Publications by authors named "Brian G Rowan"

66 Publications

A Novel Controlled PTEN-Knockout Mouse Model for Prostate Cancer Study.

Front Mol Biosci 2021 3;8:696537. Epub 2021 Jun 3.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Prostate cancer (PCa) is associated with advanced age, but how age contributes to prostate carcinogenesis remains unknown. The prostate-specific Pten conditional knockout mouse model closely imitates human PCa initiation and progression. To better understand how age impacts PCa in an experimental model, we have generated a spatially and temporally controlled Pten-null PCa murine model at different ages (aged vs. non-aged) of adult mice. Here, we present a protocol to inject the Cre-expressing adenovirus with luciferin tag, intraductally, into the prostate anterior lobes of Pten-floxed mice; Pten-loss will be triggered post-Cre expression at different ages. imaging of luciferin signal following viral infection confirmed successful delivery of the virus and Cre activity. Immunohistochemical staining confirmed prostate epithelial-specific expression of Cre recombinase and the loss of Pten and activation of P-Akt, P-S6, and P-4E-BP1. The Cre-expression, Pten ablation, and activated PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathways were limited to the prostate epithelium. All mice developed prostatic epithelial hyperplasia within 4 weeks after Pten ablation and prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PIN) within 8 weeks post-Pten ablation. Some PINs had progressed to invasive adenocarcinoma at 8-16 weeks post-Pten ablation. Aged mice exhibited significantly accelerated PI3K/AKT/mTOR signaling and increased PCa onset and progression compared to young mice. The viral infection success rate is ∼80%. This model will be beneficial for investigations of cancer-related to aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmolb.2021.696537DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8211560PMC
June 2021

Novel bone-targeted parathyroid hormone-related peptide antagonists inhibit breast cancer bone metastases.

Anticancer Drugs 2021 04;32(4):365-375

Tufts Medical Center, Boston, Massachusetts, USA.

Patients with advanced breast cancer often develop bone metastases. Treatment is limited to palliative care. Parathyroid hormone (PTH)/parathyroid hormone-related peptide (PTHrP) antagonists for bone metastases failed clinically due to short half-life and inadequate concentration in bone. We synthesized two novel PTHrP antagonists fused to an inert bacterial collagen binding domain (CBD) that directs drugs to bone. PTH(7-33)-CBD is an N-terminal truncated PTHrP antagonist. [W2]PTH(1-33)-CBD is an PTHrP inverse-agonist. The aim of this study was to assess PTH(7-33)-CBD to reduce breast cancer bone metastases and prevent osteolytic destruction in mice and to assess both drugs for apoptosis of breast cancer cells in vitro and inhibition of PTH receptor (PTHR1). PTH(7-33)-CBD (1000 µg/kg, subcutaneous) or vehicle was administered 24 h prior to MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cell inoculation into the tibia marrow. Weekly tumor burden and bone density were measured. Pharmacokinetic analysis of PTH(7-33)-CBD in rat serum was evaluated. Drug effect on cAMP accumulation in SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells and apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells was assessed. PTH(7-33)-CBD reduced MDA-MB-231 tumor burden and osteolytic destruction in mice 4-5 weeks post-treatment. PTH(7-33)-CBD (1000 μg/kg i.v. and subcutaneous) in rats was rapidly absorbed with peak concentration 5-min and terminal half-life 3-h. Bioavailability by the subcutaneous route was 43% relative to the i.v. route. PTH(7-33)-CBD was detected only on rat periosteal bone surfaces that stained positive for collagen-1. PTH(7-33)-CBD and [W2]PTH(1-33)-CBD (10-8M) blocked basal and PTH agonist-induced cAMP accumulation in SaOS-2 osteosarcoma cells. Both drugs induced PTHR1-dependent apoptosis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vitro. Novel bone-targeted PTHrP antagonists represent a new paradigm for treatment of breast cancer bone metastases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/CAD.0000000000001051DOI Listing
April 2021

Breast Cancer Reconstruction: Design Criteria for a Humanized Microphysiological System.

Tissue Eng Part A 2021 04 10;27(7-8):479-488. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

Obatala Sciences, Inc., New Orleans, Louisiana, USA.

International regulatory agencies such as the Food and Drug Administration have mandated that the scientific community develop humanized microphysiological systems (MPS) as an alternative to animal models in the near future. While the breast cancer research community has long appreciated the importance of three-dimensional growth dynamics in their experimental models, there are remaining obstacles preventing a full conversion to humanized MPS for drug discovery and pathophysiological studies. This perspective evaluates the current status of human tissue-derived cells and scaffolds as building blocks for an "idealized" breast cancer MPS based on bioengineering design principles. It considers the utility of adipose tissue as a potential source of endothelial, lymphohematopoietic, and stromal cells for the support of breast cancer epithelial cells. The relative merits of potential MPS scaffolds derived from adipose tissue, blood components, and synthetic biomaterials is evaluated relative to the current "gold standard" material, Matrigel, a murine chondrosarcoma-derived basement membrane-enriched hydrogel. The advantages and limitations of a humanized breast cancer MPS are discussed in the context of in-process and destructive read-out assays. Impact statement Regulatory authorities have highlighted microphysiological systems as an emerging tool in breast cancer research. This has been led by calls for more predictive human models and reduced animal experimentation. This perspective describes how human-derived cells, extracellular matrices, and hydrogels will provide the building blocks to create breast cancer models that accurately reflect diversity at multiple levels, that is, patient ethnicity, pathophysiology, and metabolic status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/ten.TEA.2020.0372DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8196546PMC
April 2021

ERK5 Is Required for Tumor Growth and Maintenance Through Regulation of the Extracellular Matrix in Triple Negative Breast Cancer.

Front Oncol 2020 3;10:1164. Epub 2020 Aug 3.

Section of Hematology & Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, United States.

