Publications by authors named "Brian G Jones"

12 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Effects of acupuncture at Pericardium-6 and Stomach-36 on nausea, sedation and gastrointestinal motility in healthy dogs administered intravenous lidocaine infusions.

PLoS One 2019 5;14(12):e0226065. Epub 2019 Dec 5.

Department of Surgical Sciences, University of Wisconsin, Madison, Wisconsin, United States of America.

The objectives of this study were to assess gastrointestinal transit times, sedation, and signs of nausea associated with intravenous lidocaine infusions in dogs following targeted acupuncture at Pericardium-6 (PC6) and Stomach-36 (ST36). In a randomized, blind crossover design, 6 healthy, adult Beagles were fed thirty 1.5 mm barium-impregnated polyethylene spheres (BIPS), then were subject to 30 minutes of: 1) no acupuncture, 2) bilateral targeted acupuncture at PC6 and ST36, or 3) bilateral non-target acupuncture at Lung-5 (LU5) and Bladder-55 (BL55). Lidocaine was immediately administered at 1 mg/kg intravenously followed by 50 μg/kg/min. BIPS were tracked radiographically; sedation and nausea were scored at baseline (Time 0) and for 11 hours during lidocaine infusions. Transit times and sedation and nausea scores were analyzed with a linear mixed-effects model; the number of BIPS at defined time points was analyzed with a piecewise linear mixed-effects model. All P values were two-sided and P < 0.05 was considered significant. Sedation and nausea scores did not differ between treatments at any time point (all P > 0.05). However, nausea scores in all groups were significantly greater at Times 5 through 7 and at Time 11 compared to Time 0 whereas sedation scores in all groups were significantly greater at Times 2 through 11 compared to Time 0 (all P < 0.05). The number of BIPs found out of the stomach, the number found in the large intestine, gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit times did not differ between treatments (all P > 0.05). Acupuncture at PC6 and ST36 did not alleviate nausea and sedation associated with lidocaine infusions in clinically normal animals or affect gastric emptying and gastrointestinal transit.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0226065PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6894766PMC
March 2020

Redating the earliest evidence of the mid-Holocene relative sea-level highstand in Australia and implications for global sea-level rise.

PLoS One 2019 17;14(7):e0218430. Epub 2019 Jul 17.

Palaeontology, Geobiology and Earth Archives Research Centre, and ARC Centre of Excellence for Australian Biodiversity and Heritage, School of Biological, Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of New South Wales, New South Wales, Australia.

Reconstructing past sea levels can help constrain uncertainties surrounding the rate of change, magnitude, and impacts of the projected increase through the 21st century. Of significance is the mid-Holocene relative sea-level highstand in tectonically stable and remote (far-field) locations from major ice sheets. The east coast of Australia provides an excellent arena in which to investigate changes in relative sea level during the Holocene. Considerable debate surrounds both the peak level and timing of the east coast highstand. The southeast Australian site of Bulli Beach provides the earliest evidence for the establishment of a highstand in the Southern Hemisphere, although questions have been raised about the pretreatment and type of material that was radiocarbon dated for the development of the regional sea-level curve. Here we undertake a detailed morpho- and chronostratigraphic study at Bulli Beach to better constrain the timing of the Holocene highstand in eastern Australia. In contrast to wood and charcoal samples that may provide anomalously old ages, probably due to inbuilt age, we find that short-lived terrestrial plant macrofossils provide a robust chronological framework. Bayesian modelling of the ages provide improved dating of the earliest evidence for a highstand at 6,880±50 cal BP, approximately a millennium later than previously reported. Our results from Bulli now closely align with other sea-level reconstructions along the east coast of Australia, and provide evidence for a synchronous relative sea-level highstand that extends from the Gulf of Carpentaria to Tasmania. Our refined age appears to be coincident with major ice mass loss from Northern Hemisphere and Antarctic ice sheets, supporting previous studies that suggest these may have played a role in the relative sea-level highstand. Further work is now needed to investigate the environmental impacts of regional sea levels, and refine the timing of the subsequent sea-level fall in the Holocene and its influence on coastal evolution.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0218430PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6636714PMC
February 2020

An assessment of anthropogenic and climatic stressors on estuaries using a spatio-temporal GIS-modelling approach for sustainability: Towamba estuary, southeastern Australia.

Environ Monit Assess 2018 Jun 3;190(7):375. Epub 2018 Jun 3.

GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, 2522, Australia.

