Publications by authors named "Brett R Blackwell"

29 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Assessing effects of aromatase inhibition on fishes with group-synchronous oocyte development using western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a model.

Aquat Toxicol 2021 Jan 5;232:105741. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN, 55804, United States.

Exposure to certain anthropogenic chemicals can inhibit the activity to cytochrome P450 aromatase (CYP19) in fishes leading to decreased plasma 17β-estradiol (E2), plasma vitellogenin (VTG), and egg production. Reproductive dysfunction resulting from exposure to aromatase inhibitors has been extensively investigated in several laboratory model species of fish. These model species have ovaries that undergo asynchronous oocyte development, but many fishes have ovaries with group-synchronous oocyte development. Fishes with group-synchronous oocyte development have dynamic reproductive cycles which typically occur annually and are often triggered by complex environmental cues. This has resulted in a lack of test data and uncertainty regarding sensitivities to and adverse effects of aromatase inhibition. The present study used the western mosquitofish (Gambusia affinis) as a laboratory model to investigate adverse effects of chemical aromatase inhibition on group-synchronous oocyte development. Adult female western mosquitofish were exposed to either 0, 2, or 30 μg/L of the model nonsteroidal aromatase inhibiting chemical, fadrozole, for a complete reproductive cycle. Fish were sampled at four time-points representing pre-vitellogenic resting, early vitellogenesis, late vitellogenesis/early ovarian recrudescence, and late ovarian recrudescence. Temporal changes in numerous reproductive parameters were measured, including gonadosomatic index (GSI), plasma sex steroids, and expression of selected genes in the brain, liver, and gonad that are important for reproduction. In contrast to fish from the control treatment, fish exposed to 2 and 30 μg/L of fadrozole had persistent elevated expression of cyp19 in the ovary, depressed expression of vtg in the liver, and a low GSI. These responses suggest that completion of a group-synchronous reproductive cycle was unsuccessful during the assay in fish from either fadrozole treatment. These adverse effects data show that exposure to aromatase inhibitors has the potential to cause reproductive dysfunction in a wide range of fishes with both asynchronous and group-synchronous reproductive strategies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2020.105741DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8255332PMC
January 2021

Simultaneous determination of a suite of endogenous steroids by LC-APPI-MS: Application to the identification of endocrine disruptors in aquatic toxicology.

J Chromatogr B Analyt Technol Biomed Life Sci 2021 Jan 24;1163:122513. Epub 2020 Dec 24.

US EPA, Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804, USA.

Exposure to endocrine-disrupting compounds (EDCs) can alter steroid hormone production in vertebrates, sometimes leading to adverse reproductive or developmental effects. Liquid chromatography mass spectrometry methods are the gold standard for analyte confirmation and quantification in biological matrices, but radioimmunoassays (RIAs) are most commonly used for measurement of select steroid hormones in aquatic toxicology studies. Existing methods for steroid quantification often employ derivatization, limiting the range of steroids that can be simultaneously measured in a single process. In the current study, a method for the simultaneous measurement of thirteen endogenous steroids in small sample volumes without derivatization using liquid chromatography atmospheric pressure photoionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC-APPI-MS/MS) was developed. Several physiologically important steroids, including 11-deoxycortisol, 11-ketotestosterone, 17α- and 17β-estradiol, 17α-hydroxyprogesterone, 17,20β-dihydroxyprogesterone, 17,20β,21-trihydroxyprogesterone, androstenedione, cortisol, estriol, estrone, progesterone, and testosterone, were selected for the analysis. The method was validated for application to small volumes of fish plasma and fish holding water. Method detection limits using only 10 µL of plasma ranged from 0.05 to 1.0 ng/mL. As a potential surrogate for plasma steroid measurements, fish holding water was analyzed to measure excreted steroids. Lower limits of quantification when using 0.25 L of water ranged from 0.05 to 1.0 ng/L. The validated method was applied to two different experiments with small fish species exposed to an EDC known to affect steroid synthesis, fadrozole. Concentrations of the 13 steroids were measured in plasma or holding water from the studies. This work demonstrates the potential application of the developed method to measure endogenous steroids for identification of EDCs in aquatic toxicology studies.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jchromb.2020.122513DOI Listing
January 2021

Effects-Based Monitoring of Bioactive Chemicals Discharged to the Colorado River before and after a Municipal Wastewater Treatment Plant Replacement.

Environ Sci Technol 2021 01 29;55(2):974-984. Epub 2020 Dec 29.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, Duluth, Minnesota 55804, United States.

Monitoring of the Colorado River near the Moab, Utah, wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) outflow has detected pharmaceuticals, hormones, and estrogen-receptor (ER)-, glucocorticoid receptor (GR)-, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-gamma (PPARγ)-mediated biological activities. The aim of the present multi-year study was to assess effects of a WWTP replacement on bioactive chemical (BC) concentrations. Water samples were collected bimonthly, pre- and post-replacement, at 11 sites along the Colorado River upstream and downstream of the WWTP and analyzed for bioactivities (e.g., agonism of ER, GR, and PPARγ) and BC concentrations; fathead minnows were cage deployed pre- and post-replacement at sites with varying proximities to the WWTP. Before the WWTP replacement, ER (24 ng 17β-estradiol equivalents/L)-, GR (60 ng dexamethasone equivalents/L)-, and PPARγ-mediated activities were detected at the WWTP outflow but diminished downstream. In March 2018, the WWTP effluent was acutely toxic to the fish, likely due to elevated ammonia concentrations. Following the WWTP replacement, ER, GR, and PPARγ bioactivities were reduced by approximately 60-79%, no toxicity was observed in caged fish, and there were marked decreases in concentrations of many BCs. Results suggest that replacement of the Moab WWTP achieved a significant reduction in BC concentrations to the Colorado River.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.0c05269DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8135223PMC
January 2021

Case Study in 21st Century Ecotoxicology: Using In Vitro Aromatase Inhibition Data to Predict Short-Term In Vivo Responses in Adult Female Fish.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2021 Apr 10;40(4):1155-1170. Epub 2021 Mar 10.

US Environmental Protection Agency, Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, Duluth, Minnesota.

