Publications by authors named "Brett Laursen"

68 Publications

Being nice and being mean: Friend characteristics foreshadow changes in perceptions of relationship negativity.

J Res Adolesc 2021 Feb 3. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

This study examines the proposition that friend characteristics forecast changes in perceptions of relationship negativity. The participants (ages 9 to 11) were 240 pre- and young adolescents (114 boys, 126 girls) involved in 120 same-sex best friendships that were stable across a period of 4 to 12 weeks. Each friend described perceptions of negativity in their relationship. Prosocial behavior and relational aggression were assessed via peer nominations. Dyadic analyses indicated that one friend's prosocial behavior and relational aggression uniquely forecast changes in the other friend's perception of negativity in the relationship. Greater initial levels of prosocial behavior anticipated decreases in perceived negativity, whereas greater initial levels of relational aggression forecast increases in perceived negativity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12604DOI Listing
February 2021

Being fun: An overlooked indicator of childhood social status.

J Pers 2020 10 19;88(5):993-1006. Epub 2020 Mar 19.

Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, Boca Raton, FL, USA.

Objective: The present study concerns an overlooked trait indicator of childhood peer status: Being fun. The study is designed to identify the degree to which being fun is uniquely associated with the peer status variables of likeability and popularity.

Method: Two studies of children in grades 4 to 6 (ages 9 to 12) are reported. The first involved 306 girls and 305 boys attending school in northern Colombia. The second involved 363 girls and 299 boys attending school in southern Florida. Students completed similar peer nomination inventories, once in the first study and twice (8 weeks apart) in the second.

Results: In both studies, being fun was positively correlated with likeability and popularity. In the second study, being fun predicted subsequent changes in likeability and popularity, after controlling for factors known to be related to each. Initial likeability and popularity also predicted subsequent changes in perceptions of being fun.

Conclusions: Anecdotal evidence suggests that children are intensely focused on having fun. The findings indicate that this focus extends beyond the immediate rewards that fun experiences provide; some portion of peer status is uniquely derived from the perception that one is fun to be around.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jopy.12546DOI Listing
October 2020

Validation of continuous measures of peer social interaction with self- and teacher-reports of friendship and social engagement.

Eur J Dev Psychol 2020 21;17(5):773-785. Epub 2020 Jan 21.

University of Miami.

The present study validates a new procedure that combines continuous measures of proximity (Ubisense) and vocalization (LENA) into measures of peer social interaction. The data were collected from 4 boys and 5 girls (ages 2-3 at the outset) on 8 separate days (3-4 hours per day) over the course of an academic year. Teacher reports of friendship were positively correlated with continuous measures of dyadic social interaction (i.e., the amount of time two children spent in proximity to one another, talking). Self-reports of reciprocated friendship were marginally correlated with continuous measures of dyadic social interaction, but only in the spring semester (when children were older and their reports of friendship more reliable). At the individual level, peer nominations of likeability, and teacher ratings of sociability and withdrawal were correlated with continuous measures of social interaction (i.e., the amount of time a child spent in proximity to other children, talking).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/17405629.2020.1716724DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7954200PMC
January 2020

Self-Esteem Mediates Longitudinal Associations from Adolescent Perceptions of Parenting to Adjustment.

J Abnorm Child Psychol 2020 03;48(3):331-341

Mykolas Romeris University, Didlaukio g. 55, 08303, Vilnius, Lithuania.

The present study examines direct and indirect associations between perceptions of parenting and adolescent adjustment. We focus on self-esteem as an intervening variable. Participants included 446 girls and 471 boys ages 14 to 17 (M = 15.64) at the outset. A community sample of high school students was tracked for 3 consecutive years, completing annual surveys describing perceptions of parenting (i.e., psychological control and support), self-esteem, and adjustment (i.e., internalizing symptoms and externalizing symptoms). Longitudinal bidirectional associations emerged between adolescent perceptions of parenting (psychological control and support) and adolescent adjustment (externalizing and internalizing symptoms). Full longitudinal mediation analyses confirmed the hypothesized indirect links from perceived parenting to adolescent internalizing symptoms through adolescent self-esteem. High psychological control and low connectedness were associated with subsequent decreases in self-esteem, which, in turn, were associated with later increases in internalizing symptoms. Psychological control and connectedness also directly (but not indirectly) predicted changes in adolescent externalizing symptoms. Perceived psychological control and a lack of relatedness undercut self-confidence and undermine feelings of positive self-regard, which can eventually widen into more serious manifestations of psychological distress.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10802-019-00599-2DOI Listing
March 2020

Math interest and self-concept among latino/a students: Reciprocal influences across the transition to middle school.

