Publications by authors named "Brian Schrire"

9 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Phylogenomic framework of the IRLC legumes (Leguminosae subfamily Papilionoideae) and intercontinental biogeography of tribe Wisterieae.

Mol Phylogenet Evol 2021 Oct 17;163:107235. Epub 2021 Jun 17.

Key Laboratory of Plant Resources Conservation and Sustainable Utilization, South China Botanical Garden, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Guangzhou 510650, China. Electronic address:

The inverted repeat-lacking clade (IRLC) is one of the most derived clades within the subfamily Papilionoideae of the legume family, and includes various economically important plants, e.g., chickpeas, peas, liquorice, and the largest genus of angiosperms, Astragalus. Tribe Wisterieae is one of the earliest diverged groups of the IRLC, and its generic delimitation and spatiotemporal diversification needs further clarifications. Based on genome skimming data, we herein reconstruct the phylogenomic framework of the IRLC, and infer the inter-generic relationships and historical biogeography of Wisterieae. We redefine tribe Caraganeae to contain Caragana only, and tribe Astragaleae is reduced to the Erophaca-Astragalean clade. The chloroplast capture scenario was hypothesized as the most plausible explanation of the topological incongruences between the chloroplast CDSs and nuclear ribosomal DNA trees in both the Glycyrrhizinae-Adinobotrys-Wisterieae clade and the Chesneyeae-Caraganeae-Hedysareae clade. A new name, Caragana lidou L. Duan & Z.Y. Chang, is proposed within Caraganeae. Thirteen genera are herein supported within Wisterieae, including a new genus, Villosocallerya L. Duan, J. Compton & Schrire, segregated from Callerya. Our biogeographic analyses suggest that Wisterieae originated in the late Eocene and its most recent common ancestor (MRCA) was distributed in continental southeastern Asia. Lineages of Wisterieae remained in the ancestral area from the early Oligocene to the early Miocene. By the middle Miocene, Whitfordiodendron and the MRCA of Callerya-Kanburia-Villosocallerya Clade became disjunct between the Sunda area and continental southeastern Asia, respectively; the MRCA of Wisteria migrated to North America via the Bering land bridge. The ancestor of Austrocallerya and Padbruggea migrated to the Wallacea-Oceania area, which split in the early Pliocene. In the Pleistocene, Wisteria brachybotrys, W. floribunda and Wisteriopsis japonica reached Japan, and Callerya cinerea dispersed to South Asia. This study provides a solid phylogenomic for further evolutionary/biogeographic/systematic investigations on the ecologically diverse and economically important IRLC legumes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ympev.2021.107235DOI Listing
October 2021

A reappraisal of Dunn (Fabaceae) with two new combinations.

PhytoKeys 2020 28;165:63-67. Epub 2020 Oct 28.

Comparative Plant and Fungal Biology Department, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AE, UK Royal Botanic Gardens London United Kingdom.

Two new species from Borneo that have been described in the genus are shown here to belong in . The new combinations and have consequently been made, bringing the total number of species in the genus to four. A morphological key and taxonomic conspectus is provided for all species.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.165.58477DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7642118PMC
October 2020

The Group redefined and Tribe Wisterieae (Fabaceae) emended based on morphology and data from nuclear and chloroplast DNA sequences.

PhytoKeys 2019 26;125:1-112. Epub 2019 Jun 26.

Silpakorn University, Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Sanam Chandra Palace campus, Nakhon Pathom 73000, Thailand Silpakorn University Nakhon Pathom Thailand.

The Tribe Wisterieae (Zhu 1994), founded on the single genus , is emended and recircumscribed based on morphology and data from nuclear ITS and , and chloroplast DNA sequences. This newly enlarged tribe comprises 36 species and 9 infraspecific taxa within 13 described genera. Six genera are new, two are reinstated and five were previously placed in Tribe Millettieae. The genus is also reinstated comprising two species including the new combination . Other reinstated genera include , with four species, and , with three species, including the reinstatement of and the new combination P.filipesvar.tomentosa. The existing genera , , (with the new combination E.racemosavar.pallida), and , with the new combinations W.frutescenssubsp.macrostachya are evaluated. The new genera comprise three Australasian species in : , and ; with five species from east Asia has six new combinations: , and W.reticulatavar.stenophylla. Two species comprise the new Thai genus : and . comprises the two species: and and the monotypic genera and are based respectively on the species and . Lectotypes are designated for the names , , , , M.reticulatavar.stenophylla, , , , , and . A neotype is designated for the name .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.125.34877DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6610001PMC
June 2019

Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism, Great Escarpment (Eastern and Western Cape, South Africa).

PhytoKeys 2015 2(48):29-41. Epub 2015 Apr 2.