The present study evaluated whether in vitro measures of aromatase inhibition as inputs into a quantitative adverse outcome pathway (qAOP) construct could effectively predict in vivo effects on 17β-estradiol (E2) and vitellogenin (VTG) concentrations in female fathead minnows. Five chemicals identified as aromatase inhibitors in mammalian-based ToxCast assays were screened for their ability to inhibit fathead minnow aromatase in vitro. Female fathead minnows were then exposed to 3 of those chemicals: letrozole, epoxiconazole, and imazalil in concentration-response (5 concentrations plus control) for 24 h. Consistent with AOP-based expectations, all 3 chemicals caused significant reductions in plasma E2 and hepatic VTG transcription. Characteristic compensatory upregulation of aromatase and follicle-stimulating hormone receptor (fshr) transcripts in the ovary were observed for letrozole but not for the other 2 compounds. Considering the overall patterns of concentration-response and temporal concordance among endpoints, data from the in vivo experiments strengthen confidence in the qualitative relationships outlined by the AOP. Quantitatively, the qAOP model provided predictions that fell within the standard error of measured data for letrozole but not for imazalil and epoxiconazole. However, the inclusion of measured plasma concentrations of the test chemicals as inputs improved model predictions, with all predictions falling within the range of measured values. Results highlight both the utility and limitations of the qAOP and its potential use in 21st century ecotoxicology. Environ Toxicol Chem 2021;40:1155-1170. © 2020 SETAC. This article has been contributed to by US Government employees and their work is in the public domain in the USA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4968DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8127875PMC
April 2021

metabolism assessment of thiacloprid in rainbow trout and rat by LC-UV and high resolution-mass spectrometry.

Xenobiotica 2021 May 15;51(5):536-548. Epub 2021 Mar 15.

Office of Research and Development, Center for Computational Toxicology and Exposure, Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, United States Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, MN, USA.

Thiacloprid (THI) is a widely used neonicotinoid insecticide where concerns have been raised regarding low absorption by crops, substantial distribution in surrounding areas, and potential adverse effects to terrestrial and aquatic organisms.Prior to this study, there was very limited information addressing the (precision-cut liver slices) metabolism of THI by fish species and the metabolic pathways regulating its potential for adverse effects.The and biotransformation pathway of THI is defined by the formation of three primary metabolites (TM1, TM2 and TM3) via separate paths differentiated by reductive decyanation, reductive dechlorination with hydration and dealkylation processes, respectively.Kinetic rates were calculated for the rat microsomal decyanation of THI into TM1 ( = 299.2 µM and = 5.3 pmol/min/mg), and for the dealkylation of THI into TM3 ( = 368.9 µM and = 3.95 pmol/min/mg).Formation confirmation and identity inference of THI metabolites in absence of standards were achieved by LC-UV and High Resolution-MS strategies.The and metabolic products of THI are conserved both across species (rat and Rainbow trout) and levels of biological organization (microsomes and liver slices), as previously reported for the neonicotinoid insecticides Imidacloprid and Acetamiprid.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/00498254.2020.1840658DOI Listing
May 2021

Effect of Thyroperoxidase and Deiodinase Inhibition on Anterior Swim Bladder Inflation in the Zebrafish.

Environ Sci Technol 2020 05 29;54(10):6213-6223. Epub 2020 Apr 29.

Zebrafishlab, Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium.

A set of adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) linking inhibition of thyroperoxidase and deiodinase to impaired swim bladder inflation in fish has recently been developed. These AOPs help to establish links between these thyroid hormone (TH) disrupting molecular events and adverse outcomes relevant to aquatic ecological risk assessment. Until now, very little data on the effects of TH disruption on inflation of the anterior chamber (AC) of the swim bladder were available. The present study used zebrafish exposure experiments with three model compounds with distinct thyroperoxidase and deiodinase inhibition potencies (methimazole, iopanoic acid, and propylthiouracil) to evaluate this linkage. Exposure to all three chemicals decreased whole body triiodothyronine (T3) concentrations, either through inhibition of thyroxine (T4) synthesis or through inhibition of Dio mediated conversion of T4 to T3. A quantitative relationship between reduced T3 and reduced AC inflation was established, a critical key event relationship linking impaired swim bladder inflation to TH disruption. Reduced inflation of the AC was directly linked to reductions in swimming distance compared to controls as well as to chemical-exposed fish whose ACs inflated. Together the data provide compelling support for AOPs linking TH disruption to impaired AC inflation in fish.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b07204DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7477623PMC
May 2020

Adverse Outcome Pathway Network-Based Assessment of the Interactive Effects of an Androgen Receptor Agonist and an Aromatase Inhibitor on Fish Endocrine Function.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2020 04 21;39(4):913-922. Epub 2020 Feb 21.

Great Lakes Toxicology and Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.

Predictive approaches to assessing the toxicity of contaminant mixtures have been largely limited to chemicals that exert effects through the same biological molecular initiating event. However, by understanding specific pathways through which chemicals exert effects, it may be possible to identify shared "downstream" nodes as the basis for forecasting interactive effects of chemicals with different molecular initiating events. Adverse outcome pathway (AOP) networks conceptually support this type of analysis. We assessed the utility of a simple AOP network for predicting the effects of mixtures of an aromatase inhibitor (fadrozole) and an androgen receptor agonist (17β-trenbolone) on aspects of reproductive endocrine function in female fathead minnows. The fish were exposed to multiple concentrations of fadrozole and 17β-trenbolone individually or in combination for 48 or 96 h. Effects on 2 shared nodes in the AOP network, plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) concentration and vitellogenin (VTG) production (measured as hepatic vtg transcripts) responded as anticipated to fadrozole alone but were minimally impacted by 17β-trenbolone alone. Overall, there were indications that 17β-trenbolone enhanced decreases in E2 and vtg in fadrozole-exposed fish, as anticipated, but the results often were not statistically significant. Failure to consistently observe hypothesized interactions between fadrozole and 17β-trenbolone could be due to several factors, including lack of impact of 17β-trenbolone, inherent biological variability in the endpoints assessed, and/or an incomplete understanding of interactions (including feedback) between different pathways within the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis. Environ Toxicol Chem 2020;39:913-922. © 2020 SETAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.4668DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7357796PMC
April 2020

De Facto Water Reuse: Bioassay suite approach delivers depth and breadth in endocrine active compound detection.

