Sport performance may be facilitated using regulatory fit, which is a match between individuals' situational strategy and their chronic self-regulatory strategy. However, researchers have not examined the impact of regulatory fit on psychological and physiological components of sport performance, such as anxiety and arousal. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to evaluate the psychophysiological reactions to regulatory fit by examining anxiety, arousal, and sport performance. Female college-level soccer players (n = 25) were randomly assigned to the regulatory match or regulatory mismatch conditions and completed anxiety (Competitive Sport Anxiety Inventory-2R, CSAI-2R) and underwent arousal (heart rate variability, HRV; pre-ejection period, PEP) measures pre- and post-regulatory focus manipulation. Subsequently, participants completed a sport performance task (10 penalty kicks). The impact of regulatory fit on the dependent variables was explored through repeated measures ANOVAs. Results revealed a significant time effect for cognitive anxiety and self-confidence subscales of the CSAI-2R, suggesting the penalty kicking task increased cognitive anxiety and reduced self-confidence in all participants. In addition, there was a significant interaction effect of condition on pre-ejection period (PEP), with a greater increase in PEP for those experiencing regulatory fit compared to those who were not. There were non-significant interaction and main effects for all other variables. Since PEP is an inverse measure of sympathetic (SNS) modulation, experiencing regulatory fit may reduce SNS involvement in the heartbeat. Thus, the current results indicate experiencing regulatory fit may influence arousal prior to athletic competition.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7523892PMC
September 2020

Translating a "Stand Up and Move More" intervention by state aging units to older adults in underserved communities: Protocol for a randomized controlled trial.

Medicine (Baltimore) 2019 Jul;98(27):e16272

Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison.

Introduction: As aging is associated with functional decline, preventing functional limitations and maintaining independence throughout later life has emerged as an important public health goal. Research indicates that sedentary behavior (prolonged sitting) is associated with functional loss and diminished ability to carry out activities of daily living. Despite many efforts to increase physical activity, which can be effective in countering functional loss, only an estimated 8% of older adults meet national physical activity guidelines. Thus, shifting the focus to reducing sitting time is emerging as a potential new intervention strategy but little research has been conducted in this area. With community support and funding, we developed and pilot tested a 4-week "Stand Up and Move More" intervention and found decreases in sedentary behavior, increases in physical activity, and improvements in mobility and vitality in a small sample of older adults. The purpose of this project is to expand upon these pilot results and examine the effectiveness and feasibility of translating a "Stand Up and Move More" intervention by State Aging Units to older adults in underserved communities. Eighty older adults from 4 counties across Wisconsin predominantly made up of rural older adults and older African American adults are randomly assigned to intervention (n = 40) or wait-list control (n = 40) groups. The intervention consists of 4 weekly sessions plus a refresher session at 8 weeks, and is delivered by community partners in each county. The sessions are designed to elicit ideas from older adults regarding how they can reduce their sitting time, help them set practical goals, develop action plans to reach their goals, and refine their plans across sessions to promote behavior change. Sedentary behavior, physical activity levels, functional performance, and health-related quality of life are assessed before and after the intervention to examine the effectiveness of the program. Feasibility of implementing the program by our community partners is assessed via semi-structured interviews. Strengths of this project include strong community collaborations and a high need given that the older adult population is projected to increase substantially in the next 15 years.

Conclusion: This project will provide an important step in developing effective strategies for maintaining independence in older adults through determining the feasibility and impact of a community-based intervention to break up sitting time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/MD.0000000000016272DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6635154PMC
July 2019

Loss of exercise- and stress-induced increases in circulating 2-arachidonoylglycerol concentrations in adults with chronic PTSD.

Biol Psychol 2019 07 9;145:1-7. Epub 2019 Apr 9.

Department of Kinesiology, University of Wisconsin-Madison, 2000 Observatory Dr., Madison, WI, 53706, USA.

