Publications by authors named "Brian Hoffpauir"

13 Publications

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Recommendations for the content and management of Certificates of Analysis for reference standards from the GCC for bioanalysis.

Bioanalysis 2021 Apr 13;13(8):609-619. Epub 2021 Apr 13.

Worldwide Clinical Trials, Austin, TX, USA.

The 13th Global CRO Council (GCC) closed forum for bioanalysis was held in New Orleans, LA, USA on 5 April 2019. This GCC meeting was organized to discuss the contents of the 2019 ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline published in February 2019 and consolidate the feedback of the GCC members. While ICH M10 will cover requirements for reference standards, one of the biggest challenges facing the CRO community is the lack of consistency and completeness of Certificates of Analysis for reference standards used in regulated bioanalysis. Similar challenges exist with critical reagents (e.g., capture and detection antibodies) used for assays supporting biologics. The recommendations provided in this publication are the minimum requirements for the content that GCC members believe should be included in Certificates of Analysis for reference standards obtained from commercial vendors, sponsors and compendial suppliers, for use in regulated bioanalytical studies. In addition, recommendations for internal standards, metabolites and critical reagents are discussed.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2021-0046DOI Listing
April 2021

GCC Consolidated Feedback to ICH on the 2019 ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline.

Bioanalysis 2019 Sep 30;11(18s):1-228. Epub 2019 Sep 30.

WuXi Apptec, Shanghai, China.

The 13 GCC Closed Forum for Bioanalysis was held in New Orleans, Louisiana, USA on April 5, 2019. This GCC meeting was organized to discuss the contents of the 2019 ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline published in February 2019 and consolidate the feedback of the GCC members. In attendance were 63 senior-level participants from eight countries representing 44 bioanalytical CRO companies/sites. This event represented a unique opportunity for CRO bioanalytical experts to share their opinions and concerns regarding the ICH M10 Bioanalytical Method Validation Draft Guideline and to build unified comments to be provided to the ICH.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio-2019-0207DOI Listing
September 2019

Accelerating Regulated Bioanalysis for Biotherapeutics: Case Examples Using a Microfluidic Ligand Binding Assay Platform.

AAPS J 2017 01 27;19(1):82-91. Epub 2016 Oct 27.

Immunochemistry and Biomarkers, Analytical and Bioanalytical Operations, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Route 206 and Province Line Road, Princeton, New Jersey, 08543, USA.

The Gyrolab™ xP is a microfluidic platform for conducting ligand binding assays (LBAs) and is recognized for its utility in discovery bioanalysis. However, few reports have focused on the technology for regulated bioanalysis. This technology has the advantage of low reagent consumption, low sample volume, and automated ligand binding methods. To improve bioanalysis testing timelines and increase the speed at which biotherapeutics are delivered to patients, we evaluated the technology for its potential to deliver high-quality data at reduced testing timelines for regulated bioanalysis. Six LBA methods were validated to support bioanalysis for GLP toxicokinetic or clinical pharmacokinetic studies. Validation, sample analysis, and method transfer are described. In total, approximately 4000 samples have been tested for regulated bioanalysis to support 6 GLP toxicology studies and approximately 1000 samples to support 2 clinical studies. Gyrolab™ xP had high run pass rates (≥83%) and high incurred sample reanalysis (ISR) pass rates (>94%). The maximum total error observed across all QC levels for a given assay was <30% for all six LBAs. High instrument response precision (CV ≤5%) was observed across compact discs (CDs), and methods were validated to use a single standard curve across multiple CDs within a Gyrolab™ xP run. Reduced bioanalysis timelines were achieved compared to standard manual plate-based methods, and methods were successfully transferred across testing labs, paving the way for this platform for use in late-stage clinical development.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1208/s12248-016-0006-zDOI Listing
January 2017

Validation of an integrated series of ligand-binding assays for the quantitative determination of antibody-drug conjugates in biological matrices.

Bioanalysis 2016 Mar 26;8(6):519-31. Epub 2016 Feb 26.

