Publications by authors named "Brian T Pentecost"

20 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Combinatorial Electrophoresis and Mass Spectrometry-Based Proteomics in Breast Milk for Breast Cancer Biomarker Discovery.

Adv Exp Med Biol 2019 ;1140:451-467

Biochemistry & Proteomics Group, Department of Chemistry & Biomolecular Science, Clarkson University, Potsdam, NY, USA.

Innovations in approaches for early detection and individual risk assessment of different cancers, including breast cancer (BC), are needed to reduce cancer morbidity and associated mortality. The assessment of potential cancer biomarkers in accessible bodily fluids provides a novel approach to identify the risk and/or onset of cancer. Biomarkers are biomolecules, such as proteins, that are indicative of an abnormality or a disease. Human milk is vastly underutilized biospecimen that offers the opportunity to investigate potential protein BC-biomarkers in young, reproductively active women. As a first step, we have examined the entire protein pattern in human milk samples from breastfeeding mothers with cancer, who were diagnosed either before or after milk donation, and from women without cancer, using mass spectrometry (MS)-based proteomics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/978-3-030-15950-4_26DOI Listing
September 2019

Three-dimensional architecture of epithelial primary cilia.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2019 05 19;116(19):9370-9379. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201;

We report a complete 3D structural model of typical epithelial primary cilia based on structural maps of full-length primary cilia obtained by serial section electron tomography. Our data demonstrate the architecture of primary cilia differs extensively from the commonly acknowledged 9+0 paradigm. The axoneme structure is relatively stable but gradually evolves from base to tip with a decreasing number of microtubule complexes (MtCs) and a reducing diameter. The axonemal MtCs are cross-linked by previously unrecognized fibrous protein networks. Such an architecture explains why primary cilia can elastically withstand liquid flow for mechanosensing. The nine axonemal MtCs in a cilium are found to differ significantly in length indicating intraflagellar transport processes in primary cilia may be more complicated than that reported for motile cilia. The 3D maps of microtubule doublet-singlet transitions generally display longitudinal gaps at the inner junction between the A- and B-tubules, which indicates the inner junction protein is a major player in doublet-singlet transitions. In addition, vesicles releasing from kidney primary cilia were observed in the structural maps, supporting that ciliary vesicles budding may serve as ectosomes for cell-cell communication.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.1821064116DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6511023PMC
May 2019

DNA methylation in breast cancers: Differences based on estrogen receptor status and recurrence.

J Cell Biochem 2019 01 19;120(1):738-755. Epub 2018 Sep 19.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts - Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts.

DNA methylation plays a role in the etiology of primary breast cancers. We analyzed paired primary and second breast tumors to elucidate the role of methylation in recurrence. Methylation profiles from paired primary and second breast tumors of 23 women were assessed using the HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Twelve women had estrogen receptor positive (ERpos) primary and second tumors, five had estrogen receptor negative (ERneg) primary and second tumors, and six had an ERpos primary tumor but an ERneg second tumor. Stratifying tumors by occurrence revealed that the greater methylation previously associated with ERpos tumors, is more pronounced in primary tumors than in second tumors. Further, ERneg second tumors are more methylated than ERpos second tumors among women who had ERpos primary tumors. Pathway analyses using gene lists generated from comparisons of methylation in ERpos primary tumors from the paired sets with ERpos tumors from six women without recurrences, identified differences between groups based on the ER status of the second tumor. Hypermethylated genes of significantly enriched pathways were differentially associated with survival. DNA methylation profiles of ERpos primary breast tumors support the development and use of tumor methylation profiles for stratifying women with breast cancer both for prognosis and therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.27431DOI Listing
January 2019

The Developmental Process of the Growing Motile Ciliary Tip Region.

Sci Rep 2018 05 22;8(1):7977. Epub 2018 May 22.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY, 12201, USA.

Eukaryotic motile cilia/flagella play vital roles in various physiological processes in mammals and some protists. Defects in cilia formation underlie multiple human disorders, known as ciliopathies. The detailed processes of cilia growth and development are still far from clear despite extensive studies. In this study, we characterized the process of cilium formation (ciliogenesis) by investigating the newly developed motile cilia of deciliated protists using complementary techniques in electron microscopy and image analysis. Our results demonstrated that the distal tip region of motile cilia exhibit progressive morphological changes as cilia develop. This developmental process is time-dependent and continues after growing cilia reach their full lengths. The structural analysis of growing ciliary tips revealed that B-tubules of axonemal microtubule doublets terminate far away from the tip end, which is led by the flagellar tip complex (FTC), demonstrating that the FTC might not directly mediate the fast turnover of intraflagellar transport (IFT).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-26111-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5964098PMC
May 2018

ELF5 and DOK7 regulation in anti-estrogen treated cells and tumors.