The endocannabinoid (eCB) system is a modulatory system that is both altered by stress and mediates the effects of acute stress, including contributing to restoration of homeostasis. Earlier studies suggest that circulating eCBs are dysregulated in adults with post-traumatic stress disorder (PTSD); however, it is not known whether circulating eCBs remain responsive to stress. The purpose of this study was to examine eCB and psychological responses to physical (exercise) and psychosocial (Trier Social Stress Test) stressors, using a randomized, counterbalanced procedure in adults with PTSD and healthy controls (N = 20, mean age = 24, SD = 7 yrs). Results from mixed-design, repeated measures ANOVAs revealed significant increases (p <  .05) in N-arachidonoylethanolamine (AEA) and oleoylethanolamide (OEA) following exercise and psychosocial stress in both groups. However, only the control group exhibited a significant increase (p < .05) in 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG) following exercise and psychosocial stress exposure. These data extend our current understanding of circulating eCB responsiveness in PTSD, and provide preliminary evidence to suggest that the eCB system is hypoactive in PTSD following exposure to physical and psychosocial stressors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biopsycho.2019.04.002DOI Listing
July 2019

Effects of a Supportive Audience on a Handgrip Squeezing Task in Adults.

Int J Exerc Sci 2016;9(1):4-15. Epub 2017 Dec 1.

Ball State University, Muncie, IN, USA.

The role of social facilitation by way of audience effect in select exercise-related variables during an isometric handgrip task was assessed using a mixed design. Fifty three moderately active participants (M= 21.76 ± 5.27) were recruited from the Midwestern United States. Participants were randomly assigned to one of two groups: supportive audience or control. Audience members provided positive verbal encouragement to participants in the experimental condition throughout the task performance. Participants in the control group performed the task in the absence of an audience and did not receive any verbal encouragement. Participants provided anxiety ratings pre- and post-task using the State-trait anxiety inventory for adults (STAI). Participants' ratings of perceived exertion (RPE) and heart rate (HR) were monitored and assessed at 30-second intervals. Upon task completion, sustained effort in the form of time on task was recorded in seconds. A repeated measures analysis of variance (RM ANOVA) revealed that there was a time effect within groups of HR = ( F(2.64, 131.85) = 189.3, p <0.001) and within groups of RPE = (F(2.97, 139.42) = 2189.43 p <0.001). An independent sample T-test revealed significant differences in HR at 0, 30 and 60 seconds between the groups. An independent sample T-test revealed no significant differences in anxiety and RPE between the groups. These results partially support the notion of social facilitation and may have implications for research and practice.
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http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5786263PMC
December 2017

Effects of acute androstenedione supplementation on testosterone levels in older men.

Aging Male 2016 Sep 25;19(3):161-167. Epub 2016 Aug 25.

d Human Performance Laboratory, Ball State University , Muncie , IN , USA.

The purpose of the study was to examine the effects of acute androstenedione supplementation on hormone levels in older men at rest and during exercise. Men (n = 11) between the ages of 58 and 69 were divided into an experimental (n = 6; 62.33 ± 2.57 y) and control (n = 5; 60.2 ± 1.02 y) groups. Each participant received an oral 300 mg dose of either androstenedione (experimental) or a cellulose placebo (control) for 7 d. Pre- and post-supplementation participants completed two separate, 20-min strength tasks consisting of leg extension and leg curls at different percentages of their 10-RM. Researchers collected blood samples pre-, during, and post-exercise. Blood samples were analyzed for testosterone, androstenedione, and estradiol levels. The researchers found a significant difference between pre- (4.36 ± 56 ng/mL) and post- (5.51 ± 0.35 ng/mL) testosterone levels, as well as pre- (0.88 ± 0.20) and post- (7.46 ± 1.25) androstenedione levels, but no significant differences between pre- and post-estradiol levels for either group. It appears that short-term androstenedione supplementation augmented acute testosterone responses to resistance exercise in older men. However, further study of this supplement is needed to determine any potential it may have in mitigating andropause.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/13685538.2016.1167180DOI Listing
September 2016

Pre- and Post-Activity Stretching Practices of Collegiate Athletic Trainers in the United States.