J Adolesc 2019 08 11;75:22-36. Epub 2019 Jul 11.

Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University, 3200 College Avenue, Davie, FL, 33431, USA. Electronic address:

Introduction: Psychological factors like math interest and self-concept typically decline between late childhood and early adolescence; both are key to math achievement. The present study examined the reciprocal interplay between math interest and self-concept across the transition into middle school, and whether associations are moderated by success attributions.

Methods: A total of 263 (120 boys, 143 girls) Latino students (M = 10.5 years at outset) from an agricultural community in California (USA) completed surveys at three time points, from the end of primary school to the first year of middle school. Surveys measured math self-concept and math interest, as well as attributions to success in math. Cross-lagged panel models examined possible bidirectional associations between math self-concept and math interest, and whether attributions of success moderated these association.

Results: Lower initial levels of math self-concept anticipated greater declines in math interest, an association that was buffered by attributions of math success. The smallest declines in math interest occurred among adolescents who had both the highest math self-concept and were most inclined to attribute success in math to internal factors like studying. These associations remained when potential confounding variables (e.g., school grades, conduct problems) were included.

Conclusion: The results replicate, in an understudied sample of Latino/a youth, the oft-reported link from low math self-concept to declining interest in math. Unique to this study is evidence of the protection afforded by belief in the efficacy of studying. The findings offer important guidance for teachers and parents seeking to mobilize resources for underperforming students.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2019.06.015DOI Listing
August 2019

A Test of the Bistrategic Control Hypothesis of Adolescent Popularity.

Child Dev 2020 05 25;91(3):e635-e648. Epub 2019 Jun 25.

University of Montreal.

Resource Control Theory (Hawley, 1999) posits a group of bistrategic popular youth who attain status through coercive strategies while mitigating fallout via prosociality. This study identifies and distinguishes this bistrategic popular group from other popularity types, tracing the adjustment correlates of each. Adolescent participants (288 girls, 280 boys; M  = 12.50 years) completed peer nominations in the Fall and Spring of the seventh and eighth grades. Longitudinal latent profile analyses classified adolescents into groups based on physical and relational aggression, prosocial behavior, and popularity. Distinct bistrategic, aggressive, and prosocial popularity types emerged. Bistrategic popular adolescents had the highest popularity and above average aggression and prosocial behavior; they were viewed by peers as disruptive and angry but were otherwise well-adjusted.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/cdev.13269DOI Listing
May 2020

Derisive Parenting Fosters Dysregulated Anger in Adolescent Children and Subsequent Difficulties with Peers.

J Youth Adolesc 2019 Aug 24;48(8):1567-1579. Epub 2019 May 24.

Department of Psychology, Uppsala University, Box 1225, 751 42, Uppsala, Sweden.

Bullying and victimization are manifest in the peer social world, but have origins in the home. Uncertainty surrounds the mechanisms that convey problems between these settings. The present study describes the indirect transmission of hostility and coercion from parents to adolescent children through emotional dysregulation. In this model, derisive parenting-behaviors that demean or belittle children-fosters dysregulated anger, which precipitates peer difficulties. A total of 1409 participants (48% female; M = 13.4 years at the outset) were followed across secondary school (Grades 7-9) for three consecutive years. The results indicated that derisive parenting in Grade 7 was associated with increases in adolescent dysregulated anger from Grade 7 to 8, which, in turn, was associated with increases in bullying and victimization from Grade 8 to 9. The findings suggest that parents who are derisive, have children who struggle with emotional regulation and, ultimately, with constructive peer relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-019-01040-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6693486PMC
August 2019

Differences in Internalizing Symptoms Anticipate Adolescent Friendship Dissolution.

J Res Adolesc 2019 12 9;29(4):924-937. Epub 2018 Jul 9.

Radboud University.