Cancer Cell Int 2016 16;16. Epub 2016 Feb 16.

Department of Veterinary and Animal Science, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA USA.

Background: Most women with primary breast cancers that express estrogen receptor alpha (ER or ESR1) are treated with endocrine therapies including the anti-estrogen tamoxifen, but resistance to these anti-endocrine therapies often develops. This study characterizes the expression of hormone receptors, and the mRNA and DNA methylation levels of docking protein 7 (DOK7), and E74-like factor 5 (ELF5), in 21 novel tamoxifen-resistant cell lines and extends the findings to primary and recurrent human breast tumors.

Methods: Twenty-one tamoxifen-selected cell lines were developed through cloning by limiting dilution of an MCF-7 cell culture treated with 1 μM tamoxifen for 6 months. The parent (MCF-7) and tamoxifen-selected cell lines were characterized for protein expression of ER, progesterone receptor (PR) and human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) using immunohistochemistry (IHC). The mRNA levels of ER, DOK7, and ELF5 were assessed using quantitative RT-PCR. Promoter methylation levels of DOK7 and ELF5 were determined by pyrosequencing of bisulfite-modified DNA. The relationship between hormone receptor status and promoter methylation of DOK7 and ELF5 was further examined using available methylation array data (Illumina HM450) from a set of paired primary and second breast tumors from 24 women.

Results: All 21 of the novel tamoxifen-selected cell lines are ER-positive, and HER2-negative, and 18 of the cell lines are PR-negative while the MCF-7 cells were scored as ER-positive, modestly PR-positive and HER2 negative. Expression of DOK7 and ELF5 is significantly up-regulated in half of the tamoxifen-selected cell lines as compared to the parental MCF-7. In contrast, the previously established ER-negative TMX2-28 cell line has decreased expression of both DOK7 and ELF5 and increased DNA methylation in the transcriptional start site region of these genes. ELF5 methylation was lower in second versus primary tumors in women who received anti-estrogen treatment, in PR-negative versus PR-positive tumors, and in the subset of PR-positive first tumors from the group of women who had second PR-negative tumors as compared to those who had second PR-positive tumors.

Conclusions: The distinct ELF5 methylation of PR-positive primary tumors from women who had a PR-negative recurrence indicates the possibility of stratification of women for tailored treatment in the early stages of disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-016-0282-9DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4754800PMC
February 2016

SKP2 overexpression is associated with increased serine 10 phosphorylation of p27 (pSer10p27) in triple-negative breast cancer.

J Cell Physiol 2014 Sep;229(9):1160-9

University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts.

S-phase kinase-associated protein 2 (SKP2) is an important cell cycle regulator, targeting the cyclin-dependent kinase (CDK) inhibitor p27 for degradation, and is frequently overexpressed in breast cancer. p27 regulates G1 /S transition by abrogating the activity of cyclin/CDK complexes. p27 can undergo phosphorylation at serine 10 (pSer10p27). This phosphorylation event is associated with increased cell proliferation and poor prognosis in patients with glioma. The relationship between SKP2 and pSer10p27 in breast cancer has not been previously investigated. Immunohistochemistry (IHC) of SKP2, p27, pSer10p27, and other genes involved in this pathway, was analyzed in 188 breast tumors and 50 benign reduction mammoplasty samples. IHC showed SKP2 to be more highly expressed in estrogen receptor α (ERα)-negative breast cancers and demonstrated that triple-negative tumors were more likely to have high expression of SKP2 than were non-triple negative, ERα-negative tumors. A significant positive relationship was discovered for SKP2 and pSer10p27. High levels of SKP2 and pSer10p27 were observed significantly more often in ERα-negative and triple-negative than in ERα-positive breast cancers. Use of the triple-negative TMX2-28 breast cancer cell line to address the role of SKP2 in cell cycle progression confirmed that SKP2 contributes to a more rapid cell cycle progression and may regulates pSer10p27 levels. Together, the results indicate that presence of high SKP2 plus high pSer10p27 levels in triple-negative breast cancers is associated with aggressive growth, and highlight the validity of using SKP2 inhibitors as a therapeutic approach for treating this subset of breast cancers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcp.24545DOI Listing
September 2014

High-density array analysis of DNA methylation in Tamoxifen-resistant breast cancer cell lines.

Epigenetics 2014 Feb 13;9(2):297-307. Epub 2013 Nov 13.