Conventional mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK) family members regulate diverse cellular processes involved in tumor initiation and progression, yet the role of ERK5 in cancer biology is not fully understood. Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) presents a clinical challenge due to the aggressive nature of the disease and a lack of targeted therapies. ERK5 signaling contributes to drug resistance and metastatic progression through distinct mechanisms, including activation of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). More recently a role for ERK5 in regulation of the extracellular matrix (ECM) has been proposed, and here we investigated the necessity of ERK5 in TNBC tumor formation. Depletion of ERK5 expression using the CRISPR/Cas9 system in MDA-MB-231 and Hs-578T cells resulted in loss of mesenchymal features, as observed through gene expression profile and cell morphology, and suppressed TNBC cell migration. xenograft experiments revealed ERK5 knockout disrupted tumor growth kinetics, which was restored using high concentration Matrigel™ and ERK5-ko reduced expression of the angiogenesis marker CD31. These findings implicated a role for ERK5 in the extracellular matrix (ECM) and matrix integrity. RNA-sequencing analyses demonstrated downregulation of matrix-associated genes, integrins, and pro-angiogenic factors in ERK5-ko cells. Tissue decellularization combined with cryo-SEM and interrogation of biomechanical properties revealed that ERK5-ko resulted in loss of key ECM fiber alignment and mechanosensing capabilities in breast cancer xenografts compared to parental wild-type cells. In this study, we identified a novel role for ERK5 in tumor growth kinetics through modulation of the ECM and angiogenesis axis in breast cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fonc.2020.01164DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7416559PMC
August 2020

Hypochlorous Acid: A Review.

J Oral Maxillofac Surg 2020 09 25;78(9):1461-1466. Epub 2020 Jun 25.

Resident, Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, Louisiana State University School of Dentistry, New Orleans, LA.

The surgeon needs to have an inexpensive, available, nontoxic, and practical disinfectant that is effective in sanitizing against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus. The purpose of this article was to review the evidence for using hypochlorous acid in the office setting on a daily basis. The method used to assemble recommendations was a review of the literature including evidence for this solution when used in different locations and industries other than the oral-maxillofacial clinic facility. The results indicate that this material can be used with a high predictability for disinfecting against the COVID-19 (Coronavirus Disease 2019) virus.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.joms.2020.06.029DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7315945PMC
September 2020

CD4 T helper 17 cell response of aged mice promotes prostate cancer cell migration and invasion.

Prostate 2020 07 1;80(10):764-776. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Background: Aging is the most important risk factor for prostate cancer (PCa), but how age contributes to PCa is poorly understood. Aging is characterized by low-grade systemic inflammation (i.e., inflammaging) that is often attributed to the progressive activation of immune cells over time, which may play an important role in prostate carcinogenesis. Th17 response is elevated in aging humans and mice, but it remains unknown whether it is increased in prostate tissue or contributes to prostate carcinogenesis during aging. In this study, we aimed to determine the role of age-related Th17 response in PCa cell growth, migration, and invasion.

Methods: C57BL/6J (B6) mouse was used as an aging animal model and the prostate histopathology during aging was analyzed. Splenic CD4 T cells were isolated from young (16-20 weeks old) and aged (96-104 weeks old) mice, and cultured in the presence of plate-bound anti-CD3/anti-CD28, with or without Th17 differentiation conditions. The cells were collected and used for subsequent flow cytometry or quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction. The supernatant was collected and used to treat PCa cell lines. The treated PCa cells were analyzed for cell viability, migration, invasion, and nuclear factor kappa B (NF-κB) signaling.

Results: Aged mice had enlarged prostate glands and increased morphological alterations, with not only increased inflammatory cell infiltration but also increased Th17 cytokines in prostate tissue, compared to young mice. Naïve CD4 T cells from aged mice differentiated increased interleukin (IL)-17-expressing cells. CD4 T cells from aged mice spleen had increased Th17 cells, Th17 cytokines and Th17/Treg ratio compared to young mice. Factors secreted from aged CD4 T cells, especially from ex vivo differentiated Th17 cells, not only promoted PCa cell viability, migration, and invasion but also activated the NF-κB signaling in PCa cells compared to young mice.

Conclusions: These results indicate that age-related CD4 T cells, especially Th17 cells-secreted factors have the potential to contribute to prostate carcinogenesis. Our work could prompt further research using autochthonous PCa mouse models at different ages to elucidate the functional role of Th17 response in prostate carcinogenesis during aging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/pros.23990DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7310589PMC
July 2020

Necroptosis of tumor cells leads to tumor necrosis and promotes tumor metastasis.

Cell Res 2018 08 25;28(8):868-870. Epub 2018 Jun 25.

Center for Cancer Research, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, 37 Convent Drive, Bethesda, MD, 20892, USA.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41422-018-0058-yDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6082890PMC
August 2018

Dual Src Kinase/Pretubulin Inhibitor KX-01, Sensitizes ERα-negative Breast Cancers to Tamoxifen through ERα Reexpression.

Mol Cancer Res 2017 11 27;15(11):1491-1502. Epub 2017 Jul 27.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Unlike breast cancer that is positive for estrogen receptor-α (ERα), there are no targeted therapies for triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC). ERα is silenced in TNBC through epigenetic changes including DNA methylation and histone acetylation. Restoring ERα expression in TNBC may sensitize patients to endocrine therapy. Expression of c-Src and ERα are inversely correlated in breast cancer suggesting that c-Src inhibition may lead to reexpression of ERα in TNBC. KX-01 is a peptide substrate-targeted Src/pretubulin inhibitor in clinical trials for solid tumors. KX-01 (1 mg/kg body weight-twice daily) inhibited growth of tamoxifen-resistant MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 TNBC xenografts in nude mice that was correlated with Src kinase inhibition. KX-01 also increased ERα mRNA and protein, as well as increased the ERα targets progesterone receptor (PR), pS2 (TFF1), cyclin D1 (CCND1), and c-myc (MYC) in MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468, but not MDA-MB-157 xenografts. MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 tumors exhibited reduction in mesenchymal markers (vimentin, β-catenin) and increase in epithelial marker (E-cadherin) suggesting mesenchymal-to-epithelial transition (MET). KX-01 sensitized MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-468 tumors to tamoxifen growth inhibition and tamoxifen repression of the ERα targets pS2, cyclin D1, and c-myc. Chromatin immunoprecipitation (ChIP) of the ERα promoter in KX-01-treated tumors demonstrated enrichment of active transcription marks (acetyl-H3, acetyl-H3Lys9), dissociation of HDAC1, and recruitment of RNA polymerase II. Methylation-specific PCR and bisulfite sequencing demonstrated no alteration in ERα promoter methylation by KX-01. These data demonstrate that in addition to Src kinase inhibition, peptidomimetic KX-01 restores ERα expression in TNBC through changes in histone acetylation that sensitize tumors to tamoxifen. Src kinase/pretubulin inhibitor KX-01 restores functional ERα expression in ERα breast tumors, a novel treatment strategy to treat triple-negative breast cancer. .
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1541-7786.MCR-16-0297-TDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5930017PMC
November 2017

Argonaute 2 Expression Correlates with a Luminal B Breast Cancer Subtype and Induces Estrogen Receptor Alpha Isoform Variation.