Bioanalytical Sciences-Biologics, Bristol-Myers Squibb, Lawrenceville, NJ, USA.

Background: The bioanalytical strategy for antibody-drug conjugates (ADC) includes multiple integrated measurements of pharmacologically relevant ADC.

Methods & Results: Three ligand-binding assays were validated for the measurement of total antibody, active ADC and total ADC. Accuracy and precision demonstrate %bias from -8 to 14%, %CV from 3 to 11% and total error from 3 to 21%, with >98% samples meeting incurred sample reanalysis criteria. Each assay met stability, selectivity, dilutional integrity, carry over and specificity criteria with no interference from associated metabolite/impurity. Given the active ADC assay sensitivity to payload, active ADC was used to assess drug to antibody ratio.

Discussion & Conclusion: Implementation of a microfluidic automated platform enabled high throughput sample analysis of multiple analytes with minimal sample processing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.4155/bio.16.13DOI Listing
March 2016

Synaptic inputs compete during rapid formation of the calyx of Held: a new model system for neural development.

J Neurosci 2013 Aug;33(32):12954-69

Center for Neuroscience, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9303, USA.

Hallmark features of neural circuit development include early exuberant innervation followed by competition and pruning to mature innervation topography. Several neural systems, including the neuromuscular junction and climbing fiber innervation of Purkinje cells, are models to study neural development in part because they establish a recognizable endpoint of monoinnervation of their targets and because the presynaptic terminals are large and easily monitored. We demonstrate here that calyx of Held (CH) innervation of its target, which forms a key element of auditory brainstem binaural circuitry, exhibits all of these characteristics. To investigate CH development, we made the first application of serial block-face scanning electron microscopy to neural development with fine temporal resolution and thereby accomplished the first time series for 3D ultrastructural analysis of neural circuit formation. This approach revealed a growth spurt of added apposed surface area (ASA)>200 μm2/d centered on a single age at postnatal day 3 in mice and an initial rapid phase of growth and competition that resolved to monoinnervation in two-thirds of cells within 3 d. This rapid growth occurred in parallel with an increase in action potential threshold, which may mediate selection of the strongest input as the winning competitor. ASAs of competing inputs were segregated on the cell body surface. These data suggest mechanisms to select "winning" inputs by regional reinforcement of postsynaptic membrane to mediate size and strength of competing synaptic inputs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.1087-13.2013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3735879PMC
August 2013

Maturation of synaptic partners: functional phenotype and synaptic organization tuned in synchrony.

J Physiol 2010 Nov 20;588(Pt 22):4365-85. Epub 2010 Sep 20.

Sensory Neuroscience Research Center, WVU School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

Maturation of principal neurons of the medial nucleus of the trapezoid body (MNTB) was assessed in the context of the developmental organization and activity of their presynaptic afferents, which grow rapidly to form calyces of Held and to establish mono-innervation between postnatal days (P)2 and 4. MNTB neurons and their inputs were studied from embryonic day (E)17, when the nucleus was first discernable, until P14 after the onset of hearing. Using a novel slice preparation containing portions of the cochlea, cochlear nucleus and MNTB, we determined that synaptic inputs form onto MNTB neurons at E17 and stimulation of the cochlear nucleus can evoke action potentials (APs) and Ca(2+) signals. We analysed converging inputs onto individual MNTB neurons and found that competition among inputs was resolved quickly, as a single large input, typically larger than 4 nA, emerged from P3-P4. During calyx growth but before hearing onset, MNTB cells acquired their mature, phasic firing property and quantitative real-time PCR confirmed a coincident increase in low threshold K(+) channel mRNA. These events occurred in concert with an increase in somatic surface area and a 7-fold increase in the current threshold (30 to >200 pA) required to evoke action potentials, as input resistance (R(in)) settled from embryonic values greater than 1 GΩ to approximately 200 MΩ. We postulate that the postsynaptic transition from hyperexcitability to decreased excitability during calyx growth could provide a mechanism to establish the mature 1:1 innervation by selecting the winning calyceal input based on synaptic strength. By comparing biophysical maturation of the postsynaptic cell to alterations in presynaptic organization, we propose that maturation of synaptic partners is coordinated by synaptic activity in a process that is likely to generalize to other neural systems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1113/jphysiol.2010.198564DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3008845PMC
November 2010

Does the brain connect before the periphery can direct? A comparison of three sensory systems in mice.