Molecular & Cellular Biology Graduate Program; Department of Veterinary & Animal Sciences; University of Massachusetts; Amherst, MA USA.

Roughly two-thirds of all breast cancers are ERα-positive and can be treated with the antiestrogen, Tamoxifen, however resistance occurs in 33% of women who take the drug for more than 5 y. Aberrant DNA methylation, an epigenetic mechanism that alters gene expression in cancer, is thought to play a role in this resistance. To develop an understanding of Tamoxifen-resistance and identify novel pathways and targets of aberrant methylation, DNA from MCF-7 breast cancer cells and Tamoxifen-resistant derivatives, TMX2-11 and TMX2-28, were analyzed using the Illumina HumanMethylation450 BeadChip. Normalizing against MCF-7 values, ERα-positive TMX2-11 had 4000 hypermethylated sites and ERα-negative TMX2-28 had over 33 000. Analysis of CpG sites altered in both TMX2-11 and TMX2-28 revealed that the Tamoxifen-resistant cell lines share 3000 hypermethylated and 200 hypomethylated CpGs. ZNF350 and MAGED1, two genes hypermethylated in both cell lines, were examined in greater detail. Treatment with 5-aza-2ꞌdeoxycitidine caused a significant reduction in promoter methylation of both ZNF350 and MAGED1 and a corresponding increase in expression in TMX2-28. A similar relationship between methylation and expression was not detected in TMX2-11. Our findings are indicative of the variable responses to methylation-targeted breast cancer therapy and highlight the need for biomarkers that accurately predict treatment outcome.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4161/epi.27111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3962540PMC
February 2014

The RhoA pathway mediates MMP-2 and MMP-9-independent invasive behavior in a triple-negative breast cancer cell line.

J Cell Biochem 2013 Jun;114(6):1385-94

Molecular and Cellular Biology Graduate Program, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, Massachusetts 01003, USA.

Breast cancer is a heterogeneous disease that varies in its biology and response to therapy. A foremost threat to patients is tumor invasion and metastasis, with the greatest risk among patients diagnosed with triple-negative and/or basal-like breast cancers. A greater understanding of the molecular mechanisms underlying cancer cell spreading is needed as 90% of cancer-associated deaths result from metastasis. We previously demonstrated that the Tamoxifen-selected, MCF-7 derivative, TMX2-28, lacks expression of estrogen receptor α (ERα) and is highly invasive, yet maintains an epithelial morphology. The present study was designed to further characterize TMX2-28 cells and elucidate their invasion mechanism. We found that TMX2-28 cells do not express human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 (HER2) and progesterone receptor (PR), in addition to lacking ERα, making the cells triple-negative. We then determined that TMX2-28 cells lack expression of active matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs)-1, MMP-2, MMP-9, and other genes involved in epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) suggesting that TMX2-28 may not utilize mesenchymal invasion. In contrast, TMX2-28 cells have high expression of Ras Homolog Gene Family Member, A (RhoA), a protein known to play a critical role in amoeboid invasion. Blocking RhoA activity with the RhoA pathway specific inhibitor H-1152, or a RhoA specific siRNA, resulted in inhibition of invasive behavior. Collectively, these results suggest that TMX2-28 breast cancer cells exploit a RhoA-dependent, proteolytic-independent invasion mechanism. Targeting the RhoA pathway in triple-negative, basal-like breast cancers that have a proteolytic-independent invasion mechanism may provide therapeutic strategies for the treatment of patients with increased risk of metastasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jcb.24480DOI Listing
June 2013

Long-term estrogen exposure promotes carcinogen bioactivation, induces persistent changes in gene expression, and enhances the tumorigenicity of MCF-7 human breast cancer cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2009 Nov 18;240(3):355-66. Epub 2009 Jul 18.

Laboratory of Molecular Toxicology, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The cumulative exposure to estrogens is an important determinant in the risk of breast cancer, yet the full range of mechanisms involving estrogens in the genesis and progression of breast cancer remains a subject of debate. Interactions of estrogens and environmental toxicants have received attention as putative factors contributing to carcinogenesis. Mechanistic studies have demonstrated interactions between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) and the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR), with consequences on the genes that they regulate. Many studies of ERalpha and AhR-mediated effects and crosstalk between them have focused on the initial molecular events. In this study, we investigated ERalpha- and AhR-mediated effects in long-term estrogen exposed (LTEE) MCF-7 human breast cancer cells, which were obtained by continuous culturing for at least 12 weeks in medium supplemented with 1 nM of 17beta-estradiol (E(2)). With these LTEE cells and with parallel control cells cultured without E(2) supplementation, we performed an extensive study of cytochrome P450 (CYP) induction, carcinogen bioactivation, global gene expression, and tumorigenicity in immunocompromised mice. We found that LTEE cells, in comparison with control cells, had higher levels of AhR mRNA and protein, greater responsiveness for AhR-regulated CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 induction, a 6-fold higher initial level of benzo(a)pyrene-DNA adducts as determined by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry, marked differences in the expression of numerous genes, and a higher rate of E(2)-dependent tumor growth as xenografts. These studies indicate that LTEE causes adaptive responses in MCF-7 cells, which may reflect processes that contribute to the overall carcinogenic effect of E(2).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2009.07.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3180932PMC
November 2009