Sci Total Environ 2020 Jan 4;699:134297. Epub 2019 Sep 4.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Laboratory, Research Triangle Park, NC, United States of America. Electronic address:

Although endocrine disrupting compounds have been detected in wastewater and surface waters worldwide using a variety of in vitro effects-based screening tools, e.g. bioassays, few have examined potential attenuation of environmental contaminants by both natural (sorption, degradation, etc.) and anthropogenic (water treatment practices) processes. This study used several bioassays and quantitative chemical analyses to assess residence-time weighted samples at six sites along a river in the northeastern United States beginning upstream from a wastewater treatment plant outfall and proceeding downstream along the stream reach to a drinking water treatment plant. Known steroidal estrogens were quantified and changes in signaling pathway molecular initiating events (activation of estrogen, androgen, glucocorticoid, peroxisome proliferator-activated, pregnane X receptor, and aryl hydrocarbon receptor signaling networks) were identified in water extracts. In initial multi-endpoint assays geographic and receptor-specific endocrine activity patterns in transcription factor signatures and nuclear receptor activation were discovered. In subsequent single endpoint receptor-specific bioassays, estrogen (16 of 18 samples; 0.01 to 28 ng estradiol equivalents [E2Eqs]/L) glucocorticoid (3 of 18 samples; 1.8 to 21 ng dexamethasone equivalents [DexEqs]/L), and androgen (2 of 18 samples; 0.95 to 2.1 ng dihydrotestosterone equivalents [DHTEqs]/L) receptor transcriptional activation occurred above respective assay method detection limits (0.04 ng E2Eqs/L, 1.2 ng DexEqs/L, and 0.77 ng DHTEqs/L) in multiple sampling events. Estrogen activity, the most often detected, correlated well with measured concentrations of known steroidal estrogens (r = 0.890). Overall, activity indicative of multiple types of endocrine active compounds was highest in wastewater effluent samples, while activity downstream was progressively lower, and negligible in unfinished treated drinking water. Not only was estrogenic and glucocorticoid activity confirmed in the effluent by utilizing multiple methods concurrently, but other activated signaling networks that historically received less attention (i.e. peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor) were also detected.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.134297DOI Listing
January 2020

Prioritizing chemicals of ecological concern in Great Lakes tributaries using high-throughput screening data and adverse outcome pathways.

Sci Total Environ 2019 Oct 5;686:995-1009. Epub 2019 Jun 5.

U.S. Geological Survey, Boise, ID 83702, United States.

Chemical monitoring data were collected in surface waters from 57 Great Lakes tributaries from 2010 to 13 to identify chemicals of potential biological relevance and sites at which these chemicals occur. Traditional water-quality benchmarks for aquatic life based on in vivo toxicity data were available for 34 of 67 evaluated chemicals. To expand evaluation of potential biological effects, measured chemical concentrations were compared to chemical-specific biological activities determined in high-throughput (ToxCast) in vitro assays. Resulting exposure-activity ratios (EARs) were used to prioritize the chemicals of greatest potential concern: 4‑nonylphenol, bisphenol A, metolachlor, atrazine, DEET, caffeine, tris(2‑butoxyethyl) phosphate, tributyl phosphate, triphenyl phosphate, benzo(a)pyrene, fluoranthene, and benzophenone. Water-quality benchmarks were unavailable for five of these chemicals, but for the remaining seven, EAR-based prioritization was consistent with that based on toxicity quotients calculated from benchmarks. Water-quality benchmarks identified three additional PAHs (anthracene, phenanthrene, and pyrene) not prioritized using EARs. Through this analysis, an EAR of 10 was identified as a reasonable threshold above which a chemical might be of potential concern. To better understand apical hazards potentially associated with biological activities captured in ToxCast assays, in vitro bioactivity data were matched with available adverse outcome pathway (AOP) information. The 49 ToxCast assays prioritized via EAR analysis aligned with 23 potentially-relevant AOPs present in the AOP-Wiki. Mixture effects at monitored sites were estimated by summation of EAR values for multiple chemicals by individual assay or individual AOP. Commonly predicted adverse outcomes included impacts on reproduction and mitochondrial function. The EAR approach provided a screening-level assessment for evidence-based prioritization of chemicals and sites with potential for adverse biological effects. The approach aids prioritization of future monitoring activities and provides testable hypotheses to help focus those efforts. This also expands the fraction of detected chemicals for which biologically-based benchmark concentrations are available to help contextualize chemical monitoring results.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2019.05.457DOI Listing
October 2019

Quantitative Response-Response Relationships Linking Aromatase Inhibition to Decreased Fecundity are Conserved Across Three Fishes with Asynchronous Oocyte Development.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 Sep 14;53(17):10470-10478. Epub 2019 Aug 14.

Mid-Continent Ecology Division , U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , Duluth , Minnesota 55804 United States.

Quantitative adverse outcome pathways (qAOPs) describe quantitative response-response relationships that can predict the probability or severity of an adverse outcome for a given magnitude of chemical interaction with a molecular initiating event. However, the taxonomic domain of applicability for these predictions is largely untested. The present study began defining this applicability for a previously described qAOP for aromatase inhibition leading to decreased fecundity developed using data from fathead minnow (). This qAOP includes quantitative response-response relationships describing plasma 17β-estradiol (E2) as a function of plasma fadrozole, plasma vitellogenin (VTG) as a function of plasma E2, and fecundity as a function of plasma VTG. These quantitative response-response relationships simulated plasma E2, plasma VTG, and fecundity measured in female zebrafish () exposed to fadrozole for 21 days but not these responses measured in female Japanese medaka (). However, Japanese medaka had different basal levels of plasma E2, plasma VTG, and fecundity. Normalizing basal levels of each measurement to equal those of female fathead minnow enabled the relationships to accurately simulate plasma E2, plasma VTG, and fecundity measured in female Japanese medaka. This suggests that these quantitative response-response relationships are conserved across these three fishes when considering relative change rather than absolute measurements. The present study represents an early step toward defining the appropriate taxonomic domain of applicability and extending the regulatory applications of this qAOP.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.9b02606DOI Listing
September 2019

Potential Toxicity of Complex Mixtures in Surface Waters from a Nationwide Survey of United States Streams: Identifying in Vitro Bioactivities and Causative Chemicals.

Environ Sci Technol 2019 01 21;53(2):973-983. Epub 2018 Dec 21.

U.S. EPA, Mid-Continent Ecology Division , 6201 Congdon Boulevard , Duluth , Minnesota 55804 , United States.

While chemical analysis of contaminant mixtures remains an essential component of environmental monitoring, bioactivity-based assessments using in vitro systems increasingly are used in the detection of biological effects. Historically, in vitro assessments focused on a few biological pathways, for example, aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) or estrogen receptor (ER) activities. High-throughput screening (HTS) technologies have greatly increased the number of biological targets and processes that can be rapidly assessed. Here we screened extracts of surface waters from a nationwide survey of United States streams for bioactivities associated with 69 different end points using two multiplexed HTS assays. Bioactivity of extracts from 38 streams was evaluated and compared with concentrations of over 700 analytes to identify chemicals contributing to observed effects. Eleven primary biological end points were detected. Pregnane X receptor (PXR) and AhR-mediated activities were the most commonly detected. Measured chemicals did not completely account for AhR and PXR responses. Surface waters with AhR and PXR effects were associated with low intensity, developed land cover. Likewise, elevated bioactivities frequently associated with wastewater discharges included endocrine-related end points ER and glucocorticoid receptor. These results underscore the value of bioassay-based monitoring of environmental mixtures for detecting biological effects that could not be ascertained solely through chemical analyses.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b05304DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6467772PMC
January 2019

Contaminants in bald eagles of the upper Midwestern U.S.: A framework for prioritizing future research based on in-vitro bioassays.