This study examined the degree to which internalizing symptoms predict adolescent friendship instability. A total of 397 adolescents identified 499 same-sex reciprocated friendships that originated in the seventh grade (M = 13.18 years). Discrete-time survival analyses were conducted with Grade 7 peer, teacher, and self-reports of internalizing symptoms as predictors of friendship dissolution across Grades 8-12. Differences between friends in depressive symptoms, anxiety symptoms, and (for boys only) submissiveness predicted subsequent friendship dissolution. Individual levels of these variables did not predict friendship dissolution, even at extreme or clinical levels. The findings suggest that friendship instability arising from internalizing problems stems from dissimilarity between friends rather than the presence of psychopathological symptoms on the part of one friend.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12432DOI Listing
December 2019

A year in words: The dynamics and consequences of language experiences in an intervention classroom.

PLoS One 2018 6;13(7):e0199893. Epub 2018 Jul 6.

Department of Psychology, University of Miami, Coral Gables, FL, United States of America.

Children from low SES backgrounds hear, on average, fewer words at home than those from high SES backgrounds. This word gap is associated with widening achievement differences in children's language abilities and school readiness. However relatively little is known about adult and child speech in childcare settings, in which approximately 30% of American children are enrolled. We examined the influence of teacher and peer language input on children's in-class language use and language development in an intervention classroom for low-SES, high-risk 2- to 3-year-olds. Over the course of a year, day-long recordings of the classroom were collected weekly with LENA recorders. Using LENA software algorithms, we found that language input from peers was positively related to children's in-class language use, both in-the-moment and over the course of each day, as were the number of conversational turns in which children and teachers engaged Both peer input and conversational turns with teachers were also positively related to children's language development rates, as indexed by increases in vocabulary size. Together these results indicate the importance of child-specific rates of classroom language input in the language development of high-risk, preschoolers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0199893PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6034821PMC
January 2019

Parent contributions to friendship stability during the primary school years.

J Fam Psychol 2018 03;32(2):217-228

Department of Psychology, University of Jyvaskyla.

The present study examines whether characteristics of parents predict the stability of a child's best friendships across the primary school years. Participants included 1,523 Finnish children (766 boys) who reported involvement in a total of 1,326 reciprocated friendship dyads in the 1st grade (M = 7.16 years old). At the onset of the study, mothers and fathers completed questionnaires describing their own parenting (i.e., behavioral control, psychological control, and affection toward the child) and depressive symptoms. Child scores for peer status (i.e., acceptance and rejection) were derived from 1st grade peer nomination data. Discrete-time survival analyses predicted the occurrence and timing of friendship dissolution, across 1st to 6th grades, for friendships that began in 1st grade. Parent depression and parent psychological control uniquely predicted subsequent child friendship dissolution, above and beyond the contribution of peer status variables. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000388DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5905722PMC
March 2018

The gene-environmental architecture of the development of adolescent substance use.

Psychol Med 2018 11 19;48(15):2500-2507. Epub 2018 Feb 19.

School of Psychology, Laval University,Quebec City,Canada.

Background: Using a longitudinal twin design and a latent growth curve/autoregressive approach, this study examined the genetic-environmental architecture of substance use across adolescence.

Methods: Self-reports of substance use (i.e. alcohol, marijuana) were collected at ages 13, 14, 15, and 17 years from 476 twin pairs (475 boys, 477 girls) living in the Province of Quebec, Canada. Substance use increased linearly across the adolescent years.

Results: ACE modeling revealed that genetic, as well as shared and non-shared environmental factors explained the overall level of substance use and that these same factors also partly accounted for growth in substance use from age 13 to 17. Additional genetic factors predicted the growth in substance use. Finally, autoregressive effects revealed age-specific non-shared environmental influences and, to a lesser degree, age-specific genetic influences, which together accounted for the stability of substance use across adolescence.

Conclusions: The results support and expand the notion that genetic and environmental influences on substance use during adolescence are both developmentally stable and developmentally dynamic.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1017/S0033291718000089DOI Listing
November 2018

Jari-Erik Nurmi (1956-2017).

Authors:
Brett Laursen

J Pers Oriented Res 2017 1;3(1):63-64. Epub 2017 Nov 1.

Florida Atlantic University.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.17505/jpor.2017.05DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7869613PMC
November 2017

Shyness, Preference for Solitude, and Adolescent Internalizing: The Roles of Maternal, Paternal, and Best-Friend Support.

J Res Adolesc 2018 06 17;28(2):488-504. Epub 2017 Oct 17.

University of Maryland.