Investigations of the posttranslational mechanism of arsenite-mediated downregulation of human cytochrome P4501A1 levels: the role of heme oxygenase-1.

J Biochem Mol Toxicol 2009 May-Jun;23(3):222-32

Department of Environmental Health Sciences, School of Public Health, University at Albany, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Arsenite, an environmental cocontaminant of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), diminishes the PAH-mediated upregulation of human CYP1A1, the enzyme that bioactivates PAHs to carcinogenic metabolites. Mechanistically, while transcriptional downregulation contributes to these effects, a role for posttranslational regulation has been implicated but not proven. We hypothesize that arsenite induces heme oxygenase-1 (HO-1), which catabolizes CYP1A1 heme or cellular heme pools, thereby downregulating CYP1A1. Arsenite (5 microM), in HepG2 cells, induced HO-1 mRNA 7.4-fold over the 48 h observation period, and it upregulated HO-1 protein expression. Arsenite decreased the induction of CYP1A1 by a PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene (BKF), by 50%; and transfection of HepG2 cells with siRNA targeting the human HO-1 gene, reduced the arsenite downregulation of BKF-induced CYP1A1 from 54% to 27%, relative to untransfected cells. Reconstituted HO-1 did not significantly catabolize CYP1A1 heme in vitro. Together these findings demonstrate that a posttranslational mechanism involving decreases in the cellular heme pool by arsenite-induced HO-1 may contribute to arsenite-mediated downregulation of CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jbt.20283DOI Listing
September 2009

Role of the insulin-like growth factor system on an estrogen-dependent cancer phenotype in the MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line.

J Steroid Biochem Mol Biol 2008 Mar 8;109(1-2):185-96. Epub 2008 Feb 8.

Department of Environmental Health and Toxicology, School of Public Health, State University at Albany, Albany, NY, USA.

We previously established that exposure of the estrogen receptor (ER) alpha positive MCF-7 human breast cancer cell line to 17-beta-estradiol (E2) results in the post-confluent development of multilayered cellular aggregates (foci) which is consistent with the in vivo cancer phenotype of uncontrolled cellular proliferation. In this investigation, the interaction between the insulin-like growth factor receptor (IGF-IR) and ER-signaling systems in regard to post-confluent focus development was studied. We demonstrated that focus development requires the presence of E2 and insulin-like growth factor I (IGF-I) or insulin-like growth factor II (IGF-II), as well as intact ER and IGF-IR. Focus development in MCF-7 cultures, which occurs only after formation of a confluent monolayer, coincides with E2 regulation of key members of the IGF-signaling system such as IGF-IR, IGF-II, insulin receptor substrate 1 (IRS-1), and insulin-like growth factor binding protein 3 (IGFBP-3), as demonstrated by real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). To establish the relevancy of an intact IGF-signaling system for foci formation, we generated stable clones from MCF-7 with IGF-IR suppressed by siRNA. Results from these studies implicate signaling through the IGF-IR to be an integral requirement for E2-dependent post-confluent proliferation and focus formation. In summary, these studies establish the interactive roles of IGFs and E2 in the post-confluent development of foci, and will allow subsequent identification of targets for therapeutic intervention in the control and treatment of estrogen-dependent breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jsbmb.2007.10.006DOI Listing
March 2008

Induction of CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 by benzo(k)fluoranthene and benzo(a)pyrene in T-47D human breast cancer cells: roles of PAH interactions and PAH metabolites.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2008 Feb 5;226(3):213-24. Epub 2007 Sep 5.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