Noncoding RNA 2016 Sep 21;2(3). Epub 2016 Sep 21.

Department of Biological and Agricultural Engineering Louisiana State University Baton Rouge, LA 70803, USA.

Estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) signaling pathways are frequently disrupted in breast cancer and contribute to disease progression. ERα signaling is multifaceted and many ERα regulators have been identified including transcription factors and growth factor pathways. More recently, microRNAs (miRNAs) are shown to deregulate ERα activity in breast carcinomas, with alterations in both ERα and miRNA expression correlating to cancer progression. In this study, we show that a high expression of Argonaute 2 (AGO2), a translation regulatory protein and mediator of miRNA function, correlates with the luminal B breast cancer subtype. We further demonstrate that a high expression of AGO2 in ERα+ tumors correlates with a poor clinical outcome. MCF-7 breast cancer cells overexpressing AGO2 (MCF7-AGO2) altered ERα downstream signaling and selective ERα variant expression. Enhanced ERα-36, a 36 kDa ERα isoform, protein and gene expression was observed in vitro. Through quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR), we demonstrate decreased basal expression of the full-length ERα and progesterone receptor genes, in addition to loss of estrogen stimulated gene expression in vitro. Despite the loss, MCF-7-AGO2 cells demonstrated increased estrogen stimulated tumorigenesis in vivo. Together with our clinical findings on AGO2 expression and the luminal B subtype, we suggest that AGO2 is a regulator of altered ERα signaling in breast tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ncrna2030008DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5831908PMC
September 2016

Hyperinsulinemia enhances interleukin-17-induced inflammation to promote prostate cancer development in obese mice through inhibiting glycogen synthase kinase 3-mediated phosphorylation and degradation of interleukin-17 receptor.

Oncotarget 2016 Mar;7(12):13651-66

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA.

Interleukin-17 (IL-17) plays important roles in inflammation, autoimmune diseases, and some cancers. Obese people are in a chronic inflammatory state with increased serum levels of IL-17, insulin, and insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1). How these factors contribute to the chronic inflammatory status that promotes development of aggressive prostate cancer in obese men is largely unknown. We found that, in obese mice, hyperinsulinemia enhanced IL-17-induced expression of downstream proinflammatory genes with increased levels of IL-17 receptor A (IL-17RA), resulting in development of more invasive prostate cancer. Glycogen synthase kinase 3 (GSK3) constitutively bound to and phosphorylated IL-17RA at T780, leading to ubiquitination and proteasome-mediated degradation of IL-17RA, thus inhibiting IL-17-mediated inflammation. IL-17RA phosphorylation was reduced, while the IL-17RA levels were increased in the proliferative human prostate cancer cells compared to the normal cells. Insulin and IGF1 enhanced IL-17-induced inflammatory responses through suppressing GSK3, which was shown in the cultured cell lines in vitro and obese mouse models of prostate cancer in vivo. These findings reveal a mechanism underlying the intensified inflammation in obesity and obesity-associated development of aggressive prostate cancer, suggesting that targeting GSK3 may be a potential therapeutic approach to suppress IL-17-mediated inflammation in the prevention and treatment of prostate cancer, particularly in obese men.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.7296DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4924668PMC
March 2016

Human Adipose Tissue-Derived Stromal/Stem Cells Promote Migration and Early Metastasis of Head and Neck Cancer Xenografts.

Aesthet Surg J 2016 Jan 10;36(1):93-104. Epub 2015 Jun 10.

Dr Rowan is Piltz Professor of Cancer Research, Tulane Cancer Center, and Associate Professor and Interim Chair, Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana. Drs Lacayo and Sheng are Postdoctoral Researchers, Dr Anbalagan is an Instructor, and Mr Jones is a Technician, Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana. Dr Gimble is Adjunct Professor, Departments of Medicine, Surgery, and Structural and Cellular Biology, and the Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana. Mr Joseph is a Medical Student and Dr Chiu is an Associate Professor, Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York. Dr Friedlander is the Chairman, Department of Otolaryngology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana.

Background: Fat grafting has become popular for repair of postsurgical/postradiation defects after head/neck cancers resection. Fat graft supplementation with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve graft viability/efficacy, although the impact of ASCs on head/neck cancer cells is unknown.

Objectives: To determine whether ASCs affect growth, migration, and metastasis of human head/neck cancer.

Methods: Human Cal-27 and SCC-4 head/neck cancer cells were co-cultured human ASCs, or treated with ASC conditioned medium (CM), and cancer cell growth/migration was assessed by MTT, cell count, and scratch/wound healing assays in vitro. Co-injection of 3 × 10(6) Cal-27/green fluorescent protein (GFP) cells and ASCs into the flank of NUDE mice assessed ASC effect on tumor growth/morphology. Quantitation of human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs assessed ASC effects on micrometastasis. Primary tumors were evaluated for markers of epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition, matrix metalloproteinases, and angiogenesis by immunohistochemistry.

Results: Co-culture of Cal-27 or SCC-4 cells with ASCs from 2 different donors or ASC CM had no effect on cell growth in vitro. However, ASC CM stimulated Cal-27 and SCC-4 migration. Co-injection of ASCs from 2 different donors with Cal-27 cells did not affect tumor volume at 6 weeks, but increased Cal-27 micrometastasis to the brain. Evaluation of tumors sections from 1 ASC donor co-injection revealed that ASCs were viable and well integrated with Cal-27/GFP cells. These tumors exhibited increased MMP2, MMP9, IL-8, and microvessel density.

Conclusions: Human ASCs did not alter growth of human head/neck cancer cells or tumor xenografts, but stimulated migration and early micrometastasis to mouse brain.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/asj/sjv090DOI Listing
January 2016

Estrogen receptor alpha phosphorylation and its functional impact in human breast cancer.