Monitoring estuarine ecological-geomorphological dynamics has become a crucial aspect of studying the impacts of climate change and worldwide infrastructure development in coastal zones. Together, these factors have changed the natural eco-geomorphic processes that affect estuarine regimes and comprehensive modelling of coastal resources can assist managers to make appropriate decisions about their sustainable use. This study has utilised Towamba estuary (southeastern NSW, Australia), to demonstrate the value and priority of modelling estuarine dynamism as a measure of the rates and consequences of eco-geomorphic changes. This research employs several geoinformatic modelling approaches over time to investigate and assess how climate change and human activities have altered this estuarine eco-geomorphic setting. Multitemporal trend/change analysis of sediment delivery, shoreline positions and land cover, determined from fieldwork and GIS analysis of remote sensing datasets, shows significant spatio-temporal changes to the elevation and areal extent of sedimentary facies in the Towamba estuary over the past 65 years. Geomorphic growth (~ 2600 m annually) has stabilised the estuarine habitats, particularly within native vegetation, salt marsh and mangrove areas. Geomorphic changes have occurred because of a combination of sediment runoff from the mostly unmodified terrestrial catchment, nearshore processes (ocean dynamics) and human activities. The construction of GIS models, verified with water and sediment samples, can characterise physical processes and quantify changes within the estuarine ecosystem. Such robust models will allow resource managers to evaluate the potential effects of changes to the current coastal ecosystems.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-018-6720-5DOI Listing
June 2018

A reassessment of the early archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a Late Pleistocene rock-shelter site on the Indonesian island of Sulawesi.

PLoS One 2018 11;13(4):e0193025. Epub 2018 Apr 11.

Centre for Archaeological Science, School of Earth & Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Wollongong, New South Wales, Australia.

This paper presents a reassessment of the archaeological record at Leang Burung 2, a key early human occupation site in the Late Pleistocene of Southeast Asia. Excavated originally by Ian Glover in 1975, this limestone rock-shelter in the Maros karsts of Sulawesi, Indonesia, has long held significance in our understanding of early human dispersals into 'Wallacea', the vast zone of oceanic islands between continental Asia and Australia. We present new stratigraphic information and dating evidence from Leang Burung 2 collected during the course of our excavations at this site in 2007 and 2011-13. Our findings suggest that the classic Late Pleistocene modern human occupation sequence identified previously at Leang Burung 2, and proposed to span around 31,000 to 19,000 conventional 14C years BP (~35-24 ka cal BP), may actually represent an amalgam of reworked archaeological materials. Sources for cultural materials of mixed ages comprise breccias from the rear wall of the rock-shelter-remnants of older, eroded deposits dated to 35-23 ka cal BP-and cultural remains of early Holocene antiquity. Below the upper levels affected by the mass loss of Late Pleistocene deposits, our deep-trench excavations uncovered evidence for an earlier hominin presence at the site. These findings include fossils of now-extinct proboscideans and other 'megafauna' in stratified context, as well as a cobble-based stone artifact technology comparable to that produced by late Middle Pleistocene hominins elsewhere on Sulawesi.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0193025PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5894965PMC
July 2018

Evaluation of gastric emptying time, gastrointestinal transit time, sedation score, and nausea score associated with intravenous constant rate infusion of lidocaine hydrochloride in clinically normal dogs.

Am J Vet Res 2017 May;78(5):550-557

OBJECTIVE To quantify nausea and sedation scores, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time after IV administration of a lidocaine hydrochloride bolus followed by a constant rate infusion (CRI) in clinically normal dogs. ANIMALS 6 Beagles. PROCEDURES In a crossover study, dogs were fed thirty 1.5-mm barium-impregnated spheres (BIPS) and received a saline (0.9% NaCl) solution bolus (0.05 mL/kg) IV (time 0) followed by a CRI at 10 mL/h, a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 25 μg/kg/min, or a lidocaine bolus (1 mg/kg) IV followed by a CRI at 50 μg/kg/min; CRIs were for 12 hours. Nausea and sedation scores were assessed and abdominal radiographs obtained immediately after feeding of BIPS and every hour for 12 hours and again 16 hours after CRI start. Percentage of BIPSs in the small and large intestines, gastric emptying time, and gastrointestinal transit time were assessed. RESULTS Gastric emptying time did not differ significantly among treatments. Significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine 4 to 7 hours after treatment start for the 50-μg/kg/min treatment than for the other 2 treatments. Six hours after treatment start, significantly more BIPS were in the large intestine for the 25-μg/kg/min treatment than for the saline solution treatment. Higher sedation and nausea scores were associated with the 50-μg/kg/min CRI. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE In clinically normal dogs, lidocaine CRI did not significantly affect gastric emptying. However, gastrointestinal transit time was mildly decreased and sedation and nausea scores increased in dogs administered a lidocaine CRI at clinically used doses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.5.550DOI Listing
May 2017

Magnetic resonance imaging susceptibility artifacts in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord related to monocortical screw-polymethylmethacrylate implants in canine cadavers.