The interactions of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) and cytochromes P450 (CYP) are complex; PAHs are enzyme inducers, substrates, and inhibitors. In T-47D breast cancer cells, exposure to 0.1 to 1 microM benzo(k)fluoranthene (BKF) induced CYP1A1/1B1-catalyzed 17beta-estradiol (E(2)) metabolism, whereas BKF levels greater than 1 muM inhibited E(2) metabolism. Time course studies showed that induction of CYP1-catalyzed E(2) metabolism persisted after the disappearance of BKF or co-exposed benzo(a)pyrene, suggesting that BKF metabolites retaining Ah receptor agonist activity were responsible for prolonged CYP1 induction. BKF metabolites were shown, through the use of ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase and CYP1A1-promoter-luciferase reporter assays to induce CYP1A1/1B1 in T-47D cells. Metabolites formed by oxidation at the C-2/C-3 region of BKF had potencies for CYP1 induction exceeding those of BKF, whereas C-8/C-9 oxidative metabolites were somewhat less potent than BKF. The activities of expressed human CYP1A1 and 1B1 with BKF as substrate were investigated by use of HPLC with fluorescence detection, and by GC/MS. The results showed that both enzymes efficiently catalyzed the formation of 3-, 8-, and 9-OHBKF from BKF. These studies indicate that the inductive effects of PAH metabolites as potent CYP1 inducers are likely to be additional important factors in PAH-CYP interactions that affect metabolism and bioactivation of other PAHs, ultimately modulating PAH toxicity and carcinogenicity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2007.08.024DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2423327PMC
February 2008

Use of an aggressive MCF-7 cell line variant, TMX2-28, to study cell invasion in breast cancer.

Mol Cancer Res 2006 Dec;4(12):905-13

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts, Amherst, Massachusetts, USA.

An estrogen receptor-negative variant of the MCF-7 breast cancer cell line, TMX2-28, was used as a model in which to study breast cancer cell invasion. Using a reconstituted basement membrane (Matrigel) assay to evaluate cell invasion, we determined that TMX2-28 cells are more invasive than MCF-7 cells and that the invasiveness of TMX2-28 is similar to that of the aggressive MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell line. TMX2-28 cells displayed a rounded, epithelial cell-like morphology, suggesting an amoeboid mode of cell invasion, in contrast to the mesenchymal mode of invasion characteristic of spindle-shaped, fibroblast-like MDA-MB-231 cells. Using real-time reverse transcription-PCR, we found that mitogen-inducible gene 2 (MIG2) is expressed at a 17-fold higher level in TMX2-28 cells than in nonaggressive MCF-7 cells and that MIG2 mRNA levels are low in the nontumorigenic human mammary epithelial cell line, 184. We determined that MIG2 plays a role in cell invasion by using small interfering RNA (siRNA) to suppress the expression of MIG2 mRNA levels in TMX2-28 cells. TMX2-28 cell invasion was reduced by 48% when the cells were transfected with siRNAs targeting MIG2, relative to cells transfected with siRNAs against glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase. Finally, MIG2 expression was evaluated in reductive mammoplasty and breast tumor tissue. Although all 21 normal tissues from reduction mammoplasty showed immunoreactivity for MIG2, ranging from weak (62%) to strong (24%), only half of the 34 formalin-fixed breast tumors showed immunoreactivity for MIG2. Of these 17 positive cases, 10 were considered to overexpress MIG2 (moderate to strong staining). Examination of 30 frozen breast tumors supported the finding that MIG2 is overexpressed in a subset of breast cancers. We suggest that MIG2's normal regulation and function are disrupted in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-06-0147DOI Listing
December 2006

Gene regulation in an MCF-7 cell line that naturally expresses an estrogen receptor unable to directly bind DNA.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2005 Jun;238(1-2):9-25

Wadsworth Center, NY State DoH, P.O. Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