Mol Cell Endocrinol 2015 Dec 15;418 Pt 3:264-72. Epub 2015 Jan 15.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA 70112, USA. Electronic address:

Estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a member of the nuclear receptor superfamily of transcription factors that regulates cell proliferation, differentiation and homeostasis in various tissues. Sustained exposure to estrogen/estradiol (E2) increases the risk of breast, endometrial and ovarian cancers. ERα function is also regulated by phosphorylation through various kinase signaling pathways that will impact various ERα functions including chromatin interaction, coregulator recruitment and gene expression, as well impact breast tumor growth/morphology and breast cancer patient response to endocrine therapy. However, many of the previously characterized ERα phosphorylation sites do not fully explain the impact of receptor phosphorylation on ERα function. This review discusses work from our laboratory toward understanding a role of ERα site-specific phosphorylation in ERα function and breast cancer. The key findings discussed in this review are: (1) the effect of site specific ERα phosphorylation on temporal recruitment of ERα and unique coactivator complexes to specific genes; (2) the impact of stable disruption of ERα S118 and S167 phosphorylation in breast cancer cells on eliciting unique gene expression profiles that culminate in significant effects on breast cancer growth/morphology/migration/invasion; (3) the Src kinase signaling pathway that impacts ERα phosphorylation to alter ERα function; and (4) circadian disruption by light exposure at night leading to elevated ERK1/2 and Src kinase and phosphorylation of ERα, concomitant with tamoxifen resistance in breast tumor models. Results from these studies demonstrate that even changes to single ERα phosphorylation sites can have a profound impact on ERα function in breast cancer. Future work will extend beyond single site phosphorylation analysis toward identification of specific patterns/profiles of ERα phosphorylation under different physiological/pharmacological conditions to understand how common phosphorylation profiles in breast cancer program specific physiological endpoints such as growth, apoptosis, migration/invasion, and endocrine therapy response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mce.2015.01.016DOI Listing
December 2015

Circadian and melatonin disruption by exposure to light at night drives intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy in breast cancer.

Cancer Res 2014 Aug;74(15):4099-110

Departments of Structural and Cellular Biology and Tulane Cancer Center and Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium; Tulane Circadian Cancer Biology Group; and.

Resistance to endocrine therapy is a major impediment to successful treatment of breast cancer. Preclinical and clinical evidence links resistance to antiestrogen drugs in breast cancer cells with the overexpression and/or activation of various pro-oncogenic tyrosine kinases. Disruption of circadian rhythms by night shift work or disturbed sleep-wake cycles may lead to an increased risk of breast cancer and other diseases. Moreover, light exposure at night (LEN) suppresses the nocturnal production of melatonin that inhibits breast cancer growth. In this study, we used a rat model of estrogen receptor (ERα(+)) MCF-7 tumor xenografts to demonstrate how altering light/dark cycles with dim LEN (dLEN) speed the development of breast tumors, increasing their metabolism and growth and conferring an intrinsic resistance to tamoxifen therapy. These characteristics were not observed in animals in which the circadian melatonin rhythm was not disrupted, or in animals subjected to dLEN if they received nocturnal melatonin replacement. Strikingly, our results also showed that melatonin acted both as a tumor metabolic inhibitor and a circadian-regulated kinase inhibitor to reestablish the sensitivity of breast tumors to tamoxifen and tumor regression. Together, our findings show how dLEN-mediated disturbances in nocturnal melatonin production can render tumors insensitive to tamoxifen.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-13-3156DOI Listing
August 2014

Adipose stem cell therapy in cancer reconstruction: a critical review.

Ann Plast Surg 2014 Sep;73 Suppl 1:S104-7

From the *Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Medical Center, New York, NY; †Department of Otolaryngology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA; ‡Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA; and §Center for Stem Cell Research and Regenerative Medicine, Departments of Medicine and Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA.

Found in most mesenchymally derived organs, mesenchymal stem cells are undifferentiated cells capable of developing into many cell types. Adipose stem cells are a type of mesenchymal stem cell easily extracted from lipoaspirate, often readily available, and are conformable to the tissue defect. Their ability for self-renewal, unlimited proliferation and proangiogenic, and immunomodulatory properties have made them attractive adjuncts in plastic surgery. Since the discovery of pluripotent cells in adipose tissue, plastic surgeons have applied the technology toward improving wound healing, soft tissue augmentation, and tissue engineering. More recently, some surgeons have used adipose stem cells in cancer reconstruction. By mixing lipoaspirate with concentrated fractions of adipose stem cells through a technique termed cell-assisted lipotransfer, plastic surgeons have claimed improved aesthetic results. Promising early results have been tempered by in vitro and animal studies demonstrating increased tumor proliferation and metastasis rates with the use of adipose and other mesenchymal stem cells. This review provides a succinct yet comprehensive overview of the current literature evaluating the oncologic risks associated with adipose stem cell use in cancer.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SAP.0000000000000283DOI Listing
September 2014

Suppression of triple-negative breast cancer metastasis by pan-DAC inhibitor panobinostat via inhibition of ZEB family of EMT master regulators.

Breast Cancer Res Treat 2014 Jun 9;145(3):593-604. Epub 2014 May 9.

Department of Medicine, Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, 1430 Tulane Ave, New Orleans, LA, 70112, USA.

Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC) is a highly aggressive breast cancer subtype that lacks effective targeted therapies. The epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT) is a key contributor in the metastatic process. We previously showed the pan-deacetylase inhibitor LBH589 induces CDH1 expression in TNBC cells, suggesting regulation of EMT. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of LBH589 on the metastatic qualities of TNBC cells and the role of EMT in this process. A panel of breast cancer cell lines (MCF-7, MDA-MB-231, and BT-549), drugged with LBH589, was examined for changes in cell morphology, migration, and invasion in vitro. The effect on in vivo metastasis was examined using immunofluorescent staining of lung sections. EMT gene expression profiling was used to determine LBH589-induced changes in TNBC cells. ZEB overexpression studies were conducted to validate requirement of ZEB in LBH589-mediated proliferation and tumorigenesis. Our results indicate a reversal of EMT by LBH589 as demonstrated by altered morphology and altered gene expression in TNBC. LBH589 was shown to be a more potent inhibitor of EMT than other HDAC inhibitors, SAHA and TMP269. Additionally, we found that LBH589 inhibits metastasis of MDA-MB-231 cells in vivo. These effects of LBH589 were mediated in part by inhibition of ZEB, as overexpression of ZEB1 or ZEB2 mitigated the effects of LBH589 on MDA-MB-231 EMT-associated gene expression, migration, invasion, CDH1 expression, and tumorigenesis. These data indicate therapeutic potential of LBH589 in targeting EMT and metastasis of TNBC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10549-014-2979-6DOI Listing
June 2014

Human adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells promote migration and early metastasis of triple negative breast cancer xenografts.