Am J Vet Res 2017 Apr;78(4):458-464

OBJECTIVE To characterize and compare MRI susceptibility artifacts related to titanium and stainless steel monocortical screws in the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord of canine cadavers. SAMPLE 12 canine cadavers. PROCEDURES Cervical vertebrae (C4 and C5) were surgically stabilized with titanium or stainless steel monocortical screws and polymethylmethacrylate. Routine T1-weighted, T2-weighted, and short tau inversion recovery sequences were performed at 3.0 T. Magnetic susceptibility artifacts in 20 regions of interest (ROIs) across 4 contiguous vertebrae (C3 through C6) were scored by use of an established scoring system. RESULTS Artifact scores for stainless steel screws were significantly greater than scores for titanium screws at 18 of 20 ROIs. Artifact scores for titanium screws were significantly higher for spinal cord ROIs within the implanted vertebrae. Artifact scores for stainless steel screws at C3 were significantly less than at the other 3 cervical vertebrae. CONCLUSIONS AND CLINICAL RELEVANCE Evaluation of routine MRI sequences obtained at 3.0 T revealed that susceptibility artifacts related to titanium monocortical screws were considered mild and should not hinder the overall clinical assessment of the cervical vertebrae and spinal cord. However, mild focal artifacts may obscure small portions of the spinal cord or intervertebral discs immediately adjacent to titanium screws. Severe artifacts related to stainless steel screws were more likely to result in routine MRI sequences being nondiagnostic; however, artifacts may be mitigated by implant positioning.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2460/ajvr.78.4.458DOI Listing
April 2017

Geochemical Assessment of Trace Element Pollution in Surface Sediments from the Georges River, Southern Sydney, Australia.

Arch Environ Contam Toxicol 2017 Feb 18;72(2):247-259. Epub 2016 Dec 18.

GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wollongong University, Wollongong, NSW, 2522, Australia.

Measurement of elevated trace elements is an important component of environmental assessment and management of estuarine marine sediments in systems adjacent to concentrated human activity. The present study surveys the estuarine sediments in selected tributary bays, creeks, and the upper segments of the Georges River system, NSW, Australia, which flows into the Tasman Sea through Botany Bay. A total of 146 surface sediment samples were analysed by X-ray fluorescence. Potential pollution of sediments was evaluated using potential load index, modified degree of contamination, and potential ecological risk index. The spatial distribution of trace elements varies between sites. Variable sources of contamination, including runoff from catchment areas, and emissions from watercraft and boatyards are contributing sources. Bay morphologies and their interactions with catchment and tidal flows play significant roles in the distribution of trace elements. The greatest concentration of trace elements occurs around discharge points and in the inner parts of bays that have high percentages of mud particles and organic matter. The lowest contamination by trace elements was found in sandy sediments along the shoreline and edges of the bays. Trace element distributions decline in concentration in residential-free areas and reach background levels in deeper sediment cores. The concentrations of trace elements were controlled by discharge points from the catchment area, marine boat activities, bay morphology, and sediment types (sand, silt, and clay). The highest pollutant concentrations are the result of past legal, but uncontrolled, discharge of waste from manufacturing into Salt Pan Creek.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00244-016-0343-zDOI Listing
February 2017

Source identification and assessment of sediment contamination of trace metals in Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia.

Environ Monit Assess 2015 Feb 28;187(2):20. Epub 2015 Jan 28.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, Wollongong University, Wollongong, NSW, Australia,

The distribution of trace metals (spatial and temporal) and sedimentary fractions were investigated to identify the concentrations and sources of trace metals within Kogarah Bay, NSW, Australia. A total of 59 surface sediments and six subsurface samples from core of the sediment were collected. The contamination factor and pollution load index indices used to evaluate environmental effects of trace metals. The study area was found to be uncontaminated with Cr and Ni, moderately contaminated with As and considerably contaminated with Cu, Zn and Pb. The concentrations of Cr and Ni were below both effect range low and effect range median, while As, Cu, Zn and Pb were slightly above effect range low. The highest concentrations of these trace metals such as Cu, Zn and Pb were found in the north, northwest and southeast of the bay, close to discharge points, stormwater outlets and around boatyards and watercrafts. The spatial distributions of metals were strongly related to muddy particles and organic matter. The temporal sediments of metals declined with increased sediment depth, which reflects accumulation of trace metals since European settlement in this area. Furthermore, the source of the trace metals was found to be stormwater outlets, gasoline fumes, boatyards and other human activities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10661-014-4238-zDOI Listing
February 2015

Spatial and temporal distribution and pollution assessment of trace metals in marine sediments in Oyster Bay, NSW, Australia.