Brain Res 2009 Jun 6;1277:115-29. Epub 2009 Mar 6.

Sensory Neuroscience Research Center, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, WV 26506, USA.

The development of peripheral to central neural connections within the auditory, visual, and olfactory systems of mice is reviewed to address whether peripheral signaling may play an instructive role during initial synapse formation. For each sensory system, developmental times of histogenesis and the earliest ages of innervation and function are considered for peripheral and selected central relays. For the auditory and visual system, anatomical and functional reports indicate that central connections may form prior to synapse formation in the periphery. However, evidence from the olfactory system suggests that the peripheral olfactory sensory neurons form synaptic connections before more central olfactory connections are established. We find that significant gaps in knowledge exist for embryonic development of these systems in mice and that genetic tools have not yet been systematically directed to address these issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.brainres.2009.02.050DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC2700192PMC
June 2009

Serial sectioning and electron microscopy of large tissue volumes for 3D analysis and reconstruction: a case study of the calyx of Held.

Nat Protoc 2007 ;2(1):9-22

Department of Otolaryngology, PO Box 9303, Health Sciences Center, One Medical Center Drive, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9303, USA.

Serial section electron microscopy is typically applied to investigation of small tissue volumes encompassing subcellular structures. However, in neurobiology, the need to relate subcellular structure to organization of neural circuits can require investigation of large tissue volumes at ultrastructural resolution. Analysis of ultrastructure and three-dimensional reconstruction of even one to a few cells is time consuming, and still does not generate the necessary numbers of observations to form well-grounded insights into biological principles. We describe an assemblage of existing computer-based methods and strategies for graphical analysis of large photographic montages to accomplish the study of multiple neurons through large tissue volumes. Sample preparation, data collection and subsequent analyses can be completed within 3-4 months. These methods generate extremely large data sets that can be mined in future studies of nervous system organization.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nprot.2007.9DOI Listing
June 2007

Synaptogenesis of the calyx of Held: rapid onset of function and one-to-one morphological innervation.

J Neurosci 2006 May;26(20):5511-23

Sensory Neuroscience Research Center, Department of Otolaryngology, West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia 26506-9303, USA.

Synaptogenesis during early development is thought to follow a canonical program whereby synapses increase rapidly in number and individual axons multiply-innervate nearby targets. Typically, a subset of inputs then out-competes all others through experience-driven processes to establish stable, long-lasting contacts. We investigated the formation of the calyx of Held, probably the largest nerve terminal in the mammalian CNS. Many basic functional and morphological features of calyx growth have not been studied previously, including whether mono-innervation, a hallmark of this system in adult animals, is established early in development. Evoked postsynaptic currents, recorded from neonatal mice between postnatal day 1 (P1) and P4, increased dramatically from -0.14 +/- 0.04 nA at P1 to -6.71 +/- 0.65 nA at P4 with sharp jumps between P2 and P4. These are the first functional assays of these nascent synapses for ages less than P3. AMPA and NMDA receptor-mediated currents were prominent across this age range. Electron microscopy (EM) revealed a concomitant increase, beginning at P2, in the prevalence of postsynaptic densities (16-fold) and adhering contacts (73-fold) by P4. Therefore, both functional and structural data showed that young calyces could form within 2 d, well before the onset of hearing around P8. Convergence of developing calyces onto postsynaptic targets, indicative of competitive processes that precede mono-innervation, was rare (4 of 29) at P4 as assessed using minimal stimulation electrophysiology protocols. Serial EM sectioning through 19 P4 cells further established the paucity (2 of 19) of convergence. These data indicate that calyces of Held follow a noncanonical program to establish targeted innervation that occurs over a rapid time course and precedes auditory experience.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1523/JNEUROSCI.5525-05.2006DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6675295PMC
May 2006

Nitric oxide transiently converts synaptic inhibition to excitation in retinal amacrine cells.