PLoS One 2014 28;9(2):e89595. Epub 2014 Feb 28.

Department of Plastic Surgery, New York University Langone Medical Center, New York, New York, United States of America.

Background: Fat grafting is used to restore breast defects after surgical resection of breast tumors. Supplementing fat grafts with adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) is proposed to improve the regenerative/restorative ability of the graft and retention. However, long term safety for ASC grafting in proximity of residual breast cancer cells is unknown. The objective of this study was to determine the impact of human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of three donors, on a human breast cancer model that exhibits early metastasis.

Methodology/principal Findings: Human MDA-MB-231 breast cancer cells represents "triple negative" breast cancer that exhibits early micrometastasis to multiple mouse organs [1]. Human ASCs were derived from abdominal adipose tissue from three healthy female donors. Indirect co-culture of MDA-MB-231 cells with ASCs, as well as direct co-culture demonstrated that ASCs had no effect on MDA-MB-231 growth. Indirect co-culture, and ASC conditioned medium (CM) stimulated migration of MDA-MB-231 cells. ASC/RFP cells from two donors co-injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells exhibited a donor effect for stimulation of primary tumor xenografts. Both ASC donors stimulated metastasis. ASC/RFP cells were viable, and integrated with MDA-MB-231/GFP cells in the tumor. Tumors from the co-injection group of one ASC donor exhibited elevated vimentin, matrix metalloproteinase-9 (MMP-9), IL-8, VEGF and microvessel density. The co-injection group exhibited visible metastases to the lung/liver and enlarged spleen not evident in mice injected with MDA-MB-231/GFP alone. Quantitation of the total area of GFP fluorescence and human chromosome 17 DNA in mouse organs, H&E stained paraffin sections and fluorescent microscopy confirmed multi-focal metastases to lung/liver/spleen in the co-injection group without evidence of ASC/RFP cells.

Conclusions: Human ASCs derived from abdominal lipoaspirates of two donors stimulated metastasis of MDA-MB-231 breast tumor xenografts to multiple mouse organs. MDA-MB-231 tumors co-injected with ASCs from one donor exhibited partial EMT, expression of MMP-9, and increased angiogenesis.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0089595PLOS
November 2014

ERα and ERK1/2 MAP kinase expression in microdissected stromal and epithelial endometrial cells.

J Egypt Natl Canc Inst 2014 Mar 14;26(1):37-41. Epub 2013 Nov 14.

Dept. of Pathology, Microbiology and Immunology, Vanderbilt University School of Medicine, Nashville, TN, United States. Electronic address:

Our previous published data detected higher expression of total and active mitogen activated protein kinase (MAPK) in the epithelial vs. stromal cells of the endometrium. In the present work we compared the expression of ERK1/2 MAPK and estrogen receptor α (ERα) in epithelial versus stromal cells in benign human endometrial tissues. Laser capture microdissection was used to separate glandular epithelium and stromal cells from six frozen, proliferative phase endometrial specimens. Total and phosphorylated levels for ERK1/2 and ERα were measured by quantitation of signals from Western blots using specific antibodies against the active and total forms of ERK1/2 and against ERα. When the level of the proteins was quantitated and normalized to β actin from microdissected stroma and epithelium, no significant difference was detected in the levels of these proteins between the two tissue compartments. There was a trend toward higher expression in the stroma vs. epithelium, respectively (active ERK1/2 0.45 ± 0.17 vs. 0.2 ± 0.65; total ERK1/2 0.54 ± 0.35 vs. 0.28 ± 0.23; ERα 0.82 ± 0.28 vs. 0.54 ± 0.18; n=6). These data demonstrate that there are comparable levels of ERα (P=0.41), total ERK1/2 (P=0.18) and active ERK1/2 (P=0.13) in the stroma and epithelium of proliferative phase endometrium with a trend toward higher expression of these proteins in the stromal compartment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jnci.2013.09.001DOI Listing
March 2014

Human adipose-derived stromal/stem cells induce functional CD4+CD25+FoxP3+CD127- regulatory T cells under low oxygen culture conditions.

Stem Cells Dev 2014 May 11;23(9):968-77. Epub 2014 Mar 11.

1 Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University , New Orleans, Louisiana.

Human adipose tissue stromal/stem cells (ASCs) are known to induce proliferation of resting T cells under ambient (21%) O2 conditions; however, ASCs exist physiologically under lower oxygen (5% O2) conditions in adipose tissue. The effects of low oxygen levels on ASC immunomodulation of T cells are unknown. In this study, we show that ASCs stimulated proliferation of naive CD4(+) T cells and the percentage of CD25(+) T cells was significantly increased under both low and ambient O2. Forkhead box P3 (FoxP3) and transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β) mRNA expression were significantly increased when ASCs were cocultured with CD4(+) T cells under low compared with ambient O2 conditions. The low O2-induced regulatory T cells (iTregs) exhibited functionality when added to mixed lymphocyte reactions as demonstrated by inhibition of peripheral blood mononuclear cell proliferation, and by >300-fold increase in FoxP3 mRNA, and >2-fold increase in TGF-β mRNA expression. These results demonstrate that under physiologically relevant low O2 conditions, direct contact of human ASCs with naive CD4(+) T cells induced functional iTregs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1089/scd.2013.0152DOI Listing
May 2014

C. elegans nuclear receptor NHR-6 functionally interacts with the jun-1 transcription factor during spermatheca development.

Genesis 2014 Jan 18;52(1):29-38. Epub 2013 Nov 18.

Department of Basic Pharmaceutical Sciences, College of Pharmacy, University of Louisiana at Monroe, Monroe, Louisiana, 71209.

