Publications by authors named "Breelan Kear"

3 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Bilateral Acute Angle-Closure Glaucoma: A Case Report of an Unusual Cause of Acute Headache in a Child.

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2021 Nov;5(4):443-446

CHOC Children's Hospital, Department of Pediatric Emergency Medicine, Orange, California.

Introduction: Acute angle-closure glaucoma (AACG) is typically considered a disease of adulthood. However, AACG may occasionally be seen in children. The clinical presentation is similar to adults, including headache, vomiting, and eye pain. However, the etiology of angle closure in children is different and most often associated with congenital anterior segment abnormalities. A precipitating factor of AACG in children with previous established, anterior segment abnormalities is eye dilation, which may occur during routine ophthalmological examination with topical mydriasis, or physiologic mydriasis upon entering a dark room.

Case Report: We describe a 5-year-old child with a history of severe prematurity and retinopathy of prematurity (ROP) presenting with bilateral AACG following a routine outpatient, dilated ophthalmological examination. While angle-closure glaucoma has previously been reported in cases of ROP, a bilateral acute attack of AACG following pupil dilation in regressed ROP has hitherto been unreported.

Conclusion: Given the association of ROP and AACG, it can be expected that as the survival rate of premature infants improves, the incidence of ROP and AACG may also increase. It is therefore prudent for the emergency physician to have AACG on the differential for pediatric patients with headache and eye pain.
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November 2021

Ingestion of A Common Plant's Leaves Leads to Acute Respiratory Arrest and Paralysis: A Case Report.

Clin Pract Cases Emerg Med 2020 Aug;4(3):371-374

Memorial Care, Long Beach Medical Center, Department of Emergency Medicine, Long Beach, California.

Background: Nicotiana glauca is a plant known to cause acute toxicity upon ingestion or dermal exposure due to the nicotinic alkaloid, anabasine. Nicotinic alkaloids cause toxicity by acting as agonists on nicotinic-type acetylcholine receptors (nAChRs). Initial stimulation of these receptors leads to symptoms such as tachycardia, miosis, and tremors. The effects of high doses of nicotinic alkaloids are biphasic, and eventual persistent depolarization of nAChRs at the neuromuscular junction occurs. This causes apnea, paralysis, and cardiovascular collapse.

Case Report: In this report, we present a case of respiratory arrest due to nicotinic alkaloid poisoning from the ingestion of Nicotiana glauca. The diagnosis was suspected after the patient's family gave a history of the patient ingesting a plant prior to arrival. They were able to also provide a physical sample of the plant.

Conclusion: The phone application, "Plant Snap", determined the plant species and helped confirm the diagnosis. This case describes how modern technology and thorough history taking can combine to provide the best possible patient care.
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August 2020

Timed Up and Go (TUG) Test: Normative Reference Values for Ages 20 to 59 Years and Relationships With Physical and Mental Health Risk Factors.

J Prim Care Community Health 2017 Jan 25;8(1):9-13. Epub 2016 Jul 25.

1 Creighton University School of Medicine, Omaha, NE, USA.

Purpose: The Timed Up and Go (TUG) test is a reliable, cost-effective, safe, and time-efficient way to evaluate overall functional mobility. However, the TUG does not have normative reference values (NRV) for individuals younger than 60 years. The purpose of this study was to establish NRV for the TUG for individuals aged between 20 and 59 years and to examine the relationship between the TUG and demographic, physical, and mental health risk factors.

Methods: Two hundred participants, 50 per decade (ages 20-29, 30-39, 40-49, 50-59 years) were selected at their primary care visit, and timed as they performed the TUG by standing up out of a chair, walking 3 m, turning around, walking back to the chair, and sitting down. Information regarding the risk factors socioeconomic status, body mass index, an index of multimorbidities, perceptions of overall physical and mental health was obtained and used as predictors of TUG time independent of age.

Results: TUG times were significantly different among the decades ( F = 6.579, P = .001) with slower times occurring with the 50-year-old decade compared with the 20s ( P = .001), 30s ( P = .001), and 40s ( P = .020). Slower TUG times were associated with lower SES, higher body mass index, more medical comorbidities, and worse perceived physical and mental health. Regression results indicated that perceived physical and mental health accounted for unique variance in the prediction of TUG time beyond age, gender, and socioeconomic status.

Conclusions: This study provided TUG NRV for adults in their 20s, 30s, 40s, and 50s. The TUG may have utility for primary care providers as they assess and monitor physical activity in younger adults, especially those with physical and mental health risk factors.
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January 2017