The researchers examined differential outcomes related to two distinct motivations for withdrawal (preference for solitude and shyness) as well as the possibility that support from important others (mothers, fathers, and best friends) attenuate any such links. Adolescents (159 males, 171 females) reported on their motivations to withdraw, internalizing symptoms, and relationship quality in eighth grade, as well as their anxiety and depression in ninth grade. Using structural equation modeling, the authors found that maternal support weakened the association between shyness and internalizing problems; friend support weakened the association between preference for solitude and depression; and friend support strengthened the association between shyness and depression. Results suggest that shy adolescents may not derive the same benefits from supportive friendships as their typical peers.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jora.12350DOI Listing
June 2018

Mother-adolescent conflict types and adolescent adjustment: A person-oriented analysis.

J Fam Psychol 2017 Jun 9;31(4):504-512. Epub 2017 Feb 9.

Human Development and Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland.

This investigation was designed to identify dyadic differences in mother-adolescent conflict. In 2 studies (N = 131 and N = 147), adolescents (M = 13.88 and 14.65 years old) described the number of disagreements with mothers during the previous (1 or 3) days, their affective intensity, and perceptions of negativity in the relationship. Cluster analyses yielded 3 unique groups that replicated across studies: (a) placid dyads (50% of Study 1 participants and 36% of Study 2 participants), notable for low disagreement affective intensity and low relationship negativity; (b) explosive dyads (25% of Study 1 participants and 31% of Study 2 participants), notable for high affective intensity; and (c) squabbling dyads (25% of Study 1 participants and 33% of Study 2 participants), notable for frequent conflict. Longitudinal analyses revealed that cluster group membership was stable from 1 year to the next. Follow-up analyses indicated that adolescents in placid dyads had lower levels of internalizing and externalizing problem behaviors than those in the explosive or squabbling dyads, concurrently and prospectively. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fam0000294DOI Listing
June 2017

The spread of substance use and delinquency between adolescent twins.

Dev Psychol 2017 Feb 10;53(2):329-339. Epub 2016 Nov 10.

École de psychologie, Université Laval.

This investigation examines the spread of problem behaviors (substance use and delinquency) between twin siblings. A sample of 628 twins (151 male twin pairs and 163 female twin pairs) drawn from the Quebec Newborn Twin Study completed inventories describing delinquency and substance use at ages 13, 14, and 15. A 3-wave longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model (APIM) identified avenues whereby problem behaviors spread from one twin to another. Problems did not spread directly between twins across domains. Instead, 2 indirect pathways were identified: (a) Problems first spread interindividually (between twins) within a behavioral domain, then spread intraindividually (within twins) across behavioral domains (e.g., Twin A delinquency → Twin B delinquency → Twin B substance use); and (b) problems first spread intraindividually (within twins) across behavioral domains, then spread interindividually (between twins) within a behavioral domain (e.g., Twin A delinquency → Twin A substance use → Twin B substance use). Controls for genetic effects, gene-environment correlations, friend substance use and delinquency, and parenting behaviors increase confidence in the conclusion that twin siblings uniquely contribute to the spread of problem behaviors during adolescence. Twin sibling influence is a risk factor for illicit substance use, both because substance use by one twin predicts substance use by the other twin, but also because delinquency in one twin predicts delinquency in the other twin, which then gives rise to greater substance use. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/dev0000217DOI Listing
February 2017

Associations Between Mother-Child Relationship Quality and Adolescent Adjustment: Using a Genetically Controlled Design to Determine the Direction and Magnitude of Effects.

Int J Behav Dev 2016 May 7;40(3):196-204. Epub 2016 Feb 7.

Department of Psychology, Laval University, Quebec City, Canada.

This study used a genetically controlled design to examine the direction and the magnitude of effects in the over-time associations between perceived relationship quality with mothers and adolescent maladjustment (i.e., depressive symptoms and delinquency). A total of 163 monozygotic (MZ) twins pairs (85 female pairs, 78 male pairs) completed questionnaires at ages 13 and 14. Non-genetically controlled path analyses models (in which one member of each twin dyad was randomly selected for analyses) were compared with genetically controlled path analyses models (in which MZ-twin difference scores were included in analyses). Results from the non-genetically controlled models revealed a) child-driven effects in the longitudinal associations between adolescent perceived maternal support and depressive symptoms, and b) parent-driven and child-driven effects in the longitudinal association between perceived maternal negativity and adolescent delinquent behaviors. However, results from the genetically controlled models revealed only child-driven effect, suggesting that, purported parent-driven effects were a product of error arising from potential gene-environment correlations (rGE).
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0165025415620059DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4914139PMC
May 2016

Youth Negative Affect Attenuates Associations between Compromise and Mother-Adolescent Conflict Outcomes.