Great Escarpment Biodiversity Programme, Department of Botany, Rhodes University, Grahamstown, 6140, South Africa.

Two new species of Indigofera L. (Leguminosae) are described from the Sneeuberg Centre of Floristic Endemism on the southern Great Escarpment, Eastern and Western Cape Provinces, South Africa. Both species are localised high-altitude endemics. Indigoferamagnifica Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to the summit plateau of the Toorberg-Koudeveldberg-Meelberg west of Graaff-Reinet, and complements other western Sneeuberg endemics such as Ericapasserinoides (Bolus) E.G.H. Oliv. and Faurearecondita Rourke & V.R. Clark. Indigoferaasantasanensis Schrire & V.R. Clark is confined to a small area east of Graaff-Reinet, and complements several other eastern Sneeuberg endemics such as Euryopsexsudans B. Nord & V.R. Clark and Euryopsproteoides B. Nord. & V.R. Clark. Based on morphology, both new species belong to the Cape Clade of Indigofera, supporting a biogeographical link between the Cape Floristic Region and the Sneeuberg, as well as with the rest of the eastern Great Escarpment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3897/phytokeys.48.4798DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4408730PMC
May 2015

Symbiotic diversity, specificity and distribution of rhizobia in native legumes of the Core Cape Subregion (South Africa).

FEMS Microbiol Ecol 2015 Feb 8;91(2):1-17. Epub 2014 Dec 8.

Department of Biological Sciences, University of Cape Town, Private Bag X3, Rondebosch 7701, Cape Town, South Africa.

Rhizobial diversity and host preferences were assessed in 65 native Fynbos legumes of the papilionoid legume tribes Astragaleae, Crotalarieae, Genisteae, Indigofereae, Millettieae, Phaseoleae, Podalyrieae, Psoraleeae and Sesbanieae. Sequence analyses of chromosomal 16S rRNA, recA, atpD and symbiosis-related nodA, nifH genes in parallel with immunogold labelling assays identified the symbionts as alpha- (Azorhizobium, Bradyrhizobium, Ensifer, Mesorhizobium and Rhizobium) and beta-rhizobial (Burkholderia) lineages with the majority placed in the genera Mesorhizobium and Burkholderia showing a wide range of host interactions. Despite a degree of symbiotic promiscuity in the tribes Crotalarieae and Indigofereae nodulating with both alpha- and beta-rhizobia, Mesorhizobium symbionts appeared to exhibit a general host preference for the tribe Psoraleeae, whereas Burkholderia prevailed in the Podalyrieae. Although host genotype was the main factor determining rhizobial diversity, ecological factors such as soil acidity and site elevation were positively correlated with genetic variation within Mesorhizobium and Burkholderia, respectively, indicating an interplay of host and environmental factors on the distribution of Fynbos rhizobia.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/femsec/fiu024DOI Listing
February 2015

Extinction risk and diversification are linked in a plant biodiversity hotspot.

PLoS Biol 2011 May 24;9(5):e1000620. Epub 2011 May 24.

National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis, University of California, Santa Barbara, California, United States of America.

It is widely recognized that we are entering an extinction event on a scale approaching the mass extinctions seen in the fossil record. Present-day rates of extinction are estimated to be several orders of magnitude greater than background rates and are projected to increase further if current trends continue. In vertebrates, species traits, such as body size, fecundity, and geographic range, are important predictors of vulnerability. Although plants are the basis for life on Earth, our knowledge of plant extinctions and vulnerabilities is lagging. Here, we disentangle the underlying drivers of extinction risk in plants, focusing on the Cape of South Africa, a global biodiversity hotspot. By comparing Red List data for the British and South African floras, we demonstrate that the taxonomic distribution of extinction risk differs significantly between regions, inconsistent with a simple, trait-based model of extinction. Using a comprehensive phylogenetic tree for the Cape, we reveal a phylogenetic signal in the distribution of plant extinction risks but show that the most threatened species cluster within short branches at the tips of the phylogeny--opposite to trends in mammals. From analyzing the distribution of threatened species across 11 exemplar clades, we suggest that mode of speciation best explains the unusual phylogenetic structure of extinction risks in plants of the Cape. Our results demonstrate that explanations for elevated extinction risk in plants of the Cape flora differ dramatically from those recognized for vertebrates. In the Cape, extinction risk is higher for young and fast-evolving plant lineages and cannot be explained by correlations with simple biological traits. Critically, we find that the most vulnerable plant species are nonetheless marching towards extinction at a more rapid pace but, surprisingly, independently from anthropogenic effects. Our results have important implications for conservation priorities and cast doubts on the utility of current Red List criteria for plants in regions such as the Cape, where speciation has been rapid, if our aim is to maximize the preservation of the tree-of-life.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1371/journal.pbio.1000620DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3101198PMC
May 2011

Consistent phenological shifts in the making of a biodiversity hotspot: the Cape flora.