In the described studies, we have developed a variant of the MCF-7 cell line, M-ERd3/g8, for analysis of 17-beta-estradiol (E2)-action without direct DNA interaction by E2-receptors. M-ERd3/g8 cells principally express the estrogen receptor alpha (ER) form ERDelta3 which, due to skipping of exon 3, lacks the second zinc finger of ER that is required for direct DNA interaction. This was achieved by introduction of siRNA targeting exon 3 to a Tamoxifen-selected MCF-7 variant, TMX 2-11, expressing approximately equal amount of full-length ER and ERDelta3 proteins. M-ERd3/g8 cells exhibited a normal nuclear ER localization, and ERDelta3 expression levels were similar to those for full-length ER protein in MCF-7 cells. Ser 118 phosphorylation of the ERDelta3 was triggered by E2 treatment. The expression of several well characterized E2-responsive markers was strongly modified in the M-ERd3/g8 cells. The E2-induction of progesterone receptor (PR) and HEM45 mRNAs was abolished. The effect on pS2 mRNA expression was complex: the pS2 mRNA levels fell approximately 50-fold in control M-ERd3/g8 cells. There was E2-induction of pS2-expression but with an altered temporal pattern. This was blocked by inhibitors of the p42/44 mitogen activated protein (MAP) kinase and inositol triphosphate (PI3) kinase pathways suggesting a role for cytoplasmic signaling pathways. Gene array analysis and real-time polymerase chain reaction (PCR) studies identified several genes whose expressions were induced in E2-treated M-ERd3/g8 cells. These included A-Myb, a homolog to the avian myoblastosis virus oncogene, carbonic anhydrase XII (CAXII), chemokine ligand 12 (CXCL-12), early growth response 3 (EGR 3), fibrinogen B beta (FibBbeta), along with serine protease 23 (SPUVE). The responses fell into several temporal patterns. A-Myb, CAXII, CXCL-12 and EGR 3 were E2-induced within 2 h. The expression of CXCL-12 and EGR 3 was persistent to 24 h, while that of A-Myb and CAXII was not persistent in M-ERd3/g8 cells. FibBbeta and SPUVE expression was not induced until times later than 6 h. Expression of none of the genes was elevated prior to 2 h, but the utilization of a 24 h time point for the gene array analysis may have eliminated the most transiently responsive genes. Immediate early 3 (IE3) was down-regulated by E2 in the M-ERd3/g8 cells but was transiently up-regulated during the 2-6 h period in MCF-7 cells. Basal levels of several of the genes were strongly reduced in M-ERd3/g8, compared to MCF-7. The studies suggest that M-ERd3/g8 cells provide a new model for studies of E2-action without direct ER binding to DNA and where E2-action must be via alternate pathways.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2005.04.005DOI Listing
June 2005

Mechanisms of arsenite-mediated decreases in benzo[k]fluoranthene-induced human cytochrome P4501A1 levels in HepG2 cells.

Drug Metab Dispos 2005 Mar 2;33(3):312-20. Epub 2004 Dec 2.

New York State Department of Health, Wadsworth Center, PO Box 509, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) and heavy metals are often environmental cocontaminants that could interact to alter PAH carcinogenicity. The heavy metal, arsenite, and the PAH, benzo[k]fluoranthene, were used as prototypes to investigate, in human HepG2 cells, mechanisms whereby the bioactivation of benzo[k]fluoranthene by human CYP1A1 could be diminished by arsenite-mediated decreases in CYP1A1 induction by benzo[k]fluoranthene. To determine whether arsenite down-regulates CYP1A1 transcription, quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction assays and luciferase reporter gene expression assays were used with HepG2 cells treated with benzo[k]fluoranthene and arsenite, separately and as a mixture. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (5 microM) markedly decreased benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 mRNA by 45%. Plasmids containing the CYP1A1 promoter region (pHu-1A1-FL) were induced 7.4-fold over vehicle by benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM), whereas arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 46%, 45%, and 61%, respectively. The plasmid, pHu-1A1-Delta100-FL, lacked xenobiotic response element (XRE) sites at -1061 and -981 and showed greater responsiveness relative to pHu-1A1-FL, by 1.7-fold. Benzo[k]fluoranthene (0.5 microM) and arsenite (1, 2.5, or 5 microM) decreased reporter gene expression by 0%, 27%, and 39%, respectively, relative to expression levels produced by benzo[k]fluoranthene alone. Arsenite is stable for at least 48 h in the HepG2 cell medium with respect to its ability to diminish CYP1A1 benzo[k]fluoranthene induction. Arsenite did not affect benzo[k]fluoranthene induction directly through XRE sites, nor did it affect the stability of CYP1A1 mRNA. Thus, arsenite affects the transcriptional regulation of the benzo[k]fluoranthene-mediated induction of CYP1A1 and could diminish PAH carcinogenicity by decreasing bioactivation by CYP1A1.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.104.002212DOI Listing
March 2005

Transcriptional regulation of rat CYP2A3 by nuclear factor 1: identification of a novel NFI-A isoform, and evidence for tissue-selective interaction of NFI with the CYP2A3 promoter in vivo.

J Biol Chem 2004 Jul 28;279(27):27888-95. Epub 2004 Apr 28.