J Child Fam Stud 2016 Apr 11;25(4):1110-1118. Epub 2015 Sep 11.

Department of Human Development & Quantitative Methodology, University of Maryland, College Park, MD.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10826-015-0288-2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4816070PMC
April 2016

Maternal Psychological Control and Its Association with Mother and Child Perceptions of Adolescent Adjustment: More Evidence on the Strength of Shared Perspectives.

J Youth Adolesc 2016 10 21;45(10):2151-63. Epub 2016 Mar 21.

ETR Associates, 100 Enterprise Way, Suite G300, Scotts Valley, CA, 95066, USA.

Mothers and adolescents hold distinct albeit correlated views of their relationship and of one another. The present study focuses on disentangling these independent views. Concurrent associations between maternal psychological control and children's adjustment are examined at two time points in order to identify the degree to which associations reflect (a) views that are shared by mothers and adolescents, and (b) views that are unique to mothers and adolescents. A total of 123 (56 % female) U.S. Latino/a adolescents (M = 10.4 years old at the outset) and their mothers reported on maternal psychological control, children's conduct problems, and children's anxiety, twice within a 5-month period. Data were collected at the close of primary school when the adolescents were in grade 5 and again at the beginning of middle school, when they were in grade 6. Results from conventional correlations indicated that mother- and adolescent-reports yielded similar associations between maternal psychological control and adolescent adjustment. Common fate model analyses partitioned results into variance shared across mother and adolescent reports and variance unique to mother and adolescent reports. Results differed for anxiety and conduct problems. Shared views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with heightened child conduct problems; there were no associations unique to either reporter. In contrast, unique reporter views indicated that greater maternal psychological control was associated with child anxiety; there were no associations involving shared views. Although mother- and adolescent-reports agree that maternal psychological control is correlated with children's adjustment, there is considerable divergence in results when associations are partitioned according to shared and unique reporter views. Associations between maternal psychological control and children's anxiety are more apt to be inflated by same-reporter variance bias than are associations between maternal psychological control and children's conduct problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10964-016-0467-5DOI Listing
October 2016

Dyadic Instruction for Middle School Students: Liking Promotes Learning.

Learn Individ Differ 2015 Dec;44:33-39

Research Department, ETR Associates.

This study examines whether friendship facilitates or hinders learning in a dyadic instructional setting. Working in 80 same-sex pairs, 160 (60 girls, 100 boys) middle school students ( = 12.13 years old) were taught a new computer programming language and programmed a game. Students spent 14 to 30 ( = 22.7) hours in a programming class. At the beginning and the end of the project, each participant separately completed (a) computer programming knowledge assessments and (b) questionnaires rating their affinity for their partner. Results support the proposition that liking promotes learning: Greater partner affinity predicted greater subsequent increases in computer programming knowledge for both partners. One partner's initial programming knowledge also positively predicted the other partner's subsequent partner affinity.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.lindif.2015.11.002DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4681000PMC
December 2015

Adolescent friend similarity on alcohol abuse as a function of participation in romantic relationships: Sometimes a new love comes between old friends.

Dev Psychol 2016 Jan 23;52(1):117-29. Epub 2015 Nov 23.

School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University.

This study tests the hypothesis that adolescents with romantic partners are less similar to their friends on rates of alcohol abuse than adolescents without romantic partners. Participants (662 girls, 574 boys) ranging in age from 12 to 19 years nominated friends and romantic partners, and completed a measure of alcohol abuse. In hierarchical linear models, friends with romantic partners were less similar on rates of alcohol abuse than friends without romantic partners, especially if they were older and less accepted. Follow-up longitudinal analyses were conducted on a subsample (266 boys, 374 girls) of adolescents who reported friendships that were stable across 2 consecutive years. Associations between friend reports of alcohol abuse declined after adolescents became involved in a romantic relationship, to the point at which they became more similar to their romantic partners than to their friends. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0039882DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4695219PMC
January 2016

Stable same-sex friendships with higher achieving partners promote mathematical reasoning in lower achieving primary school children.