J Strength Cond Res 2017 Sep;31(9):2347-2354

1School of Kinesiology, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana; and 3Department of Physical Therapy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky.

Popp, JK, Bellar, DM, Hoover, DL, Craig, BW, Leitzelar, BN, Wanless, EA, and Judge, LW. Pre- and post-activity stretching practices of collegiate athletic trainers in the United States. J Strength Cond Res 31(9): 2347-2354, 2017-The aim of the study was to investigate the knowledge and practices of collegiate-certified athletic trainers (ATs) in the United States. Participants (n = 521) were provided an overview of the study and a hyperlink to a web-based survey. The "pre- and post-activity practices in athletic training questionnaire" consisted of demographic items and elements to measure knowledge and practices related to pre- and post-activity stretching routines. In previous studies, the survey demonstrated construct validity, α = 0.722. Pearson chi-square test was used to evaluate goodness of fit, and kappa was calculated to measure agreement between items. Only 32.2% of ATs recommended dynamic stretching (DS) to be performed pre-activity, whereas a larger percentage (42.2%) recommended a combination of static stretching (SS) and DS. Athletic trainers reported that only 28.0% of athletes are performing DS before activity. Conversely, 60.6% of collegiate ATs recommended SS postexercise, and 61.0% of athletes agree and perform after workout SS (κ = 0.761, p < 0.001). Collegiate ATs seem to underuse the current research evidence, which indicates that DS is more beneficial than SS when used pre-activity, and ATs continue to regularly incorporate SS in their pre-activity routines. However, there is evidence that collegiate ATs in the United States emphasize SS postactivity in a manner consistent with current research.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000890DOI Listing
September 2017

Creatine Usage and Education of Track and Field Throwers at National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I Universities.

J Strength Cond Res 2015 Jul;29(7):2034-40

1School of Physical Education, Sport, and Exercise Science, Ball State University, Muncie, Indiana; 2Department of Health, Human Performance, and Recreation, School of Education, Waco, Texas; 3Department of Physical Therapy, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, Kentucky; 4Advancing Knowledge in Health Care, Chicago, Illinois; 5New Castle School Corporation, New Castle, Indiana; 6Department of Sport Rehabilitation, Hashemite University, Zarqa, Jordan; and 7School of Kinesiology, University of Louisiana Lafayette, Lafayette, Louisiana.

The purpose of this study was to analyze the level of creatine use along with the perceived benefits and barriers of creatine use among collegiate athletes who participate in throwing events within the sport of track and field. A total of 258 throwers from National Collegiate Athletic Association Division I institutions completed an online survey regarding creatine. The results provided baseline levels of creatine use and allowed for the analysis of factors related to athletic conference affiliation. Results indicate that creatine use remains to be a common (32.7%) practice among throwers with significantly higher levels of use among Football Bowl Subdivision (FBS) conference athletes (44.6%) than Football Championship Subdivision (FCS) conference athletes (28.8%), χ² = 5.505, p = 0.019. The most common reasons for using creatine included a desire to improve/increase: strength (83.3%), recovery time (69.0%), and performance (60.7%). The most common perceived obstacles included contamination/quality control (39.5%), cost (33.3%), inconvenience (16.7%), and cramping (14.3%). A desire for additional education and training was noted through an expression of interest (55.6%) with significantly higher levels of interest from FBS athletes (65.6%) than FCS athletes (52.2%), χ² = 6.425, p = 0.039. However, the athletic departments provide nutritional supplement counseling at only 26.6% of the schools. Although the access to full-time nutritionist counsel was available at 57.3% of the schools, there was a significant difference (χ² = 9.096, p = 0.003) between FBS schools (73.7%) and FCS schools (51.7%).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1519/JSC.0000000000000818DOI Listing
July 2015
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