Environ Pollut 2019 Jan 24;244:861-870. Epub 2018 Oct 24.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN, 55804, United States. Electronic address:

Several organic contaminants (OCs) have been detected in bald eagle (Haliaeetus leucocephalus) nestling (eaglet) plasma in the upper Midwestern United States. Despite frequent and relatively high concentrations of OCs in eaglets, little is understood about potential biological effects associated with exposure. We screened an existing database of OC concentrations in eaglet plasma collected from the Midwestern United States against bioactivity information from the ToxCast database. ToxCast bioactivity information consists of concentrations expected to elicit responses across a range of biological space (e.g. cellular, developmental, etc.) obtained from a series of high throughput assays. We calculated exposure-activity ratios (EAR) by calculating the ratio of plasma concentrations to concentrations available in ToxCast. Bioactivity data were not available for all detected OCs. Therefore, our analysis provides estimates of potential bioactivity for 19 of the detected OCs in eaglet plasma. Perfluorooctanesulfonic acid (PFOS) EAR values were consistently the highest among all study areas. Maximum EAR values were ≥1 for PFOS, perfluorononanoic acid, and bisphenol A in 99.7, 0.53 and 0.26% of samples, indicating that some plasma concentrations were greater than what may be expected to elicit biological responses. About 125 gene targets, indicative of specific biological pathways, were identified as potentially being affected. Inhibition of several CYP genes, involved in xenobiotic metabolism, were most consistently identified. Other identified biological responses have potential implications for motor coordination, cardiac functions, behavior, and blood circulation. However, it is unclear what these results mean for bald eagles, given that ToxCast data are generated using mammalian-based endpoints. Despite uncertainties and limitations, this method of screening environmental data can be useful for informing future monitoring or research focused on understanding the occurrence and effects of OCs in bald eagles and other similarly-positioned trophic species.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.10.093DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6662187PMC
January 2019

Evidence for Cross Species Extrapolation of Mammalian-Based High-Throughput Screening Assay Results.

Environ Sci Technol 2018 12 13;52(23):13960-13971. Epub 2018 Nov 13.

Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division , US Environmental Protection Agency , 6201 Congdon Blvd. , Duluth , Minnesota 55804 , United States.

High-throughput screening (HTS) and computational technologies have emerged as important tools for chemical hazard identification. The US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) launched the Toxicity ForeCaster (ToxCast) Program, which has screened thousands of chemicals in hundreds of mammalian-based HTS assays for biological activity. The data are being used to prioritize toxicity testing on those chemicals likely to lead to adverse effects. To use HTS assays in predicting hazard to both humans and wildlife, it is necessary to understand how broadly these data may be extrapolated across species. The US EPA Sequence Alignment to Predict Across Species Susceptibility (SeqAPASS; https://seqapass.epa.gov/seqapass/ ) tool was used to assess conservation of the 484 protein targets represented in the suite of ToxCast assays and other HTS assays. To demonstrate the utility of the SeqAPASS data for guiding extrapolation, case studies were developed which focused on targets of interest to the US Endocrine Disruptor Screening Program and the Organisation for Economic Cooperation and Development. These case studies provide a line of evidence for conservation of endocrine targets across vertebrate species, with few exceptions, and demonstrate the utility of SeqAPASS for defining the taxonomic domain of applicability for HTS results and identifying organisms for suitable follow-up toxicity tests.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.8b04587DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8283686PMC
December 2018

Bioactive contaminants of emerging concern in National Park waters of the northern Colorado Plateau, USA.

Sci Total Environ 2018 Sep 2;636:910-918. Epub 2018 May 2.

U.S. Geological Survey, Columbia, SC, 29210, USA.

Pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs), wastewater indicators (WWIs), and pesticides (herein, Contaminants of Emerging Concern [CECs]) have been documented in surface waters throughout the world and have associated risks to aquatic life. While much research has focused on temperate and urbanized watersheds, less is known about CEC presence in semi-arid landscapes, where water availability is limited and populations are low. CEC presence in water and sediment is reported for 21 sites in eight U.S. national parks in the northern Colorado Plateau region. From 2012 to 2016, at least one PPCP and/or WWI was detected at most sites on over half of sampling visits, indicating that CECs are not uncommon even in isolated areas. CEC detections were generally fewer and at lower concentrations than in urbanized or agricultural watersheds. Consistent with studies from other U.S. regions, the most frequently detected CECs in this study include DEET, caffeine, organophosphorus flame retardants, and bisphenol A in water and fecal indicators and polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in sediment. Maximum concentrations in this study were generally below available water quality benchmarks, sediment quality guidelines, and risk assessment thresholds associated with vertebrates. Additional work is needed to assess the potential activity of hormones, which had high reporting limits in our study, and potential bioactivity of environmental concentrations for invertebrates, microbial communities, and algae. Potential sources of CEC contamination include upstream wastewater effluent discharges and National Park Service invasive-plant-control herbicide applications. CEC occurrence patterns and similarities between continuous and isolated flow locations suggest that direct contamination from individual visitors may also occur. While our data indicate there is little aquatic health risk associated with CECs at our sites, our results demonstrate the ubiquity of CECs on the landscape and a continued need for public outreach concerning resource-use ethics and the potential effects of upstream development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2018.04.332DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6794149PMC
September 2018

Differentiating Pathway-Specific From Nonspecific Effects in High-Throughput Toxicity Data: A Foundation for Prioritizing Adverse Outcome Pathway Development.

Toxicol Sci 2018 06;163(2):500-515

U.S. EPA National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN 55804.

The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's ToxCast program has screened thousands of chemicals for biological activity, primarily using high-throughput in vitro bioassays. Adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) offer a means to link pathway-specific biological activities with potential apical effects relevant to risk assessors. Thus, efforts are underway to develop AOPs relevant to pathway-specific perturbations detected in ToxCast assays. Previous work identified a "cytotoxic burst" (CTB) phenomenon wherein large numbers of the ToxCast assays begin to respond at or near test chemical concentrations that elicit cytotoxicity, and a statistical approach to defining the bounds of the CTB was developed. To focus AOP development on the molecular targets corresponding to ToxCast assays indicating pathway-specific effects, we conducted a meta-analysis to identify which assays most frequently respond at concentrations below the CTB. A preliminary list of potentially important, target-specific assays was determined by ranking assays by the fraction of chemical hits below the CTB compared with the number of chemicals tested. Additional priority assays were identified using a diagnostic-odds-ratio approach which gives greater ranking to assays with high specificity but low responsivity. Combined, the two prioritization methods identified several novel targets (e.g., peripheral benzodiazepine and progesterone receptors) to prioritize for AOP development, and affirmed the importance of a number of existing AOPs aligned with ToxCast targets (e.g., thyroperoxidase, estrogen receptor, aromatase). The prioritization approaches did not appear to be influenced by inter-assay differences in chemical bioavailability. Furthermore, the outcomes were robust based on a variety of different parameters used to define the CTB.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/toxsci/kfy049DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6820004PMC
June 2018

Year-round presence of neonicotinoid insecticides in tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA.