Br J Dev Psychol 2015 Nov 24;33(4):519-32. Epub 2015 Sep 24.

University of Jyväskylä, Finland.

This study was designed to investigate friend influence over mathematical reasoning in a sample of 374 children in 187 same-sex friend dyads (184 girls in 92 friendships; 190 boys in 95 friendships). Participants completed surveys that measured mathematical reasoning in the 3rd grade (approximately 9 years old) and 1 year later in the 4th grade (approximately 10 years old). Analyses designed for dyadic data (i.e., longitudinal actor-partner interdependence model) indicated that higher achieving friends influenced the mathematical reasoning of lower achieving friends, but not the reverse. Specifically, greater initial levels of mathematical reasoning among higher achieving partners in the 3rd grade predicted greater increases in mathematical reasoning from 3rd grade to 4th grade among lower achieving partners. These effects held after controlling for peer acceptance and rejection, task avoidance, interest in mathematics, maternal support for homework, parental education, length of the friendship, and friendship group norms on mathematical reasoning.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/bjdp.12117DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4608379PMC
November 2015

Parental Supervision and Alcohol Abuse Among Adolescent Girls.

Pediatrics 2015 Oct 21;136(4):617-24. Epub 2015 Sep 21.

Center for Developmental Research, School of Law, Psychology and Social Work, Örebro University, Örebro, Sweden.

Objective: Inadequate parent supervision during the early adolescent years forecasts a host of conduct problems, including illicit alcohol consumption. Early pubertal maturation may exacerbate problems, because girls alienated from same-age peers seek the company of older, more mature youth. The current study examines overtime associations between parent autonomy granting and adolescent alcohol abuse during a developmental period when alcohol consumption becomes increasingly normative, to determine if early maturing girls are at special risk for problems arising from a lack of parent supervision.

Methods: At annual intervals for 4 consecutive years, a community sample of 957 Swedish girls completed surveys beginning in the first year of secondary school (approximate age: 13 years) describing rates of alcohol intoxication and perceptions of parent autonomy granting. Participants also reported age at menarche.

Results: Multiple-group parallel process growth curve models revealed that early pubertal maturation exacerbated the risk associated with premature autonomy granting: Alcohol intoxication rates increased 3 times faster for early maturing girls with the greatest autonomy than they did for early maturing girls with the least autonomy. Child-driven effects were also found such that higher initial levels of alcohol abuse predicted greater increases in autonomy granting as parent supervision over children engaged in illicit drinking waned.

Conclusions: Early maturing girls are at elevated risk for physical and psychological adjustment difficulties. The etiology of escalating problems with alcohol can be traced, in part, to a relative absence of parent supervision during a time when peer interactions assume special significance.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1542/peds.2015-1258DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4586729PMC
October 2015

A Survival Analysis of Adolescent Friendships: The Downside of Dissimilarity.

Psychol Sci 2015 Aug 17;26(8):1304-15. Epub 2015 Jul 17.

Behavioural Science Institute, Radboud University.

The present study examined whether adolescent friendships dissolve because of characteristics of friends, differences between friends, or both. Participants were 410 adolescents (201 boys, 209 girls; mean age = 13.20 years) who reported a total of 573 reciprocated friendships that originated in the seventh grade. We conducted discrete-time survival analyses, in which peer nominations and teacher ratings collected in Grade 7 predicted the occurrence and timing of friendship dissolution across Grades 8 to 12. Grade 7 individual characteristics were unrelated to friendship stability, but Grade 7 differences in sex, peer acceptance, physical aggression, and school competence predicted subsequent friendship dissolution. The findings suggest that compatibility is a function of similarity between friends rather than the presence or absence of a particular trait.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/0956797615588751DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4529362PMC
August 2015

Body image mediates negative family climate and deteriorating glycemic control for single adolescents with type 1 diabetes.

Fam Syst Health 2015 Dec 6;33(4):363-71. Epub 2015 Jul 6.

Department of Psychology, Florida Atlantic University.

Introduction: Glycemic control declines during adolescence, as youth with diabetes struggle with pubertal changes and a changing social world. The present study tests whether body image mediates longitudinal links between family climate and changes in adolescent glycemic control. Mediation was hypothesized for nondating adolescents but not for dating adolescents, because the former are thought to remain more family oriented than the latter.