The NR4A nuclear receptor NHR-6 is an essential regulator of spermatheca organogenesis in C. elegans. In this study, we perform a focused, RNAi-based screen to identify modifiers of partial nhr-6 loss of function. Ninety-eight genes that encode signaling proteins expressed in the spermatheca were screened for enhancement of the nhr-6 RNAi phenotype. We identify the C. elegans gene jun-1, which encodes the homolog of the Jun transcription factor, as a strong enhancer of nhr-6 partial loss of function. We show that nhr-6 and jun-1 function together to regulate development of the spermatheca and are necessary for generating an organ with the normal number of cells. jun-1 is expressed in all cells of the developing spermatheca. We also provide evidence that NHR-6 and JUN-1 can physically interact in a yeast two-hybrid assay. Our results provide in vivo evidence that NR4A nuclear receptor and Jun transcription factor interactions are essential in regulating developmental processes in metazoans.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/dvg.22723DOI Listing
January 2014

A novel mouse model of metastatic thyroid carcinoma using human adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells.

Anticancer Res 2013 Oct;33(10):4213-7

FACS. Department of Surgery, Tulane University School of Medicine 1430 Tulane Ave. SL-22, New Orleans, LA 70112, U.S.A.

Background/aim: Scientists have been in quest for the best in vivo model to evaluate chemotherapies for radioiodine-resistant metastatic thyroid carcinomas. Human adipose tissue-derived stromal/stem cells (ASCs) have been found to promote in vitro growth and in vivo tumorigenesis. In the present study, we describe a novel model of metastatic human thyroid carcinoma by combining ASCs with the papillary thyroid cancer, K1 cell line.

Materials And Methods: Three groups of severe combined immunodefecient mice were investigated. The first group was injected subcutaneously with K1 cells plus ASCs, the second group with K1 cell only, and the last group with ASCs only. Mean tumor volumes and standard deviations were calculated and compared.

Results: Concomitant injection of ASCs with the K1 cell line led to the development of significantly larger tumors compared to the other groups (p<0.05). In addition, the lungs of this group demonstrated gross tumor metastasis and pathological features of high-grade neoplasms.

Conclusion: In the present study we describe a novel mouse model using ASCs with the potential to be used for assessment of new treatments for the management of metastatic thyroid carcinomas.
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October 2013

Insulin and IGF1 enhance IL-17-induced chemokine expression through a GSK3B-dependent mechanism: a new target for melatonin's anti-inflammatory action.

J Pineal Res 2013 Nov 20;55(4):377-87. Epub 2013 Aug 20.

Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Obesity is a chronic inflammation with increased serum levels of insulin, insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF1), and interleukin-17 (IL-17). The objective of this study was to test a hypothesis that insulin and IGF1 enhance IL-17-induced expression of inflammatory chemokines/cytokines through a glycogen synthase kinase 3β (GSK3B)-dependent mechanism, which can be inhibited by melatonin. We found that insulin/IGF1 and lithium chloride enhanced IL-17-induced expression of C-X-C motif ligand 1 (Cxcl1) and C-C motif ligand 20 (Ccl20) in the Gsk3b(+/+) , but not in Gsk3b(-/-) mouse embryonic fibroblast (MEF) cells. IL-17 induced higher levels of Cxcl1 and Ccl20 in the Gsk3b(-/-) MEF cells, compared with the Gsk3b(+/+) MEF cells. Insulin and IGF1 activated Akt to phosphorylate GSK3B at serine 9, thus inhibiting GSK3B activity. Melatonin inhibited Akt activation, thus decreasing P-GSK3B at serine 9 (i.e., increasing GSK3B activity) and subsequently inhibiting expression of Cxcl1 and Ccl20 that was induced either by IL-17 alone or by a combination of insulin and IL-17. Melatonin's inhibitory effects were only observed in the Gsk3b(+/+) , but in not Gsk3b(-/-) MEF cells. Melatonin also inhibited expression of Cxcl1, Ccl20, and Il-6 that was induced by a combination of insulin and IL-17 in the mouse prostatic tissues. Further, nighttime human blood, which contained high physiologic levels of melatonin, decreased expression of Cxcl1, Ccl20, and Il-6 in the PC3 human prostate cancer xenograft tumors. Our data support our hypothesis and suggest that melatonin may be used to dampen IL-17-mediated inflammation that is enhanced by the increased levels of insulin and IGF1 in obesity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jpi.12084DOI Listing
November 2013

Body mass index affects proliferation and osteogenic differentiation of human subcutaneous adipose tissue-derived stem cells.

BMC Cell Biol 2013 Aug 7;14:34. Epub 2013 Aug 7.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Background: Obesity is associated with a higher risk of developing cancer and co-morbidities that are part of the metabolic syndrome. Adipose tissue is recognized as an endocrine organ, as it affects a number of physiological functions, and contains adipose tissue-derived stem cells (ASCs). ASCs can differentiate into cells of multiple lineages, and as such are applicable to tissue engineering and regenerative medicine. Yet the question of whether ASC functionality is affected by the donor's body mass index (BMI) still exists.

Results: ASCs were isolated from patients having different BMIs (BMI-ASCs), within the ranges of 18.5-32.8. It was hypothesized that overweight BMI-ASCs would be more compromised in early adipogenic and osteogenic potential, and ability to form colonies in vitro. BMI was inversely correlated with ASC proliferation and colony forming potential as assessed by CyQUANT proliferation assay (fluorescence- based measurement of cellular DNA content), and colony forming assays. BMI was positively correlated with early time point (day 7) but not later time point (day 15) intracytoplasmic lipid accumulation as assessed by Oil-Red-O staining. Alizarin red staining and RT-PCR for alkaline phosphatase demonstrated that elevated BMI resulted in compromised ASC mineralization of extracellular matrix and decreased alkaline phosphatase mRNA expression.

Conclusions: These data demonstrate that elevated BMI resulted in reduced ASC proliferation, and potentially compromised osteogenic capacity in vitro; thus BMI is an important criterion to consider in selecting ASC donors for clinical applications.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/1471-2121-14-34DOI Listing
August 2013

Impact of low oxygen on the secretome of human adipose-derived stromal/stem cell primary cultures.

Biochimie 2013 Dec 20;95(12):2286-96. Epub 2013 Jul 20.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University, New Orleans, LA, USA.