J Neurophysiol 2006 May 8;95(5):2866-77. Epub 2006 Feb 8.

West Virginia University School of Medicine, Morgantown, West Virginia, USA.

Nitric oxide (NO) is generated by multiple cell types in the vertebrate retina, including amacrine cells. We investigate the role of NO in the modulation of synaptic function using a culture system containing identified retinal amacrine cells. We find that moderate concentrations of NO alter GABA(A) receptor function to produce an enhancement of the GABA-gated current. Higher concentrations of NO also enhance GABA-gated currents, but this enhancement is primarily due to a substantial positive shift in the reversal potential of the current. Several pieces of evidence, including a similar effect on glycine-gated currents, indicate that the positive shift is due to an increase in cytosolic Cl-. This change in the chloride distribution is especially significant because it can invert the sign of GABA- and glycine-gated voltage responses. Furthermore, current- and voltage-clamp recordings from synaptic pairs of GABAergic amacrine cells demonstrate that NO transiently converts signaling at GABAergic synapses from inhibition to excitation. Persistence of the NO-induced shift in E(Cl-) in the absence of extracellular Cl- indicates that the increase in cytosolic Cl- is due to release of Cl- from an internal store. An NO-dependent release of Cl- from an internal store is also demonstrated for rat hippocampal neurons indicating that this mechanism is not restricted to the avian retina. Thus signaling in the CNS can be fundamentally altered by an NO-dependent mobilization of an internal Cl- store.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.01317.2005DOI Listing
May 2006

Modulation of synaptic function in retinal amacrine cells.

Integr Comp Biol 2005 Aug;45(4):658-64

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803.

Amacrine cells are interneurons that have diverse functions in retinal signal processing. In order to study signaling and modulation in retinal amacrine cells, we employ a simplified culture system containing identifiable GABAergic amacrine cells. Immunocytochemistry experiments indicate that GABAergic amacrine cells express metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5), a group I mGluR usually linked to the IP3 signaling pathway. Ca(2+) imaging experiments using an mGluR5-specific agonist indicate that these receptors are functional and when activated, can stimulate temporally diverse Ca(2+) elevations. To begin to establish the role of these receptors in modulating amacrine cell function, we have used electrophysiological methods to ask whether ion channels are the targets of mGluR5-dependent modulation. Here we discuss our results indicating that activation of mGluR5 leads to enhancement of currents through GABA(A) receptors. This enhancement is dependent upon elevations in cytosolic Ca(2+) and activation of protein kinase C (PKC). To explore the consequences of Ca(2+) elevations in another context, we have used nitric oxide (NO) donors to mimic the effects of activating the Ca(2+)-dependent synthetic enzyme for NO, neuronal nitric oxide synthase. We find that exposure to NO donors also enhances the amplitude of currents through GABA(A) receptors. Together, these results indicate that glutamate from presynaptic bipolar cells has the potential to work through multiple mechanisms to regulate the function of amacrine-to-amacrine cell GABAergic synapses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/icb/45.4.658DOI Listing
August 2005

Activation of mGluR5 modulates GABA(A) receptor function in retinal amacrine cells.

J Neurophysiol 2002 Oct;88(4):1766-76

Department of Biological Sciences, Louisiana State University, Baton Rouge, Louisiana 70803, USA.