Method: Participants were German adolescents with Type 1 diabetes (51 girls, 58 boys; M = 15.84 years, SD = 1.44). Participants reported body image and family climate. Physicians assayed blood HbA1c levels (M = 8.22%, SD = 1.80%) to measure glycemic control.

Results: For nondating adolescents, body image mediated associations between family climate and longitudinal changes in glycemic control. Poorer family climate was associated with poorer body image, which predicted deteriorating glycemic control. For dating adolescents, family climate was unassociated with changes in glycemic control.

Discussion: Nondating adolescents may look to parents for feedback on body image, which affects how they manage the challenges of diabetes. Parents and practitioners alike should be alert to the fact that family climate continues to be an important determinant of adolescent adjustment, particularly for those who have not moved into romantic relationships. We know that body image matters to adolescents, but for some youth, body image may be the difference between health and serious physical problems. (PsycINFO Database Record
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/fsh0000139DOI Listing
December 2015

Best Friend Influence Over Adolescent Problem Behaviors: Socialized by the Satisfied.

J Clin Child Adolesc Psychol 2017 Sep-Oct;46(5):695-708. Epub 2015 Jul 2.

b School of Law, Psychology and Social Work , Örebro University.

The present study was designed to examine best friend influence over alcohol intoxication and truancy as a function of relative perceptions of friendship satisfaction. The participants were 700 adolescents (306 boys, 394 girls) who were involved in same-sex best friendships that were stable from one academic year to the next. Participants completed self-report measures of alcohol intoxication frequency and truancy at 1-year intervals. Each member of each friendship dyad also rated his or her satisfaction with the relationship. At the outset, participants were in secondary school (approximately 13-14 years old) or high school (approximately 16-17 years old). More satisfied friends had greater influence than less satisfied friends over changes in intoxication frequency and truancy. Problem behaviors of less satisfied friends increased over time if the more satisfied friend reported relatively higher, but not relatively lower, initial levels of drinking or truancy. The results support the hypothesis that adolescent friends are not similarly influential. The power to socialize, for better and for worse, rests with the partner who has a more positive perception of the relationship.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/15374416.2015.1050723DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4698245PMC
February 2018

Depressive Symptoms Anticipate Changes in the Frequency of Alcohol Intoxication Among Low-Accepted Adolescents.

J Stud Alcohol Drugs 2015 Jul;76(4):585-93

Center for Developmental Research, Orebro University, Orebro, Sweden.

Objective: There is strong evidence that depression anticipates later drinking problems among adults. These associations have not been consistently documented during adolescence, perhaps because little attention has been given to individual differences in peer relationships, which are the primary setting for adolescent alcohol consumption. This study investigated associations between depressive affect and alcohol misuse as moderated by peer group acceptance.

Method: A community sample of 1,048 Swedish youth provided self-reports of depressive symptoms and intoxication frequency at annual intervals across the middle school years (seventh grade: M = 13.21 years old; eighth grade: M = 14.27 years old; ninth grade: M = 15.26 years old). Peer nominations provided a measure of individual acceptance.

Results: Growth curve analyses revealed differences in the extent to which initial levels of depressive symptoms predicted the slope of increase in intoxication frequency. Higher levels of depressive symptoms at the outset anticipated sharp increases in intoxication frequency from seventh to ninth grades for low-accepted youth but not for average- or high-accepted youth.

Conclusions: poor peer relations and depressive affect are vulnerabilities that set the stage for escalating adolescent alcohol misuse. Across the middle school years, when most youth have their first experiences with alcohol, peer difficulties exacerbated the tendency of depressed youth to drink to excess.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4495076PMC
http://dx.doi.org/10.15288/jsad.2015.76.585DOI Listing
July 2015

Aggression can be contagious: Longitudinal associations between proactive aggression and reactive aggression among young twins.

Aggress Behav 2015 Sep-Oct;41(5):455-66. Epub 2015 Feb 12.

Laval University, Québec City, Canada.