Environ Pollut 2018 Apr 19;235:1022-1029. Epub 2018 Jan 19.

Badger Technical Services, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Blvd, Duluth, MN, USA, 55804. Electronic address:

To better characterize the transport of neonicotinoid insecticides to the world's largest freshwater ecosystem, monthly samples (October 2015-September 2016) were collected from 10 major tributaries to the Great Lakes, USA. For the monthly tributary samples, neonicotinoids were detected in every month sampled and five of the six target neonicotinoids were detected. At least one neonicotinoid was detected in 74% of the monthly samples with up to three neonicotinoids detected in an individual sample (10% of all samples). The most frequently detected neonicotinoid was imidacloprid (53%), followed by clothianidin (44%), thiamethoxam (22%), acetamiprid (2%), and dinotefuran (1%). Thiacloprid was not detected in any samples. The maximum concentration for an individual neonicotinoid was 230 ng L and the maximum total neonicotinoids in an individual sample was 400 ng L. The median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations ranged from non-detect to 10 ng L. The detections of clothianidin and thiamethoxam significantly increased as the percent of cultivated crops in the basins increased (ρ = 0.73, P = .01; ρ = 0.66, P = .04, respectively). In contrast, imidacloprid detections significantly increased as the percent of the urbanization in the basins increased (ρ = 0.66, P = .03). Neonicotinoid concentrations generally increased in spring through summer coinciding with the planting of neonicotinoid-treated seeds and broadcast applications of neonicotinoids. More spatially intensive samples were collected in an agriculturally dominated basin (8 sites along the Maumee River, Ohio) twice during the spring, 2016 planting season to provide further information on neonicotinoid inputs to the Great Lakes. Three neonicotinoids were ubiquitously detected (clothianidin, imidacloprid, thiamethoxam) in all water samples collected within this basin. Maximum individual neonicotinoid concentrations was 330 ng L and maximum total neonicotinoid concentration was 670 ng L; median detected individual neonicotinoid concentrations were 7.0 to 39 ng L.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.envpol.2018.01.013DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6022824PMC
April 2018

An "EAR" on Environmental Surveillance and Monitoring: A Case Study on the Use of Exposure-Activity Ratios (EARs) to Prioritize Sites, Chemicals, and Bioactivities of Concern in Great Lakes Waters.

Environ Sci Technol 2017 Aug 18;51(15):8713-8724. Epub 2017 Jul 18.

Mid-Continent Ecology Division, U.S. Environmental Protection Agency , 6201 Congdon Blvd., Duluth, Minnesota 55804, United States.

Current environmental monitoring approaches focus primarily on chemical occurrence. However, based on concentration alone, it can be difficult to identify which compounds may be of toxicological concern and should be prioritized for further monitoring, in-depth testing, or management. This can be problematic because toxicological characterization is lacking for many emerging contaminants. New sources of high-throughput screening (HTS) data, such as the ToxCast database, which contains information for over 9000 compounds screened through up to 1100 bioassays, are now available. Integrated analysis of chemical occurrence data with HTS data offers new opportunities to prioritize chemicals, sites, or biological effects for further investigation based on concentrations detected in the environment linked to relative potencies in pathway-based bioassays. As a case study, chemical occurrence data from a 2012 study in the Great Lakes Basin along with the ToxCast effects database were used to calculate exposure-activity ratios (EARs) as a prioritization tool. Technical considerations of data processing and use of the ToxCast database are presented and discussed. EAR prioritization identified multiple sites, biological pathways, and chemicals that warrant further investigation. Prioritized bioactivities from the EAR analysis were linked to discrete adverse outcome pathways to identify potential adverse outcomes and biomarkers for use in subsequent monitoring efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.7b01613DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6132252PMC
August 2017

Impaired swim bladder inflation in early life stage fathead minnows exposed to a deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2017 Nov 28;36(11):2942-2952. Epub 2017 Jun 28.

Mid-Continent Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.

Inflation of the posterior and/or anterior swim bladder is a process previously demonstrated to be regulated by thyroid hormones. We investigated whether inhibition of deiodinases, which convert thyroxine (T4) to the more biologically active form, 3,5,3'-triiodothyronine (T3), would impact swim bladder inflation. Two experiments were conducted using a model deiodinase inhibitor, iopanoic acid (IOP). First, fathead minnow embryos were exposed to 0.6, 1.9, or 6.0 mg/L or control water until 6 d postfertilization (dpf), at which time posterior swim bladder inflation was assessed. To examine anterior swim bladder inflation, a second study was conducted with 6-dpf larvae exposed to the same IOP concentrations until 21 dpf. Fish from both studies were sampled for T4/T3 measurements and gene transcription analyses. Incidence and length of inflated posterior swim bladders were significantly reduced in the 6.0 mg/L treatment at 6 dpf. Incidence of inflation and length of anterior swim bladder were significantly reduced in all IOP treatments at 14 dpf, but inflation recovered by 18 dpf. Throughout the larval study, whole-body T4 concentrations increased and T3 concentrations decreased in all IOP treatments. Consistent with hypothesized compensatory responses, deiodinase-2 messenger ribonucleic acid (mRNA) was up-regulated in the larval study, and thyroperoxidase mRNA was down-regulated in all IOP treatments in both studies. These results support the hypothesized adverse outcome pathways linking inhibition of deiodinase activity to impaired swim bladder inflation. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2942-2952. Published 2017 Wiley Periodicals Inc. on behalf of SETAC. This article is a US government work and, as such, is in the public domain in the United States of America.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3855DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5733732PMC
November 2017