Bull Environ Contam Toxicol 2015 Jan 29;94(1):52-7. Epub 2014 Nov 29.

School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, NSW, Australia,

The disposal of untreated urban and industrial wastewater has a deleterious effect on both the water and sediment quality of Oyster Bay located in south Sydney, Australia. The present investigation was undertaken to evaluate the potential pollution of marine sediments in Oyster Bay. The results of metals were compared with adverse biological effect values effect range low (ERL) and effect range median (ERM). Spatial distribution of trace metals was estimated by applying geographic information system. The results indicated that the sediments were polluted with Cu, Zn, As and Pb, which exceeded ERL levels. However, these metals were still below ERM values, and other metals Cr and Ni were below ERL. Moreover, the highest concentrations of metals were around discharge points and in the inner bay. Further, trace metals could be attributed to human activities within the bay as they declined in concentrations with increasing sediment depth.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00128-014-1434-zDOI Listing
January 2015

Relationship between radiographic evidence of tracheobronchial lymph node enlargement and definitive or presumptive diagnosis.

Vet Radiol Ultrasound 2012 Sep-Oct;53(5):486-91. Epub 2012 Jul 23.

School of Veterinary Medicine, University of California, Davis, CA, USA.

Tracheobronchial lymphadenomegaly is commonly associated with lymphosarcoma and disseminated mycotic infection. Available data also suggest other pathologic causes of enlarged tracheobronchial lymph nodes. Our objective was to establish the distribution and prevalence of diseases that cause radiographically evident tracheobronchial lymphadenomegaly in a large population of dogs. Patients were divided into groups based on the methods of diagnoses with 25 having confirmed diagnoses and 85 with presumptive diagnoses. Of the 110 dogs in the study, 92 (84%) had neoplasia and 18 (16%) had infectious diseases. Infections were attributed to Coccidioides (12, 67%), Aspergillus (3, 17%), and 1 each (6%) to Nocardia, Penicillium, and Mycobacteriosis. Tumors were characterized as lymphoma (66, 60%) or nonlymphoid (26, 23.6%). Nonlymphomas in Group 1 included histiocytic sarcoma complex (16%), carcinoma (12%), adenocarcinoma (8%), osteosarcoma (8%), chemodectoma (4%), ganglioneuroblastoma (4%), and neuroendocrine (4%). The number of dogs with tracheobronchial lymphadenomegaly scores 1, 2, 3, 4, or 5 (with 5 being the greatest) was 8 (7%), 15 (14%), 30 (27%), 15 (14%), and 44 (38%), respectively. The results suggest that in addition to diagnoses of lymphoma and fungal infections, other neoplasms and in particular histiocytic sarcoma and metastatic adenocarcinoma, should be considered when tracheobronchial lymphadenomegaly is identified radiographically in dogs. When comparing the degree of tracheobronchial lymphadenopathy by disease category, there was no significant affiliation (P = 0.33).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1740-8261.2011.01921.xDOI Listing
October 2012

Use of 210Pb and 137Cs to simultaneously constrain ages and sources of post-dam sediments in the Cordeaux reservoir, Sydney, Australia.

J Environ Radioact 2008 Jul 4;99(7):1111-20. Epub 2008 Mar 4.

GeoQuEST Research Centre, School of Earth and Environmental Sciences, University of Wollongong, Northfields Avenue, Gwynneville, NSW 2522, Australia.

Environmental radionuclides can be employed as tracers of sediment movement and delivery to water bodies such as lakes and reservoirs. The chronologies of sediments that have accumulated in the Cordeaux reservoir in Sydney, Australia, were determined by the rate of change of (210)Pb(ex) with depth and indicate slow accretion in the reservoir. The ratio of enrichment of radionuclides in sediment cores to (210)Pb(ex) and (137)Cs concentrations in a reference soil sample within the Cordeaux catchment indicates that the dominant source of sediment in the Cordeaux reservoir is surface erosion (detachment and removal of sediment at depths less than 30 cm). However, in the Kembla Creek arm of the reservoir a mixture of sources was detected and includes sheet and rill erosion together with sub-soil contributions. Implications for the utility of these radionuclide sedimentation assessments, especially where samples are limited, are that well-constrained chronologies and sources of soil erosion are facilitated.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jenvrad.2008.01.002DOI Listing
July 2008