The present study examined sibling influence over reactive and proactive aggression in a sample of 452 same-sex twins (113 male dyads, 113 female dyads). Between and within siblings influence processes were examined as a function of relative levels of parental coercion and hostility to test the hypothesis that aggression contagion between twins occurs only among dyads who experience parental coerciveness. Teacher reports of reactive and proactive aggression were collected for each twin in kindergarten (M = 6.04 years; SD = 0.27) and in first grade (M = 7.08 years; SD = 0.27). Families were divided into relatively low, average, and relatively high parental coercion-hostility groups on the basis of maternal reports collected when the children were 5 years old. In families with relatively high levels of parental coercion-hostility, there was evidence of between-sibling influence, such that one twin's reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's reactive aggression from ages 6 to 7, and one twin's proactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the other twin's proactive aggression from ages 6 to 7. There was also evidence of within-sibling influence such that a child's level of reactive aggression at age 6 predicted increases in the same child's proactive aggression at age 7, regardless of parental coercion-hostility. The findings provide new information about the etiology of reactive and proactive aggression and individual differences in their developmental interplay.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ab.21582DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4537689PMC
October 2016

Co-rumination cultivates anxiety: a genetically informed study of friend influence during early adolescence.

Dev Psychol 2015 Apr 9;51(4):564-71. Epub 2015 Feb 9.

School of Psychology, Laval University.

This study tested 2 related hypotheses. The first holds that high co-rumination anticipates heightened internalizing problems. The second holds that positive relationships with friends exacerbate the risk for internalizing problems arising from co-rumination. A sample of MZ twins followed from birth (194 girls and 170 boys) completed (a) self-reports of friendship support, friendship negativity, and co-rumination with friends at age 12 and (b) measures of anxiety and depression at ages 12 and 13. Using a monozygotic twins-difference design, within-pair differences in co-rumination predicted increased within-pair differences in anxiety (but not depression), after removing the covariance between co-rumination and perceptions of friendship. In other words, the difference in co-rumination within each monozygotic twin pair predicted an increase in the difference in their anxiety levels, but not the difference in their depression levels. The discussion focuses on nonshared environmental influences, because the monozygotic twin-difference design eliminates the possibility that associations were driven by heritability or by shared environmental factors that underlie friendship experiences and internalizing problems.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1037/a0038848DOI Listing
April 2015

Forms of Friendship: A Person-Centered Assessment of the Quality, Stability, and Outcomes of Different Types of Adolescent Friends.

Pers Individ Dif 2015 Apr;77:149-155

University of Maryland, Department of Human Development & Quantitative Methodology, 3304 Benjamin Building, University of Maryland, College Park, MD 20742, USA.

Friendships differ in terms of their quality and participants may or may not agree as to their perceptions of relationship quality. Two studies ( = 230 and 242) were conducted to identify distinct and replicable categories of friendship among young adolescents ( = 11.6 years old) using self and partner reports of relationship quality. Same-sex friendships were identified from reciprocated friend nominations. Each friend described perceptions of negativity and social support in the relationship. Cluster analyses based on reports from both friends yielded 4 friendship types in each study: a high quality group, a low quality group, and two groups in which friends disagreed about the quality of the relationship. High quality friendships were most apt to be stable from the 6 to the 7 grade. Participants in high quality friendships reported the highest levels of global self-worth and perceived behavioral conduct and the lowest levels of problem behaviors. Dyads reporting discrepant perceptions of quality differed from dyads who agreed that the friendship was high quality in terms of stability and individual adjustment, underscoring the advantages of person-centered strategies that incorporate perceptions of both partners in categorizations of relationships.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.paid.2014.12.051DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4302333PMC
April 2015

Self-reported rates of interpersonal conflict vary as a function of questionnaire format: why age-related trends in disagreement (and other events) may not be what they seem.

J Adolesc 2014 Oct 1;37(7):965-72. Epub 2014 Aug 1.

Arizona State University, United States.

Two studies examine whether self-reports of interpersonal conflict differ as a function of how the question is asked. In Study 1, 56 U.S. college students (M = 20.7 years) completed different versions of a questionnaire, four times, at one week intervals. Participants reported more conflicts with the aid of memory prompts than without, an effect that was especially strong when questions focused on events from the previous day. In Study 2, 123 middle-school students (M = 11.08 years) and 128 primary school students (M = 8.2 years) from the same region completed one of two questionnaires describing conflict during the previous day. Children reported more conflicts with memory prompts than without. The effect was twice as strong for younger children than older children. The findings suggest that increases in reports of conflict across the transition into adolescence may be due to improvements in the ability to recall and recount events in the absence of memory cues.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.adolescence.2014.07.003DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4167570PMC
October 2014