Temporal monitoring of perfluorooctane sulfonate accumulation in aquatic biota downstream of historical aqueous film forming foam use areas.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2017 08 2;36(8):2022-2029. Epub 2017 Feb 2.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Perfluoroalkyl substances (PFAS) have recently received increased research attention, particularly concerning aquatic organisms and in regions of exposure to aqueous film forming foams (AFFFs). Air Force bases historically applied AFFFs in the interest of fire training exercises and have since expressed concern for PFAS contamination in biota from water bodies surrounding former fire training areas. Six PFAS were monitored, including perfluorooctane sulfonate (PFOS), in aquatic species from 8 bayou locations at Barksdale Air Force Base in Bossier City, Louisiana (USA) over the course of 1 yr. The focus was to evaluate temporal and spatial variability in PFAS concentrations from historic use of AFFF. The PFOS concentrations in fish peaked in early summer, and also increased significantly downstream of former fire training areas. Benthic organisms had lower PFOS concentrations than pelagic species, contrary to previous literature observations. Bioconcentration factors varied with time but were reduced compared with previously reported literature values. The highest concentration of PFOS in whole fish was 9349 ng/g dry weight, with 15% of samples exceeding what is believed to be the maximum whole fish concentration reported to date of 1500 ng/g wet weight. Further studies are ongoing, to measure PFAS in larger fish and tissue-specific partitioning data to compare with the current whole fish values. The high concentrations presently observed could have effects on higher trophic level organisms in this system or pose a potential risk to humans consuming contaminated fish. Environ Toxicol Chem 2017;36:2022-2029. © 2016 SETAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3726DOI Listing
August 2017

An integrated approach for identifying priority contaminant in the Great Lakes Basin - Investigations in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River and Milwaukee Estuary areas of concern.

Sci Total Environ 2017 Feb 18;579:825-837. Epub 2016 Nov 18.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201 Congdon Boulevard, Duluth, MN, USA, 55804.

Environmental assessment of complex mixtures typically requires integration of chemical and biological measurements. This study demonstrates the use of a combination of instrumental chemical analyses, effects-based monitoring, and bio-effects prediction approaches to help identify potential hazards and priority contaminants in two Great Lakes Areas of Concern (AOCs), the Lower Green Bay/Fox River located near Green Bay, WI, USA and the Milwaukee Estuary, located near Milwaukee, WI, USA. Fathead minnows were caged at four sites within each AOC (eight sites total). Following 4d of in situ exposure, tissues and biofluids were sampled and used for targeted biological effects analyses. Additionally, 4d composite water samples were collected concurrently at each caged fish site and analyzed for 132 analytes as well as evaluated for total estrogenic and androgenic activity using cell-based bioassays. Of the analytes examined, 75 were detected in composite samples from at least one site. Based on multiple analyses, one site in the East River and another site near a paper mill discharge in the Lower Green Bay/Fox River AOC, were prioritized due to their estrogenic and androgenic activity, respectively. The water samples from other sites generally did not exhibit significant estrogenic or androgenic activity, nor was there evidence for endocrine disruption in the fish exposed at these sites as indicated by the lack of alterations in ex vivo steroid production, circulating steroid concentrations, or vitellogenin mRNA expression in males. Induction of hepatic cyp1a mRNA expression was detected at several sites, suggesting the presence of chemicals that activate the aryl hydrocarbon receptor. To expand the scope beyond targeted investigation of endpoints selected a priori, several bio-effects prediction approaches were employed to identify other potentially disturbed biological pathways and related chemical constituents that may warrant future monitoring at these sites. For example, several chemicals such as diethylphthalate and naphthalene, and genes and related pathways, such as cholinergic receptor muscarinic 3 (CHRM3), estrogen receptor alpha1 (esr1), chemokine ligand 10 protein (CXCL10), tumor protein p53 (p53), and monoamine oxidase B (Maob), were identified as candidates for future assessments at these AOCs. Overall, this study demonstrates that a better prioritization of contaminants and associated hazards can be achieved through integrated evaluation of multiple lines of evidence. Such prioritization can guide more comprehensive follow-up risk assessment efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.scitotenv.2016.11.021DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6086123PMC
February 2017

Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part I: Fathead minnow.

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Apr 7;173:192-203. Epub 2016 Jan 7.

U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, 6201Congdon Blvd., Duluth, MN 55804, USA.

In the present study, a hypothesized adverse outcome pathway linking inhibition of thyroid peroxidase (TPO) activity to impaired swim bladder inflation was investigated in two experiments in which fathead minnows (Pimephales promelas) were exposed to 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT). Continuous exposure to 1mg MBT/L for up to 22 days had no effect on inflation of the posterior chamber of the swim bladder, which typically inflates around 6 days post fertilization (dpf), a period during which maternally-derived thyroid hormone is presumed to be present. In contrast, inflation of the anterior swim bladder, which occurs around 14dpf, was impacted. Specifically, at 14dpf, approximately 50% of fish exposed to 1mg MBT/L did not have an inflated anterior swim bladder. In fish exposed to MBT through 21 or 22dpf, the anterior swim bladder was able to inflate, but the ratio of the anterior/posterior chamber length was significantly reduced compared to controls. Both abundance of thyroid peroxidase mRNA and thyroid follicle histology suggest that fathead minnows mounted a compensatory response to the presumed inhibition of TPO activity by MBT. Time-course characterization showed that fish exposed to MBT for at least 4 days prior to normal anterior swim bladder inflation had significant reductions in anterior swim bladder size, relative to the posterior chamber, compared to controls. These results, along with similar results observed in zebrafish (see part II, this issue) are consistent with the hypothesis that thyroid hormone signaling plays a significant role in mediating anterior swim bladder inflation and development in cyprinids, and that role can be disrupted by exposure to thyroid hormone synthesis inhibitors. Nonetheless, possible thyroid-independent actions of MBT on anterior swim bladder inflation cannot be ruled out based on the present results. Overall, although anterior swim bladder inflation has not been directly linked to survival as posterior swim bladder inflation has, potential links to adverse ecological outcomes are plausible given involvement of the anterior chamber in sound production and detection.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.12.024DOI Listing
April 2016

Impaired anterior swim bladder inflation following exposure to the thyroid peroxidase inhibitor 2-mercaptobenzothiazole part II: Zebrafish.

Aquat Toxicol 2016 Apr 18;173:204-217. Epub 2016 Jan 18.