Tissue fibrosis can lead to organ dysfunction, patient morbidity, and mortality. Adipose-derived Stromal/stem Cells (ASCs) represent a potential therapeutic. Immediately following grafting, ASCs would reside in a lower O2 environment. ASC secretome was examined under 5% O2 ("low O2") and 21% O2 ("ambient O2") culture conditions. ASCs from five female donors were cultured in low or ambient O2 conditions for 3 days and pooled conditioned medium was compared by two-dimensional liquid chromatography and tandem mass spectrometry (2D-LC-MS/MS). Of 71 proteins identified, five proteins involved in extracellular matrix (ECM) remodeling exhibited ≥2-fold decrease under low O2 culture and were confirmed by Western immunoblot and qRT-PCR: fibronectin 1, TGF-β1-induced protein (βig-h3), osteonectin, and collagens type 1α1 and α2. ELISAs performed using 10 donors also confirmed significant decreases during low O2 culture in 4-6 ASC donors. For low abundant proteins, a 36 cytokine/chemokine array was performed. Fifteen cytokines/chemokines including Type 2 cytokines IL-13, MCP-1, and CD40 ligand were detected in ambient O2 ASC medium. IL-6 was detected in low O2 but not ambient O2 ASC medium. These findings demonstrate that low O2 ASC exposure resulted in reduced ECM protein and Type 2 cytokine secretions that are significant with regard to inflammation in fibrosis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.biochi.2013.07.011DOI Listing
December 2013

Evolution and future prospects of adipose-derived immunomodulatory cell therapeutics.

Expert Rev Clin Immunol 2013 Feb;9(2):175-84

Synaptic Research, Baltimore, MD, USA.

Over the past two decades, tissue engineering and regenerative medicine have evolved from what many considered a theoretical science to what is now a clinical reality. Tissue engineering combines biomaterial scaffolds, growth factors and stem or progenitor cells to repair damaged tissues. Adipose tissue, an abundant and easily accessed tissue, is a potential source of stromal/stem cells for regenerative therapeutic applications. Like bone marrow-derived mesenchymal stem cells, adipose-derived stromal/stem cells display both immunomodulatory and immunosuppressive properties. The adipose cells exert these actions, in part, through their secretion of paracrine growth factors. This review highlights recent developments in the isolation, characterization and preclinical application of adipose-derived cells and the challenges facing their translation into clinical practice.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1586/eci.12.96DOI Listing
February 2013

Genetic and epigenetic alterations of steroidogenic factor‑1 in ovarian tumors.

Int J Oncol 2013 Feb 28;42(2):627-34. Epub 2012 Dec 28.

Ohio Department of Health, Columbus, OH 43215, USA.

Steroidogenic factor-1 (SF‑1), the product of the NR5A1 gene, is an essential transcription factor that is known to regulate steroidogenesis in ovarian epithelia, including the synthesis of progesterone, a suppressor of ovarian cancer. Expression of the SF‑1 protein, a potential ovarian tumor suppressor, has been demonstrated in normal OSE cells, but is lost in most ovarian tumors and ovarian tumor cell lines. We examined loss of heterozygosity (LOH) and promoter methylation as potential mechanisms that may explain the loss of SF‑1 protein in ovarian tumor tissues. Genotyping of three NR5A1 SNPs in matched tumor/normal tissues identified LOH in 16/36 (44%) of the ovarian tumors successfully analyzed, and somatic mutations (gain of allele) in 10% of the tumors. Furthermore, a methylation-sensitive restriction enzyme method was used to demonstrate statistically significant (p<0.0001) increase in the frequency of NR5A1 gene methylation in ovarian tumors (36/46; 78%) versus normal ovaries (1/11; 9%). These data suggest that the SF‑1 encoding gene exhibits frequent genetic (LOH/base substitution) and epigenetic (methylation) somatic alterations in ovarian tumors. These data also present novel molecular mechanisms that may explain the loss of SF‑1 protein in ovarian tumors, and its potential role in ovarian carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/ijo.2012.1758DOI Listing
February 2013

Disseminated breast cancer cells acquire a highly malignant and aggressive metastatic phenotype during metastatic latency in the bone.

PLoS One 2012 15;7(11):e47587. Epub 2012 Nov 15.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, The Louisiana Cancer Research Consortium, Tulane University Health Sciences Center, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

Background: Disseminated tumor cells (DTCs) in the bone marrow may exist in a dormant state for extended periods of time, maintaining the ability to proliferate upon activation, engraft at new sites, and form detectable metastases. However, understanding of the behavior and biology of dormant breast cancer cells in the bone marrow niche remains limited, as well as their potential involvement in tumor recurrence and metastasis. Therefore, the purpose of this study was to investigate the tumorigenicity and metastatic potential of dormant disseminated breast cancer cells (prior to activation) in the bone marrow.

Methodology/principal Findings: Total bone marrow, isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. As a negative control, bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice was injected into the mammary fat pad of NUDE mice. The resultant tumors were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for expression of epithelial and mesenchymal markers. Mouse lungs, livers, and kidneys were analyzed by H+E staining to detect metastases. The injection of bone marrow isolated from mice previously injected with tumorspheres into the mammary fat pad, resulted in large tumor formation in the mammary fat pad 2 months post-injection. However, the injection of bone marrow isolated from non-injected mice did not result in tumor formation in the mammary fat pad. The DTC-derived tumors exhibited accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. The resultant tumors and the majority of metastatic lesions within the lung and liver exhibited a mesenchymal-like phenotype.

Conclusions/significance: Dormant DTCs within the bone marrow are highly malignant upon injection into the mammary fat pad, with the accelerated development of metastatic lesions within the lung, liver and kidney. These results suggest the acquisition of a more aggressive phenotype of DTCs during metastatic latency within the bone marrow microenvironment.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0047587PLOS
March 2013

Peptidomimetic Src/pretubulin inhibitor KX-01 alone and in combination with paclitaxel suppresses growth, metastasis in human ER/PR/HER2-negative tumor xenografts.

Mol Cancer Ther 2012 Sep 10;11(9):1936-47. Epub 2012 Jul 10.

1Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.