New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, Wadsworth Center, State University of New York, Empire State Plaza, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

Rat CYP2A3 and its mouse and human orthologs are expressed preferentially in the olfactory mucosa. We found previously that an element in the proximal promoter region of CYP2A3 (the nasal predominant transcriptional activating (NPTA) element), which is similar to a nuclear factor 1 (NFI)-binding site, is critical for transcriptional activation of CYP2A3 in vitro. We proposed that this element might be important for tissue-selective CYP2A3 expression. The goals of the present study were to characterize NPTA-binding proteins and to obtain more definitive evidence for the role of NFI in the transcriptional activation of CYP2A3. The NPTA-binding proteins were isolated by DNA-affinity purification from rat olfactory mucosa. Mass spectral analysis indicated that isoforms corresponding to all four NFI genes were present in the purified NPTA-binding fraction. Further analysis of NPTA-binding proteins led to the identification of a novel NFI-A isoform, NFI-A-short, which was derived from alternative splicing of the NFI-A transcript. Transient transfection assay showed that NFI-A2, an NFI isoform previously identified in the olfactory mucosa, transactivated the CYP2A3 promoter, whereas NFI-A-short, which lacks the transactivation domain, counteracted the activation. Chromatin immunoprecipitation assays indicated that NFI proteins are associated with the CYP2A3 promoter in vivo, in rat olfactory mucosa, but essentially not in the liver where the CYP2A3 promoter is hypermethylated and CYP2A3 is not expressed. These data strongly support a role for NFI transcription factors in the transcriptional activation of CYP2A3.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1074/jbc.M403705200DOI Listing
July 2004

Differential action of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons on endogenous estrogen-responsive genes and on a transfected estrogen-responsive reporter in MCF-7 cells.

Toxicol Appl Pharmacol 2004 Apr;196(1):58-67

Department of Veterinary and Animal Sciences, University of Massachusetts Amherst, Amherst, MA 01003-9298, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are common environmental pollutants that have been extensively studied for multiple toxicological endpoints in both laboratory animals and humans. The purpose of this study was to investigate the estrogenicity of PAHs in the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7. We investigated 14 PAHs for their ability to bind either the estrogen receptor (ER) or the aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) and to activate target gene expression. PAHs were tested in a human recombinant estrogen receptor (hrER) competitive binding assay, and in both an estrogen response element (ERE)- and xenobiotic response element (XRE)-mediated reporter gene assay. We used quantitative RT-PCR to examine selected PAHs that showed activity in the ERE reporter gene assay for their ability to upregulate estrogen-responsive genes HEM45, progesterone receptor, and pS2, and the aryl hydrocarbon-responsive CYP1A1 gene. None of the 14 PAHs bound the hrER, but five of the PAHs (anthracene, B[a]A, chrysene, B[b]F, and B[a]P) induced ER-reporter activity. This activity was dependent on the metabolism of PAHs in MCF-7 cells via the AhR pathway, which resulted in the formation of metabolites that bound the ER. None of the five PAHs that induced the ER-reporter were found to upregulate estrogen-responsive genes, yet four of the five PAHs induced AhR-dependent CYP1A1 gene expression. In contrast, a metabolite of B[a]P, 3'OH-B[a]P, and a PCB metabolite, 4'OH-2,4,6-BP, did weakly upregulate all three estrogen-responsive genes. Data from these studies indicate that induction of ER-reporter activity alone does not necessarily parallel endogenous gene transcription, and that the reporter gene assay may detect interactions that are not functional in vivo.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.taap.2003.12.003DOI Listing
April 2004

Estrogen regulates Ah responsiveness in MCF-7 breast cancer cells.

Carcinogenesis 2003 Dec 11;24(12):1941-50. Epub 2003 Sep 11.

Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201-0509, USA.

Cytochrome P450 (CYP)1A1 and CYP1B1, which are under the regulatory control of the aryl hydrocarbon (Ah) receptor (AhR), catalyze the metabolic activation of numerous procarcinogens and the hydroxylation of 17beta-estradiol (E2) at the C-2 and C-4 positions, respectively. There is evidence of cross-talk between estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha)- and AhR-mediated signaling in breast and endometrial cells. To further examine these interactions, we investigated the short- and long-term effects of E2 exposure on Ah responsiveness in MCF-7 human breast cancer cells. Short-term exposure to 1 nM E2 elevated the ratio of the 4- to 2-hydroxylation pathways of 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (TCDD)-induced E2 metabolism and the ratio of the induced CYP1B1 to CYP1A1 mRNA levels, as determined by real-time PCR. Cells maintained long-term (9-12 months) in low-E2 medium progressively lost Ah responsiveness, as indicated by diminished rates of TCDD-induced E2 metabolism and ethoxyresorufin O-deethylase activity, and the reduced expression of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs and proteins levels. These E2-deprived cells showed elevated levels of ERalpha mRNA, depressed levels of AhR mRNA, and unchanged levels of the AhR nuclear translocator mRNA. Transient transfection studies using a CYP1B1-promoter-luciferase reporter construct showed that reduced CYP1B1 promoter activity in E2-deprived cells could be restored by co-transfection with an AhR expression construct, indicating that AhR expression was limiting in these cells. The reduced Ah responsiveness of E2-deprived cells was reversed by culture for four passages in medium supplemented with 1 nM E2; ERalpha and AhR mRNAs returned to near-normal levels and the inducibility of the CYP1A1 and CYP1B1 mRNAs, proteins, and E2 metabolic activities by TCDD was restored. These studies indicate that the continued presence of estrogen is required to maintain high levels of AhR expression and inducibility of the procarcinogen-bioactivating enzymes, CYP1A1 and CYP1B1, in MCF-7 cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/carcin/bgg162DOI Listing
December 2003