Zebrafishlab, Veterinary Physiology and Biochemistry, Department of Veterinary Sciences, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, 2610 Wilrijk, Belgium. Electronic address:

Disruption of the thyroid hormone (TH) system, an important mode of action, can lead to ecologically relevant adverse outcomes, especially during embryonic development. The present study characterizes the effects of disruption of TH synthesis on swim bladder inflation during zebrafish early-life stages using 2-mercaptobenzothiazole (MBT), a thyroid peroxidase (TPO) inhibitor. Zebrafish were exposed to different MBT concentrations until 120/168h post fertilization (hpf) and 32days post fertilization (dpf), in two sets of experiments, to investigate the effects of TPO inhibition on posterior and anterior swim bladder inflation respectively, as well as whole body thyroid hormone concentrations (triiodothyronine (T3) and its prohormone, thyroxine (T4)). At 120hpf, MBT did not directly impair posterior chamber inflation or size, while anterior chamber inflation and size was impaired at 32dpf. As previously shown in amphibians and mammals, we confirmed that MBT inhibits TPO in fish. Whole-body T4 decreased after MBT exposure at both time points, while T3 levels were unaltered. There was a significant relationship between T4 levels and the anterior chamber surface at 32dpf. The absence of effects on posterior chamber inflation can possibly be explained by maternal transfer of T4 into the eggs. These maternally derived THs are depleted at 32dpf and cannot offset TPO inhibition, resulting in impaired anterior chamber inflation. Therefore, we hypothesize that TPO inhibition only inhibits swim bladder inflation during late development, after depletion of maternally derived T4. In a previous study, we showed that iodothyronine deiodinase (ID) knockdown impaired posterior chamber inflation during early development. Our findings, in parallel with similar effects observed in fathead minnow (see part I, this issue) suggest that thyroid disruption impacts swim bladder inflation, and imply an important distinction among specific subtypes of TH disrupting chemicals. However, the existence of another - yet unknown - mode of action of MBT impacting swim bladder inflation cannot be excluded. These results can be helpful for delineating adverse outcome pathways (AOPs) linking TPO inhibition, ID inhibition and other TH related molecular initiating events, to impaired swim bladder inflation in fish during early life stages. Such AOPs can support the use of in vitro enzyme inhibition assays for predicting reduced survival due to impaired posterior and anterior chamber inflation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.aquatox.2015.12.023DOI Listing
April 2016

Pathway-based approaches for assessment of real-time exposure to an estrogenic wastewater treatment plant effluent on fathead minnow reproduction.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2016 Mar 9;35(3):702-16. Epub 2016 Feb 9.

Office of Research and Development, National Health and Environmental Effects Research Laboratory, Mid-Continent Ecology Division, US Environmental Protection Agency, Duluth, Minnesota, USA.

Wastewater treatment plant (WWTP) effluents are known contributors of chemical mixtures into the environment. Of particular concern are endocrine-disrupting compounds, such as estrogens, which can affect the hypothalamic-pituitary-gonadal axis function in exposed organisms. The present study examined reproductive effects in fathead minnows exposed for 21 d to a historically estrogenic WWTP effluent. Fathead minnow breeding pairs were held in control water or 1 of 3 effluent concentrations (5%, 20%, and 100%) in a novel onsite, flow-through system providing real-time exposure. The authors examined molecular and biochemical endpoints representing key events along adverse outcome pathways linking estrogen receptor activation and other molecular initiating events to reproductive impairment. In addition, the authors used chemical analysis of the effluent to construct a chemical-gene interaction network to aid in targeted gene expression analyses and identifying potentially impacted biological pathways. Cumulative fecundity was significantly reduced in fish exposed to 100% effluent but increased in those exposed to 20% effluent, the approximate dilution factor in the receiving waters. Plasma vitellogenin concentrations in males increased in a dose-dependent manner with effluent concentration; however, male fertility was not impacted. Although in vitro analyses, analytical chemistry, and biomarker responses confirmed the effluent was estrogenic, estrogen receptor agonists were unlikely the primary driver of impaired reproduction. The results provide insights into the significance of pathway-based effects with regard to predicting adverse reproductive outcomes.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.3228DOI Listing
March 2016

Occurrence and Characterization of Steroid Growth Promoters Associated with Particulate Matter Originating from Beef Cattle Feedyards.

Environ Sci Technol 2015 Jul 2;49(14):8796-803. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

†Texas Tech University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Lubbock, Texas 79409, United States.

Studies of steroid growth promoters from beef cattle feedyards have previously focused on effluent or surface runoff as the primary route of transport from animal feeding operations. There is potential for steroid transport via fugitive airborne particulate matter (PM) from cattle feedyards; therefore, the objective of this study was to characterize the occurrence and concentration of steroid growth promoters in PM from feedyards. Air sampling was conducted at commercial feedyards (n = 5) across the Southern Great Plains from 2010 to 2012. Total suspended particulates (TSP), PM10, and PM2.5 were collected for particle size analysis and steroid growth promoter analysis. Particle size distributions were generated from TSP samples only, while steroid analysis was conducted on extracts of PM samples using liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Of seven targeted steroids, 17α-estradiol and estrone were the most commonly detected, identified in over 94% of samples at median concentrations of 20.6 and 10.8 ng/g, respectively. Melengestrol acetate and 17α-trenbolone were detected in 31% and 39% of all PM samples at median concentrations of 1.3 and 1.9 ng/g, respectively. Results demonstrate PM is a viable route of steroid transportation and may be a significant contributor to environmental steroid hormone loading from cattle feedyards.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.est.5b01881DOI Listing
July 2015

Antibiotics, bacteria, and antibiotic resistance genes: aerial transport from cattle feed yards via particulate matter.

Environ Health Perspect 2015 Apr 22;123(4):337-43. Epub 2015 Jan 22.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Background: Emergence and spread of antibiotic resistance has become a global health threat and is often linked with overuse and misuse of clinical and veterinary chemotherapeutic agents. Modern industrial-scale animal feeding operations rely extensively on veterinary pharmaceuticals, including antibiotics, to augment animal growth. Following excretion, antibiotics are transported through the environment via runoff, leaching, and land application of manure; however, airborne transport from feed yards has not been characterized.

Objectives: The goal of this study was to determine the extent to which antibiotics, antibiotic resistance genes (ARG), and ruminant-associated microbes are aerially dispersed via particulate matter (PM) derived from large-scale beef cattle feed yards.

Methods: PM was collected downwind and upwind of 10 beef cattle feed yards. After extraction from PM, five veterinary antibiotics were quantified via high-performance liquid chromatography with tandem mass spectrometry, ARG were quantified via targeted quantitative polymerase chain reaction, and microbial community diversity was analyzed via 16S rRNA amplification and sequencing.

Results: Airborne PM derived from feed yards facilitated dispersal of several veterinary antibiotics, as well as microbial communities containing ARG. Concentrations of several antibiotics in airborne PM immediately downwind of feed yards ranged from 0.5 to 4.6 μg/g of PM. Microbial communities of PM collected downwind of feed yards were enriched with ruminant-associated taxa and were distinct when compared to upwind PM assemblages. Furthermore, genes encoding resistance to tetracycline antibiotics were significantly more abundant in PM collected downwind of feed yards as compared to upwind.

