Publications by authors named "Brian Nowlin"

10 Publications

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Monocyte subsets exhibit transcriptional plasticity and a shared response to interferon in SIV-infected rhesus macaques.

J Leukoc Biol 2018 01 14;103(1):141-155. Epub 2017 Dec 14.

Department of Biology, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts, USA.

The progression to AIDS is influenced by changes in the biology of heterogeneous monocyte subsets. Classical (CD14++CD16-), intermediate (CD14++CD16+), and nonclassical (CD14+CD16++) monocytes may represent progressive stages of monocyte maturation or disparate myeloid lineages with different turnover rates and function. To investigate the relationship between monocyte subsets and the response to SIV infection, we performed microarray analysis of monocyte subsets in rhesus macaques at three time points: prior to SIV infection, 26 days postinfection, and necropsy with AIDS. Genes with a 2-fold change between monocyte subsets (2023 genes) or infection time points (424 genes) were selected. We identify 172 genes differentially expressed among monocyte subsets in both uninfected and SIV-infected animals. Classical monocytes express genes associated with inflammatory responses and cell proliferation. Nonclassical monocytes express genes associated with activation, immune effector functions, and cell cycle inhibition. The classical and intermediate subsets are most similar at all time points, and transcriptional similarity between intermediate and nonclassical monocytes increases with AIDS. Cytosolic sensors of nucleic acids, restriction factors, and IFN-stimulated genes are induced in all three subsets with AIDS. We conclude that SIV infection alters the transcriptional relationship between monocyte subsets and that the innate immune response to SIV infection is conserved across monocyte subsets.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/JLB.4A0217-047RDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6869333PMC
January 2018

SIV encephalitis lesions are composed of CD163(+) macrophages present in the central nervous system during early SIV infection and SIV-positive macrophages recruited terminally with AIDS.

Am J Pathol 2015 Jun 8;185(6):1649-65. Epub 2015 May 8.

Biology Department, Boston College, Chestnut Hill, Massachusetts. Electronic address:

Macrophage recruitment to the central nervous system (CNS) during AIDS pathogenesis is poorly understood. We measured the accumulation of brain perivascular (CD163(+)) and inflammatory (MAC387(+)) macrophages in SIV-infected monkeys. Monocyte progenitors were 5-bromo-2'-deoxyuridine (BrdU) labeled in bone marrow, and CNS macrophages were labeled serially with fluorescent dextrans injected into the cisterna magna. MAC387(+) macrophages accumulated in the meninges and choroid plexus in early inflammation and in the perivascular space and SIV encephalitis (SIVE) lesions late. CD163(+) macrophages accumulated in the perivascular space and SIVE lesions with late inflammation. Most of the BrdU(+) cells were MAC387(+); however, CD163(+)BrdU(+) macrophages were present in the meninges and choroid plexus with AIDS. Most (81.6% ± 1.8%) of macrophages in SIVE lesions were present in the CNS before SIVE lesion formation. There was a 2.9-fold increase in SIVp28(+) macrophages entering the CNS late compared with those entering early (P < 0.05). The rate of CD163(+) macrophage recruitment to the CNS inversely correlated with time to death (P < 0.03) and increased with SIVE. In SIVE animals, soluble CD163 correlated with CD163(+) macrophage recruitment (P = 0.02). Most perivascular macrophages that comprise SIVE lesions and multinucleated giant cells are present in the CNS early, before SIVE lesions are formed. Most SIV-infected macrophages traffic to the CNS terminally with AIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.01.033DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4450314PMC
June 2015

Spatiotemporal dynamics of simian immunodeficiency virus brain infection in CD8+ lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with neuroAIDS.