BMC Evol Biol 2011 Feb 8;11:39. Epub 2011 Feb 8.

School of Biological Sciences, Lyle Tower, University of Reading, Whiteknights, Reading RG6 6BX, UK.

Background: The best documented survival responses of organisms to past climate change on short (glacial-interglacial) timescales are distributional shifts. Despite ample evidence on such timescales for local adaptations of populations at specific sites, the long-term impacts of such changes on evolutionary significant units in response to past climatic change have been little documented. Here we use phylogenies to reconstruct changes in distribution and flowering ecology of the Cape flora--South Africa's biodiversity hotspot--through a period of past (Neogene and Quaternary) changes in the seasonality of rainfall over a timescale of several million years.

Results: Forty-three distributional and phenological shifts consistent with past climatic change occur across the flora, and a comparable number of clades underwent adaptive changes in their flowering phenology (9 clades; half of the clades investigated) as underwent distributional shifts (12 clades; two thirds of the clades investigated). Of extant Cape angiosperm species, 14-41% have been contributed by lineages that show distributional shifts consistent with past climate change, yet a similar proportion (14-55%) arose from lineages that shifted flowering phenology.

Conclusions: Adaptive changes in ecology at the scale we uncover in the Cape and consistent with past climatic change have not been documented for other floras. Shifts in climate tolerance appear to have been more important in this flora than is currently appreciated, and lineages that underwent such shifts went on to contribute a high proportion of the flora's extant species diversity. That shifts in phenology, on an evolutionary timescale and on such a scale, have not yet been detected for other floras is likely a result of the method used; shifts in flowering phenology cannot be detected in the fossil record.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2148-11-39DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3045326PMC
February 2011

Phylogeny of the tribe Indigofereae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae): Geographically structured more in succulent-rich and temperate settings than in grass-rich environments.

Am J Bot 2009 Apr;96(4):816-52

The Herbarium, Royal Botanic Gardens, Kew, Richmond, Surrey, TW9 3AB, UK.

This analysis goes beyond many phylogenies in exploring how phylogenetic structure imposed by morphology, ecology, and geography reveals useful evolutionary data. A comprehensive range of such diversity is evaluated within tribe Indigofereae and outgroups from sister tribes. A combined data set of 321 taxa (over one-third of the tribe) by 80 morphological characters, 833 aligned nuclear ribosomal ITS/5.8S sites, and an indel data set of 33 characters was subjected to parsimony analysis. Notable results include the Madagascan dry forest Disynstemon resolved as sister to tribe Indigofereae, and all species of the large genus Indigofera comprise just four main clades, each diagnosable by morphological synapomorphies and ecological and geographical predilections. These results suggest niche conservation (ecology) and dispersal limitation (geography) are important processes rendering signature shapes to the Indigofereae phylogeny in different biomes. Clades confined to temperate and succulent-rich biomes are more dispersal limited and have more geographical phylogenetic structure than those inhabiting tropical grass-rich vegetation. The African arid corridor, particularly the Namib center of endemism, harbors many of the oldest Indigofera lineages. A rates analysis of nucleotide substitutions confirms that the ages of the oldest crown clades are mostly younger than 16 Ma, implicating dispersal in explaining the worldwide distribution of the tribe.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3732/ajb.0800185DOI Listing
April 2009

Metacommunity process rather than continental tectonic history better explains geographically structured phylogenies in legumes.

Philos Trans R Soc Lond B Biol Sci 2004 Oct;359(1450):1509-22

Department of Plant Sciences and Plant Pathology, Montana State University, Bozeman, MT 59717, USA.

Penalized likelihood estimated ages of both densely sampled intracontinental and sparsely sampled transcontinental crown clades in the legume family show a mostly Quaternary to Neogene age distribution. The mode ages of the intracontinental crown clades range from 4-6 Myr ago, whereas those of the transcontinental crown clades range from 8-16 Myr ago. Both of these young age estimates are detected despite methodological approaches that bias results toward older ages. Hypotheses that resort to vicariance or continental history to explain continental disjunct distributions are dismissed because they require mostly Palaeogene and older tectonic events. An alternative explanation centring on dispersal that may well explain the geographical as well as the ecological phylogenetic structure of legume phylogenies is Hubbell's unified neutral theory of biodiversity and biogeography. This is the only dispersalist theory that encompasses evolutionary time and makes predictions about phylogenetic structure.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1098/rstb.2004.1536DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC1693434PMC
October 2004
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