Conclusions: Wind-dispersed PM from feed yards harbors antibiotics, bacteria, and ARGs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1289/ehp.1408555DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4383574PMC
April 2015

Transformation kinetics of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens in urine and feces of implanted steers.

Chemosphere 2015 Nov 27;138:901-7. Epub 2014 Dec 27.

Texas Tech University, Department of Environmental Toxicology, 1207 Gilbert Dr, Lubbock, TX, USA. Electronic address:

Biotransformation of trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens derived from animal feeding operations in soils, waste storage systems, and in land applied manure has been well characterized. Yet recent data demonstrate potential for steroid transport into the environment directly from feedyard pens via runoff or airborne particulate matter. Therefore, the objective of this study was to determine steroid transformation rates in beef cattle excreta. Feces and urine were collected from steers recently treated with steroidal implants. Excreta were stored and periodically extracted over 112 d then analyzed for trenbolone acetate metabolites and estrogens by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry. Conjugated steroids were present primarily in urine, and conjugates quickly degraded to free steroid with a half-life of 0.6-1.0 d. The primary trenbolone acetate metabolite, 17α-trenbolone, had a half-life of 5.1-9.5 d. Likewise, 17α-estradiol was the predominant estrogen, with a half-life of 8.6-53 d. Secondary trenbolone metabolites formed from 17α-trenbolone biotransformation were observed at low concentrations less than 10% initial 17α-trenbolone concentrations. Estrone was the primary metabolite of 17α-estradiol and concentrations of estrone exceeded initial 17α-estradiol concentration in all sample types. These results suggest manure-borne steroids are more stable in excreta than in soil microcosms.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.chemosphere.2014.10.091DOI Listing
November 2015

Characterization of trenbolone acetate and estradiol metabolite excretion profiles in implanted steers.

Environ Toxicol Chem 2014 Dec 20;33(12):2850-8. Epub 2014 Oct 20.

Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Exogenous growth promoters have been used in US beef cattle production for over 50 yr. The environmental fate and transport of steroid growth promoters suggest potential for endocrine-disrupting effects among ecological receptors; however, the initial excretion of steroid metabolites from cattle administered growth promoters has not been well characterized. To better characterize excretion of trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites, steers were assigned to 1 of the following treatment groups: control, given no implant, or treatment, administered a combination implant (200 mg trenbolone acetate, 40 mg estradiol). Blood, urine, and fecal samples were collected over the course of 112 d following implantation. Samples were extracted and analyzed by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry for trenbolone acetate and estrogen metabolites. In both urine and feces, 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol were the predominant metabolites following implantation. Mean concentrations of 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol in feces of implanted steers were 5.9 ± 0.37 ng/g and 2.7 ± 0.22 ng/g, respectively. A best-fit model is presented to predict 17α-trenbolone and 17α-estradiol excretion from steers receiving implants. The present study provides the first characterization of both trenbolone and estrogen metabolites in excreta from implanted cattle and will help provide estimates of steroid production from feedyards in the United States.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/etc.2757DOI Listing
December 2014

Effects of 17α-trenbolone and melengestrol acetate on Xenopus laevis growth, development, and survival.

Environ Sci Pollut Res Int 2013 Feb 14;20(2):1151-60. Epub 2012 Aug 14.

The Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, TX, USA.

The synthetic growth-promoting hormones trenbolone and melengestrol acetate have been detected in the environment near beef cattle feedlots and are reportedly transported via wind-borne particulate matter. Therefore, movement of synthetic hormones from beef cattle feedlots to water bodies via particulate matter is possible. Our objective was to evaluate potential effects of 17α-trenbolone (17α-TB), melengestrol acetate (MGA), and combinations of both on growth, development, and survival of Xenopus laevis larvae. On post-hatch day 2 (stage 33/34), X. laevis larvae were exposed to three nominal concentrations of 17α-TB (10, 100, and 500 ng/L), MGA (1, 10, and 100 ng/L), a combination of both (1/10, 10/100, and 100/500 ng/L MGA/17α-TB), frog embryo teratogenesis assay-Xenopus medium, or a solvent control. Significant increases in all X. laevis growth metrics were observed among larvae in the 1 ng/L MGA + 10 ng/L 17α-TB and 10 ng/L MGA + 100 ng/L 17α-TB treatments. Stage of development was increased among larvae in the 1 ng/L MGA + 10 ng/L 17α-TB treatment group and significantly decreased among those in the 500 ng/L 17α-TB treatment. Total body mass and snout-vent length of X. laevis larvae were significantly reduced in the 100 ng/L MGA and 100 ng/L MGA + 500 ng/L 17α-TB treatment groups. Larvae exposed to 500 ng/L 17α-TB had decreased total body mass, snout-vent length, and total length. In general, growth measurements decreased with increasing concentration of MGA, 17α-TB, or a combination of both. Survival among all treatments was not significantly different from controls. Amphibians exposed to MGA and 17α-TB in the environment may experience alterations in growth and development.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11356-012-1118-3DOI Listing
February 2013

Effects of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus).

J Toxicol Environ Health A 2010 ;73(8):540-51

Institute of Environmental and Human Health, Department of Environmental Toxicology, Texas Tech University, Lubbock, Texas, USA.

Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAH) are ubiquitous contaminants of aquatic and terrestrial ecosystems, and are known to induce biochemical alterations in exposed organisms. Aside from a variety of adverse physiological effects associated with exposure to petroleum products, oils, and oil sludges, little is known about the effects of individual PAH on birds. Acute toxicity of naphthalene, pyrene, and benz[a]anthracene (BAA) was examined in adult northern bobwhite quail (Colinus virginianus). Additionally, subacute (8 d) and subchronic (60 d) studies were conducted to assess alterations in metabolic enzyme activity. Neither naphthalene, nor pyrene, nor BAA exposure via oral gavage produced acute toxicity up to the limit dose of 2 g/kg body weight. In the subacute study, quail provided feed containing the highest concentration of BAA for 5 d had significantly increased renal ethoxyresorufin O-deeththylase (EROD) activity compared to controls. Following a 3-d recovery period, significant increases between 10 and 100 mg/kg of BAA in feed existed for both hepatic EROD and pentoxyresorufin O-deethylase (PROD) activity compared to controls. Subchronic exposure to BAA (ranging from 0.1 to 10 mg/kg) also resulted in a significant rise of EROD and PROD in both kidney and liver tissue compared to controls. Though the individual PAH used in this study were not acutely toxic, these results confirm that these individual PAH induce alterations in metabolic enzyme activity in northern bobwhite quail.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15287390903566559DOI Listing
April 2010
-->