J Gen Virol 2014 Dec 9;95(Pt 12):2784-2795. Epub 2014 Sep 9.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Despite the success of combined antiretroviral therapy in controlling viral replication in human immunodeficiency virus (HIV)-infected individuals, HIV-associated neurocognitive disorders, commonly referred to as neuroAIDS, remain a frequent and poorly understood complication. Infection of CD8(+) lymphocyte-depleted rhesus macaques with the SIVmac251 viral swarm is a well-established rapid disease model of neuroAIDS that has provided critical insight into HIV-1-associated neurocognitive disorder onset and progression. However, no studies so far have characterized in depth the relationship between intra-host viral evolution and pathogenesis in this model. Simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) env gp120 sequences were obtained from six infected animals. Sequences were sampled longitudinally from several lymphoid and non-lymphoid tissues, including individual lobes within the brain at necropsy, for four macaques; two animals were sacrificed at 21 days post-infection (p.i.) to evaluate early viral seeding of the brain. Bayesian phylodynamic and phylogeographic analyses of the sequence data were used to ascertain viral population dynamics and gene flow between peripheral and brain tissues, respectively. A steady increase in viral effective population size, with a peak occurring at ~50-80 days p.i., was observed across all longitudinally monitored macaques. Phylogeographic analysis indicated continual viral seeding of the brain from several peripheral tissues throughout infection, with the last migration event before terminal illness occurring in all macaques from cells within the bone marrow. The results strongly supported the role of infected bone marrow cells in HIV/SIV neuropathogenesis. In addition, our work demonstrated the applicability of Bayesian phylogeography to intra-host studies in order to assess the interplay between viral evolution and pathogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.070318-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4233634PMC
December 2014

Efficient transmission and persistence of low-frequency SIVmac251 variants in CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with different neuropathology.

J Gen Virol 2012 May 1;93(Pt 5):925-938. Epub 2012 Feb 1.

Emerging Pathogens Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, FL, USA.

Infection of CD8-depleted rhesus macaques with the genetically heterogeneous simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV)mac251 viral swarm provides a rapid-disease model for simian acquired immune deficiency syndrome and SIV-encephalitis (SIVE). The objective was to evaluate how the diversity of the swarm influences the initial seeding of the infection that may potentially affect disease progression. Plasma, lymphoid and non-lymphoid (brain and lung) tissues were collected from two infected macaques euthanized at 21 days post-infection (p.i.), as well as longitudinal specimens and post-mortem tissues from four macaques followed throughout the infection. About 1300 gp120 viral sequences were obtained from the infecting SIVmac251 swarm and the macaques longitudinal and post-mortem samples. Phylogenetic and amino acid signature pattern analyses were carried out to assess frequency, transmission dynamics and persistence of specific viral clusters. Although no significant reduction in viral heterogeneity was found early in infection (21 days p.i.), transmission and replication of SIV variants was not entirely random. In particular, two distinct motifs under-represented (<4 %) in the infecting swarm were found at high frequencies (up to 14 %) in all six macaques as early as 21 days p.i. Moreover, a macrophage tropic variant not detected in the viral swarm (<0.3 %) was present at high frequency (29-100 %) in sequences derived from the brain of two macaques with meningitis or severe SIVE. This study demonstrates the highly efficient transmission and persistence in vivo of multiple low frequency SIVmac251 founder variants, characterized by specific gp120 motifs that may be linked to pathogenesis in the rapid-disease model of neuroAIDS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1099/vir.0.039586-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3541805PMC
May 2012

Significant genetic heterogeneity of the SIVmac251 viral swarm derived from different sources.

AIDS Res Hum Retroviruses 2011 Dec 28;27(12):1327-32. Epub 2011 Jun 28.

Department of Pathology, Immunology, and Laboratory Medicine, University of Florida, Gainesville, USA.

