Publications by authors named "Brian B Spear"

11 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Development and regulatory strategies for drug and diagnostic co-development.

Pharmacogenomics 2010 Dec;11(12):1669-75

Novartis Pharmaceuticals Corp., East Hanover, NJ 07939-1080, USA.

At the 5th FDA-Drug Industry Association (DIA) Workshop on 'Pharmacogenomics in Drug Development and Regulatory Decision Making', track four focused on the current thinking and issues in the co-development of therapeutic drugs or biologics, and their companion diagnostic products. Identification and validation of genomic and other biomarkers are becoming important components of drug-development strategies, and recent successes show the power of personalized approaches to change the benefit-risk paradigm for new drugs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.2217/pgs.10.141DOI Listing
December 2010

Theranostics in veterinary medicine: where are we heading?

Vet J 2010 Sep 1;185(3):237-8. Epub 2009 Nov 1.

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.tvjl.2009.09.021DOI Listing
September 2010

Pharmacogenetics: improving drug and dose selection.

Curr Opin Pharmacol 2008 Oct 26;8(5):639-46. Epub 2008 Sep 26.

Considerable interindividual variability exists in patient responses to drug therapy. Differences in DNA sequence can affect the disposition, efficacy, and safety of a drug. Knowledge of pharmacogenetics may be applied toward understanding and managing such interindividual variability. Increasingly, pharmacogenetic language is being added to drug labels, and genotyping is performed either to select the drug or adjust the dose to an individual. In this article we discuss the current uses of genotyping for managing drug therapy, and issues related to the clinical uptake of pharmacogenetics.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.coph.2008.07.013DOI Listing
October 2008

Frequency of the frame-shifting CYP2D7 138delT polymorphism in a large, ethnically diverse sample population.

Drug Metab Dispos 2007 Aug 9;35(8):1251-3. Epub 2007 May 9.

Pharmacogenetics, Global Pharmaceutical Research & Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064-6098, USA.

Cytochrome P450 2D7 (CYP2D7) has long been considered a pseudogene. A recent report described an indel polymorphism (CYP2D7 138delT) that causes a frameshift generating an open reading frame and functional protein. This polymorphism was observed in 6 of 12 samples from an Indian population. Individuals with the 138delT polymorphism expressed CYP2D7 protein from a brain-specific, alternatively spliced transcript (J Biol Chem 279:27383-27389, 2004). The unexpectedly high frequency of the variant allele and resulting CYP2D7 expression could have important implications for brain-specific metabolism of CYP2D substrates including many psychoactive drugs. However, the 138delT variant has not been detected in other studies (Pharmacogenetics 11:45-55, 2001; Biochem Biophys Res Commun 336:1241-1250, 2005). Our goal was to determine the frequency of this variant in a larger, ethnically diverse population. CYP2D7 138delT genotypes for 163 Caucasians, 95 East Asians, 50 Indians, 68 Hispanic Latinos, and 68 African Americans were determined by Pyrosequencing. The 138delT allele was observed at a frequency of 1.0% in East Asians and 0.74% in Hispanic Latinos. The deletion was not observed in Indians or the other ethnic populations. In addition, in each of the three samples with 138delT, the putative brain-specific transcript contains a premature stop codon that would preclude protein expression. The low frequency of the CYP2D7 138delT polymorphism in our ethnically diverse sample, and particularly the absence from 50 Indian samples, is in contrast to the high frequency previously reported. Our results suggest that CYP2D7 138delT is unlikely to be highly relevant for population variation of pharmacokinetics or drug response.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1124/dmd.107.014993DOI Listing
August 2007

Returning genetic research results to individuals: points-to-consider.

Bioethics 2006 Feb;20(1):24-36

Genetics Research, GlaxoSmithKline, 5 Moore Drive, RTP NC 27709, USA.