Src kinase is elevated in breast tumors that are ER/PR negative and do not overexpress HER2, but clinical trials with Src inhibitors have shown little activity. The present study evaluated preclinical efficacy of a novel peptidomimetic compound, KX-01 (KX2-391), that exhibits dual action as an Src and pretubulin inhibitor. KX-01 was evaluated as a single-agent and in combination with paclitaxel in MDA-MB-231, MDA-MB-157, and MDA-MB-468 human ER/PR/HER2-negative breast cancer cells. Treatments were evaluated by growth/apoptosis, isobologram analysis, migration/invasion assays, tumor xenograft volume, metastasis, and measurement of Src, focal adhesion kinase (FAK), microtubules, Ki67, and microvessel density. KX-01 inhibited cell growth in vitro and in combination with paclitaxel resulted in synergistic growth inhibition. KX-01 resulted in a dose-dependent inhibition of MDA-MB-231 and MDA-MB-157 tumor xenografts (1 and 5 mg/kg, twice daily). KX-01 inhibited activity of Src and downstream mediator FAK in tumors that was coincident with reduced proliferation and angiogenesis and increased apoptosis. KX01 also resulted in microtubule disruption in tumors. Combination of KX-01 with paclitaxel resulted in significant regression of MDA-MB-231 tumors and reduced metastasis to mouse lung and liver. KX-01 is a potently active Src/pretubulin inhibitor that inhibits breast tumor growth and metastasis. As ER/PR/HER2-negative patients are candidates for paclitaxel therapy, combination with KX-01 may potentiate antitumor efficacy in management of this aggressive breast cancer subtype.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/1535-7163.MCT-12-0146DOI Listing
September 2012

Gαo potentiates estrogen receptor α activity via the ERK signaling pathway.

J Endocrinol 2012 Jul 4;214(1):45-54. Epub 2012 May 4.

Section of Hematology and Medical Oncology, Department of Medicine, Tulane University, 1430 Tulane Avenue, SL-78, New Orleans, Louisiana 70112, USA.

The estrogen receptor α (ERα) is a transcription factor that mediates the biological effects of 17β-estradiol (E(2)). ERα transcriptional activity is also regulated by cytoplasmic signaling cascades. Here, several Gα protein subunits were tested for their ability to regulate ERα activity. Reporter assays revealed that overexpression of a constitutively active Gα(o) protein subunit potentiated ERα activity in the absence and presence of E(2). Transient transfection of the human breast cancer cell line MCF-7 showed that Gα(o) augments the transcription of several ERα-regulated genes. Western blots of HEK293T cells transfected with ER±Gα(o) revealed that Gα(o) stimulated phosphorylation of ERK 1/2 and subsequently increased the phosphorylation of ERα on serine 118. In summary, our results show that Gα(o), through activation of the MAPK pathway, plays a role in the regulation of ERα activity.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1530/JOE-12-0097DOI Listing
July 2012

Interleukin-17 promotes formation and growth of prostate adenocarcinoma in mouse models.

Cancer Res 2012 May 28;72(10):2589-99. Epub 2012 Mar 28.

Department of Structural & Cellular Biology, School of Medicine, New Orleans, LA, USA.

The contributions of interleukin (IL)-17 to cancer remain unclear and somewhat controversial. We took a genetic approach to explore its role in prostate cancers by interbreeding IL-17 receptor C (IL-17RC)-deficient mice with mice that are conditionally mutant for PTEN, one established preclinical model for prostate cancer. Mice that were IL-17RC-deficient (IL-17RC(-)) displayed prostates that were smaller than mice that maintained IL-17RC expression (IL-17RC(+)). In addition, IL-17RC(-) mice developed a reduced number of invasive prostate adenocarcinomas with lower rates of cellular proliferation and higher apoptosis than IL-17RC(+) mice. Moreover, the fibromuscular stroma surrounding prostatic glands was relatively thicker in IL-17RC(-) mice and was associated with decreased matrix metalloproteinase (Mmp)7 expression and increased Timp1, 2, and 4 expression, whereas administration of recombinant mouse IL-17 induced prostatic expression of Mmp7. Taken together, our results suggested that IL-17 promotes the formation and growth of prostate adenocarcinoma, and that an IL-17-MMP7 signaling axis is required for the transition of prostatic intraepithelial neoplasia to frank adenocarcinoma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1158/0008-5472.CAN-11-3795DOI Listing
May 2012

Subcellular localization of total and activated Src kinase in African American and Caucasian breast cancer.

PLoS One 2012 22;7(3):e33017. Epub 2012 Mar 22.

Department of Structural and Cellular Biology, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, Louisiana, United States of America.

Background: Src, a non-receptor tyrosine kinase is elevated in cancer with expression and activity correlated with cell proliferation, adhesion, survival, motility, metastasis and angiogenesis. There is limited data on Src expression and subcellular localization in breast cancer and no information about expression in racial/ethnic groups.

Methodology/principal Findings: The present study evaluated Src expression, activity, and subcellular localization in triple negative breast cancer (TNBC) and ERα positive breast cancer (ER+BC), cancer tissue and adjacent normal epithelial ducts, and Caucasian and African American cases. 79 paraffin embedded breast carcinoma cases were obtained from Tulane University Hospital between 2007-2009. 39 cases represented TNBC (33-African Americans, 4-Caucasians, 2-unknowns) and 40 cases represented ER+BC (21-African Americans, 16-Caucasians, 3-unknowns). Immunohistochemistry was used to measure staining distribution and intensity of total Src and activated phospho-SrcY416 (p-Y416Src) in carcinoma tissue and adjacent normal mammary ducts. In TNBC and ER+BC, total Src was significantly higher in cancer compared to adjacent normal ducts (P<0.0001) in both cell membrane and cytoplasm. In membranes, p-Y416Src was elevated in cancer compared to normal ducts. Total Src in the tumor cytoplasm was significantly higher in TNBC compared to ER+BC (P = 0.0028); conversely, p-Y416Src in the tumor cell membranes was higher in TNBC compared to ER+BC (P = 0.0106). Comparison between African American (n = 21) and Caucasian ER+BC (n = 16) revealed no significant difference in expression and localization of total Src and p-Y416Src. TNBC cases positive for lymph node metastasis showed elevated membrane p-Y416Src compared to lymph node negative TNBC (P = 0.027).

Conclusion/significance: Total Src and p-Y416Src were expressed higher in cancer compared to adjacent normal ducts. Cytoplasmic total Src and membrane p-Y416Src were significantly higher in TNBC compared to ER+BC. TNBC cases with lymph node metastasis showed elevated membrane p-Y416Src. Taken together, Src was elevated in the membrane and cytoplasm of more aggressive TNBC.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0033017PLOS
August 2012
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