Infecting rhesus macaques (Macaca mulatta) with the simian immunodeficiency virus (SIV) is an established animal model of human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) pathogenesis. Many studies have used various derivatives of the SIVmac251 viral swarm to investigate several aspects of the disease, including transmission, progression, response to vaccination, and SIV/HIV-associated neurological disorders. However, the lack of standardization of the infecting inoculum complicates comparative analyses. We investigated the genetic diversity and phylogenetic relationships of the 1991 animal-titered SIVmac251 swarm, the peripheral blood mononuclear cell (PBMC) passaged SIVmac251, and additional SIVmac251 sequences derived over the past 20 years. Significant sequence divergence and diversity were evident among the different viral sources. This finding highlights the importance of characterizing the exact source and genetic makeup of the infecting inoculum to achieve controlled experimental conditions and enable meaningful comparisons across studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/AID.2011.0100DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3227245PMC
December 2011

The melanoma-associated transmembrane glycoprotein Gpnmb controls trafficking of cellular debris for degradation and is essential for tissue repair.

FASEB J 2010 Dec 13;24(12):4767-81. Epub 2010 Aug 13.

Laboratory of Inflammation Research, Brigham and Womens Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Kidney damage due to injury rarely resolves completely, and there are currently no therapies capable of promoting repair. In addition to understanding mechanisms by which tissues are damaged, illuminating mechanisms of repair and regeneration is also of great importance. Here we show that the melanoma-associated, transmembrane glycoprotein, Gpnmb, is up-regulated 15-fold following ischemic damage in kidney tissue and by more than 10-fold in macrophages and 3-fold in surviving epithelial cells. Gpnmb-expressing macrophages and epithelial cells were found to contain apoptotic bodies at 3 times the rate of nonexpressing cells. Either mutation of Gpnmb or ablation of inflammatory macrophages prevents normal repair of the kidney. Significantly, the kidneys from postischemic Gpnmb mutant mice exhibited a 5-fold increase in apoptotic cellular debris compared to wild-type mice. These mice also experienced an 85% increase in mortality following bilateral ischemic kidney. Finally, we demonstrate that Gpnmb is a phagocytic protein that is necessary for recruitment of the autophagy protein LC3 to the phagosome where these proteins are colocalized and for lysosomal fusion with the phagosome and hence bulk degradation of their content. Therefore, Gpnmb is a novel prorepair gene that is necessary for crosstalk between the macroautophagic degradation pathway and phagocytosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1096/fj.10-154757DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2992370PMC
December 2010

Serum amyloid P inhibits fibrosis through Fc gamma R-dependent monocyte-macrophage regulation in vivo.

Sci Transl Med 2009 Nov;1(5):5ra13

Laboratory of Inflammation Research, Harvard Institutes of Medicine, 4 Blackfan Circle, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

New therapies that target chronic inflammation with fibrosis are urgently required. Increasing evidence points to innate activation of inflammatory cells in driving chronic organ fibrosis. Serum amyloid P is a naturally circulating soluble pattern recognition receptor, a member of the family of pentraxin proteins. It links danger-associated molecular pattern recognition to Fc gamma receptor-mediated phagocytosis. Here we show that fibrosis progression in the mouse kidney is significantly inhibited by therapeutic administration of human serum amyloid P, regulated by activating Fc gamma receptors, and dependent on inflammatory monocytes and macrophages, but not fibrocytes. Human serum amyloid P-mediated inhibition of mouse kidney fibrosis correlated with specific binding of human serum amyloid P to cell debris and with subsequent suppression of inflammatory monocytes and kidney macrophages in vitro and in vivo, and was dependent on regulated binding to activating Fc gamma receptors and interleukin-10 expression. These studies uncover previously unidentified roles for Fc gamma receptors in sterile inflammation and highlight serum amyloid P as a potential antifibrotic therapy through local generation of interleukin-10.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/scitranslmed.3000111DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2852889PMC
November 2009

Macrophage Wnt7b is critical for kidney repair and regeneration.

Proc Natl Acad Sci U S A 2010 Mar 16;107(9):4194-9. Epub 2010 Feb 16.