This paper is intended to stimulate debate amongst stakeholders in the international research community on the topic of returning individual genetic research results to study participants. Pharmacogenetics and disease genetics studies are becoming increasingly prevalent, leading to a growing body of information on genetic associations for drug responsiveness and disease susceptibility with the potential to improve health care. Much of these data are presently characterized as exploratory (non-validated or hypothesis-generating). There is, however, a trend for research participants to be permitted access to their personal data if they so choose. Researchers, sponsors, patient advocacy groups, ethics committees and regulatory authorities are consequently confronting the issue of whether, and how, study participants might receive their individual results. Noted international ethico-legal guidelines and public policy positions in Europe and the United States are reviewed for background. The authors offer 'Points-to-Consider' regarding returning results in the context of drug development trials based on their knowledge and experience. Theses considerations include: the clinical relevance of data, laboratory qualifications, informed consent procedures, confidentiality of medical information and the competency of persons providing results to participants. The discussion is framed as a benefit-to-risk assessment to balance the potential positive versus negative consequences to participants, while maintaining the integrity and feasibility of conducting genetic research studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/j.1467-8519.2006.00473.xDOI Listing
February 2006

Organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 activity classified by SLCO1B1 genotype influences atrasentan pharmacokinetics.

Clin Pharmacol Ther 2006 Mar 17;79(3):186-96. Epub 2006 Feb 17.

Department of Pharmacogenetics, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064, USA.

Objective: Our objective was to learn whether genetic polymorphisms of metabolic enzymes or transport proteins provide a mechanistic understanding of the in vivo disposition of atrasentan, a selective endothelin A receptor antagonist.

Methods: Atrasentan uptake was measured in HeLa cells transfected to express major alleles of organic anion transporting polypeptide 1B1 (OATP1B1). The results were used to classify individuals as extensive, intermediate, or poor OATP1B1 transporters according to their SLCO1B1 genotypes. Analysis of covariance including genotype, study, age, weight, sex, and ethnicity was used to identify factors influencing atrasentan single-dose (n = 44) and steady-state (n = 38) pharmacokinetic parameters. Genotypes for cytochrome P450 3A5, uridine diphosphate-glucuronosyltransferase (UGT) 1A1, UGT2B4, UGT2B15, adenosine triphosphate-binding cassette subfamily B (ABCB) 1, solute carrier organic anion transporter (SLCO) 1B1, and solute carrier family 22 (SLC22) A2 were each assessed.

Results: Single-dose atrasentan exposure (P = .0244), steady-state atrasentan exposure (P = .0108), and maximum postdose plasma concentration (P = .0002) were associated with OATP1B1 activity classified by SLCO1B1 genotype. No other tested genotypes were observed to be associated with both single-dose and steady-state atrasentan pharmacokinetics.

Conclusions: OATP1B1 is a meaningful factor for atrasentan disposition. Individuals may be classified as having extensive, intermediate, or poor OATP1B1 transport phenotypes according to SLCO1B1 genotypes. Increased exposures of OATP1B1 substrates might be expected in individuals who have the poor transporter phenotype or are treated with an OATP1B1 inhibitor.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.clpt.2005.11.003DOI Listing
March 2006

Microarray analysis in human hepatocytes suggests a mechanism for hepatotoxicity induced by trovafloxacin.

Hepatology 2005 Jan;41(1):177-86

Global Pharmaceutical Research and Development, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, IL 60064-6104, USA.

Idiosyncratic drug toxicity, defined as toxicity that is dose independent, host dependent, and usually cannot be predicted during preclinical or early phases of clinical trials, is a particularly confounding complication of drug development. An understanding of the mechanisms that lead to idiosyncratic liver toxicity would be extremely beneficial for the development of new compounds. We used microarray analysis on isolated human hepatocytes to understand the mechanisms underlying the idiosyncratic toxicity induced by trovafloxacin. Our results clearly distinguish trovafloxacin from other marketed quinolone agents and identify unique gene changes induced by trovafloxacin that are involved in mitochondrial damage, RNA processing, transcription, and inflammation that may suggest a mechanism for the hepatotoxicity induced by this agent. In conclusion, this work establishes the basis for future microarray analysis of new compounds to determine the presence of these expression changes and their usefulness in predicting idiosyncratic hepatotoxicity. Supplementary material for this article can be found on the HEPATOLOGY website (http://interscience. Wiley.com/jpages/0270-9139/suppmat/index.htnd).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/hep.20514DOI Listing
January 2005

Prediction of successful weight reduction under sibutramine therapy.