Amacrine cells in the vertebrate retina receive glutamatergic input from bipolar cells and make synapses onto bipolar cells, ganglion cells, and other amacrine cells. Recent studies indicate that amacrine cells express metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) and that signaling within the inner plexiform layer (IPL) of the retina might be modulated by mGluR activity. This study tests the hypothesis that activation of mGluR5 modulates GABA(A) receptor function in retinal amacrine cells. Whole cell voltage-clamp recordings were combined with pharmacology to establish the identity of the ionotropic GABA receptors expressed in primary cultures of chick amacrine cells and to determine how mGluR5 activity affected the behavior of those receptors. Application of GABA (20 microM) produced currents that reversed at -58.2 +/- 0.9 mV, near the predicted Cl(-) reversal potential of -59 mV. The GABA(A) receptor antagonist, bicuculline (50 microM), completely blocked the GABA-gated currents. cis-4-Aminocrotonic acid (CACA; 100 microM), a GABA(C) receptor agonist, produced small currents that were not blocked by the GABA(C) antagonist, (1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridine-4-yl) methylphosphinic acid (TPMPA; 20 microM), but were completely blocked by bicuculline. These results indicate that cultured amacrine cells express GABA(A) receptors exclusively. Activating mGluR5 with (RS)-2-chloro-5-hydroxyphenylglycine (CHPG; 300 microM) enhanced GABA-gated currents by 10.0 +/- 1.5%. Buffering internal Ca(2+) with BAPTA (10 mM) blocked the CHPG-dependent enhancement. Activation of PKC with the cell-permeable PKC activators (-)-7-octylindolactam V, phorbol 12-myristate 13 acetate (PMA), or 1-oleoyl-2-acetyl-sn-glycerol (OAG) also enhanced GABA-gated currents in a dose-dependent manner. Preactivation of PKC occluded the mGluR5-dependent enhancement, and inhibition of Ca-dependent PKC isotypes with Gö6976 (35 nM) suppressed the effects of mGluR5 activation, suggesting that mGluR5 and PKC are part of the same pathway. To determine if mGluR5-dependent enhancement occurred at synaptic GABA(A) receptors, postsynaptic currents were recorded in the presence of CHPG. On average, the mean amplitudes of the quantal events were increased by about 18% when mGluR5 was activated. These results indicate that activation of mGluR5 enhances GABA-gated current in cultured amacrine cells in a manner that is both Ca(2+)- and PKC-dependent. These results support the possibility that glutamate released from bipolar cells can modulate the function of GABAergic amacrine cells and alter signaling in the inner plexiform layer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1152/jn.2002.88.4.1766DOI Listing
October 2002

Metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 and calcium signaling in retinal amacrine cells.

J Neurochem 2002 Jun;81(5):973-83

Department of Neuroscience, University of Minnesota, Minneapolis, Minnesota, USA.

To begin to understand the modulatory role of glutamate in the inner retina, we examined the mechanisms underlying metabotropic glutamate receptor 5 (mGluR5)-dependent Ca(2+) elevations in cultured GABAergic amacrine cells. A partial sequence of chicken retinal mGluR5 encompassing intracellular loops 2 and 3 suggests that it can couple to both G(q) and G(s). Selective activation of mGluR5 stimulated Ca(2+) elevations that varied in waveform from cell to cell. Experiments using high external K(+) revealed that the mGluR5-dependent Ca(2+) elevations are distinctive in amplitude and time course from those engendered by depolarization. Experiments with a Ca(2+) -free external solution demonstrated that the variability in the time course of mGluR5-dependent Ca(2+) elevations is largely due to the influx of extracellular Ca(2+). The sensitivity of the initial phase of the Ca(2+) elevation to thapsigargin indicates that this phase of the response is due to the release of Ca(2+) from the endoplasmic reticulum. Pharmacological evidence indicates that mGluR5-mediated Ca(2+) elevations are dependent upon the activation of phospholipase C. We rule out a role for L-type Ca(2+) channels and cAMP-gated channels as pathways for Ca(2+) entry, but provide evidence of transient receptor potential (TRP) channel-like immunoreactivity, suggesting that Ca(2+) influx may occur through TRP channels. These results indicate that GABAergic amacrine cells express an avian version of mGluR5 that is linked to phospholipase C-dependent Ca(2+) release and Ca(2+) influx, possibly through TRP channels.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1046/j.1471-4159.2002.00883.xDOI Listing
June 2002