Laboratory of Inflammation Research, Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Macrophages are required for tissue homeostasis through their role in regulation of the immune response and the resolution of injury. Here we show, using the kidney as a model, that the Wnt pathway ligand Wnt7b is produced by macrophages to stimulate repair and regeneration. When macrophages are inducibly ablated from the injured kidney, the canonical Wnt pathway response in kidney epithelial cells is reduced. Furthermore, when Wnt7b is somatically deleted in macrophages, repair of injury is greatly diminished. Finally, injection of the Wnt pathway regulator Dkk2 enhances the repair process and suggests a therapeutic option. Because Wnt7b is known to stimulate epithelial responses during kidney development, these findings suggest that macrophages are able to rapidly invade an injured tissue and reestablish a developmental program that is beneficial for repair and regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1073/pnas.0912228107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2840080PMC
March 2010

Fate tracing reveals the pericyte and not epithelial origin of myofibroblasts in kidney fibrosis.

Am J Pathol 2010 Jan 11;176(1):85-97. Epub 2009 Dec 11.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham & Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, Massachusetts 02115, USA.

Understanding the origin of myofibroblasts in kidney is of great interest because these cells are responsible for scar formation in fibrotic kidney disease. Recent studies suggest epithelial cells are an important source of myofibroblasts through a process described as the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition; however, confirmatory studies in vivo are lacking. To quantitatively assess the contribution of renal epithelial cells to myofibroblasts, we used Cre/Lox techniques to genetically label and fate map renal epithelia in models of kidney fibrosis. Genetically labeled primary proximal epithelial cells cultured in vitro from these mice readily induce markers of myofibroblasts after transforming growth factor beta(1) treatment. However, using either red fluorescent protein or beta-galactosidase as fate markers, we found no evidence that epithelial cells migrate outside of the tubular basement membrane and differentiate into interstitial myofibroblasts in vivo. Thus, although renal epithelial cells can acquire mesenchymal markers in vitro, they do not directly contribute to interstitial myofibroblast cells in vivo. Lineage analysis shows that during nephrogenesis, FoxD1-positive((+)) mesenchymal cells give rise to adult CD73(+), platelet derived growth factor receptor beta(+), smooth muscle actin-negative interstitial pericytes, and these FoxD1-derivative interstitial cells expand and differentiate into smooth muscle actin(+) myofibroblasts during fibrosis, accounting for a large majority of myofibroblasts. These data indicate that therapeutic strategies directly targeting pericyte differentiation in vivo may productively impact fibrotic kidney disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2353/ajpath.2010.090517DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2797872PMC
January 2010

Bone marrow Ly6Chigh monocytes are selectively recruited to injured kidney and differentiate into functionally distinct populations.

J Immunol 2009 Nov 28;183(10):6733-43. Epub 2009 Oct 28.

Renal Division, Department of Medicine, Brigham and Women's Hospital and Harvard Medical School, Boston, MA 02115, USA.

Roles for monocyte/macrophages (Mphi) in directing the development of tissue fibrosis are increasingly recognized. Macrophages form a heterogeneous group of inflammatory leukocytes, and the mechanisms by which they acquire heterogeneity and its functional significance are unclear. We used the unilateral ureteral obstruction model of progressive kidney fibrosis to explore macrophage heterogeneity and function further. Unilateral ureteral obstruction kidney Mphis form three distinct subpopulations defined by the marker Ly6C, all of which are derived from a single Ly6C(high) bone marrow monocyte population selectively recruited to the kidney. Conditional ablation of these Mphis in vivo in CD11b-DTR mice is potently antifibrotic. The mRNA transcription profile of these populations is consistent with differential functional roles for each subpopulation, with Ly6C(low) macrophages transcribing genes consistent with selective profibrotic or M2-type function. Furthermore, bone marrow chimerism studies indicate that although resident kidney macrophages proliferate markedly to comprise up to 40% of the inflammatory macrophage population, they do not contribute to fibrosis. Our data identify Ly6C as a marker of functionally discrete tissue macrophage subsets and support a model of selective recruitment of Ly6C(high) bone marrow monocytes to the kidney that differentiate into three populations of kidney macrophages, including a profibrotic Ly6C(low) population.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4049/jimmunol.0901473DOI Listing
November 2009