Pharmacogenetics 2004 Jun;14(6):387; author reply 387-9

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008571-200406000-00008DOI Listing
June 2004

Pharmacogenomic data submissions to the FDA: clinical case studies.

Pharmacogenomics 2004 Jul;5(5):519-24

Clinical Research and Pharmacogenomics, Millennium Pharmaceuticals, 40 Landsdowne Street Cambridge, MA 02139, USA. wtrepicchio

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http://dx.doi.org/10.1517/14622416.5.5.519DOI Listing
July 2004

Impact of CYP2D6 intermediate metabolizer alleles on single-dose desipramine pharmacokinetics.

Pharmacogenetics 2004 May;14(5):279-84

Department of Pharmacogenetics, Abbott Laboratories, Abbott Park, Illinois 60064-6217, USA.

This study utilized cytochrome P450 2D6 (CYP2D6) genotypes to explain variability of desipramine pharmacokinetics in a cohort of non-poor metabolizer individuals. In an interaction study utilizing desipramine as a probe, genotyping for the CYP2D6*3, *4, *5 and *6 alleles was used to screen out CYP2D6 poor metabolizers. Individuals were categorized according to these and additional alleles (CYP2D6*2, *9, *10, *17, *41 and x2). Genotypes of individuals heterozygous for two or three of *2, *17 and *41 alleles were confirmed by molecular haplotyping. Pharmacokinetic parameters of desipramine were analysed according to CYP2D6 category. Molecular haplotyping was necessary to definitively categorize four of 16 individuals. A subject who had unusually high plasma elimination half-time, exposure and metabolic ratios carried an intermediate metabolizer (IM) *9 allele in combination with a non-functional allele. This combination has a population frequency of less than 1 : 200. Individuals with *1/*1, *1/*2 and *2/*2 genotypes had lower than average plasma elimination half-time, exposure and metabolic ratios. For desipramine, additional genotyping of CYP2D6 IM alleles helped define subgroups of the CYP2D6-positive cohort. This suggests that genotyping for IM alleles will aid in interpretation of clinical trials involving CYP2D6 substrates. Due to the diversity of IM alleles, molecular haplotyping may be necessary to fully characterize CYP2D6 genotype-phenotype relationships.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/00008571-200405000-00002DOI Listing
May 2004

Pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in drug development and regulatory decision making: report of the first FDA-PWG-PhRMA-DruSafe Workshop.

J Clin Pharmacol 2003 Apr;43(4):342-58

Food and Drug Administration, Center for Drug Evaluation and Research, Rockville, Maryland, USA.

The use of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics in the drug development process, and in the assessment of such data submitted to regulatory agencies by industry, has generated significant enthusiasm as well as important reservations within the scientific and medical communities. This situation has arisen because of the increasing number of exploratory and confirmatory investigations into variations in RNA expression patterns and DNA sequences being conducted in the preclinical and clinical phases of drug development, and the uncertainty surrounding the acceptance of these data by regulatory agencies. This report summarizes the outcome of a workshop cosponsored by the Food and Drug Administration (FDA), the Pharmacogenetics Working Group (PWG), the Pharmaceutical Research and Manufacturers of America (PhRMA), and the PhRMA Preclinical Safety Committee (DruSafe). The specific aim of the workshop was to identify key issues associated with the application of pharmacogenetics and pharmacogenomics, including the feasibility of a regulatory "safe harbor" for exploratory genome-based data, and to provide a forum for industry-regulatory agency dialogue on these important issues.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0091270003252244DOI Listing
April 2003