Phenotypic changes in MCF-7 cells during prolonged exposure to tamoxifen.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2003 Aug;206(1-2):33-47

Laboratory of Human Toxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, Department of Environmental Disease Prevention, Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, Albany, NY 12201, USA.

MCF-7 breast tumor cells form multicellular nodules (foci) over a confluent monolayer in an estradiol (E2)-dependent, antiestrogen-sensitive reaction. A cell line cloned from MCF-7 that displays these phenotypes was probed to determine the effects of long term exposure to tamoxifen on the growth of foci, estrogen receptor alpha (ERalpha) status, and gene responsiveness to E2. In one of two experiments, a heterogeneous cell population emerged (TMX2) that over-expressed estrogen receptor alpha wild type mRNA (ERalpha mRNA) (approximately 20-fold) missing exon 3 (ERDelta3 mRNA) and its corresponding protein (ERDelta3P). On a per mRNA to protein basis, ERDelta3P and wild-type ERalpha were equivalently expressed. Return of the TMX2 population to medium without tamoxifen eventually selected for a population that expressed predominately wild-type ERalpha, whereas TMX2 clones over expressing ERDelta3 mRNA and ERDelta3P retained this phenotype in tamoxifen-free media. In both experiments, expression of all ERalpha mRNAs and proteins declined to barely detectable levels during 6-12 months exposure, concomitant with a progressive increase in the ability of the cells to form foci independently of E2 or tamoxifen. Selection for these various populations suggests that tamoxifen can induce and/or support certain cellular changes that lead to altered ERalpha expression, E2-independent cell growth and resistance to antiestrogens.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/s0303-7207(03)00256-9DOI Listing
August 2003

Functional evaluation of novel single nucleotide polymorphisms and haplotypes in the promoter regions of CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 genes.

Mol Carcinog 2003 Jul;37(3):158-69

Laboratory of Human Toxicology and Molecular Epidemiology, Wadsworth Center, NYS Department of Health, Albany, New York 12201-0509, USA.

Interindividual variation in the expression of the carcinogen- and estrogen-metabolizing enzymes cytochrome P4501B1 and 1A1 (CYP1B1 and CYP1A1) has been detected in human lung. To search for polymorphisms with functional consequences for CYP1B1 and CYP1A1 gene expression, we examined 1.5 kb of the promoter region of each gene. Genomic DNA from 21 Caucasian individuals was amplified by polymerase chain reaction (PCR) for direct cycle sequencing. Eight single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs) for CYP1B1 and 13 SNPs for CYP1A1 were found. The majority of polymorphisms occurred as multiSNP combinations for individual subjects. The wild-type sequences were cloned into a luciferase reporter construct. The most frequent polymorphisms were then recreated by iterative site-directed mutagenesis, replicating single polymorphisms and multiSNP combinations. These wild-type and variant constructs were functionally evaluated in transient transfection experiments employing exposures to either the index polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbon (PAH) inducer benzo[a]pyrene (B[a]P), a composite mixture of cigarette smoke extract (CSE), or the repressor chemopreventive agent trans-3,4,5-trihydroxystilbene (reseveratrol). Results indicated that all wild-type and variant constructs responded in qualitatively concordant fashion to the inducers and to the repressor. The CYP1B1 haplotypes and the majority of CYP1A1 haplotypes were shown to have no functional consequence, as compared to those of the wild-type promoter sequences. Two constructs of composite polymorphisms of CYP1A1 appeared to result in a statistically significant increase in basal promoter activity (1.38- and 1.50-fold, respectively), but the degree of functional impact was judged unlikely to be biologically important in vivo. We conclude that the observed promoter region polymorphisms in these genes are common, but are of unclear functional consequence.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/mc.10132DOI Listing
July 2003