Publications by authors named "Brandon Talley"

7 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

E-cigarette Unit Sales, by Product and Flavor Type - United States, 2014-2020.

MMWR Morb Mortal Wkly Rep 2020 Sep 18;69(37):1313-1318. Epub 2020 Sep 18.

Since electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) entered the U.S. marketplace in 2007, the landscape has evolved to include different product types (e.g., prefilled cartridge-based and disposable products) and flavored e-liquids (e.g., fruit, candy, mint, menthol, and tobacco flavors), which have contributed to increases in youth use (1,2). E-cigarettes have been the most commonly used tobacco product among U.S. youths since 2014; in 2019, 27.5% of high school students reported current e-cigarette use (3). To assess trends in unit sales of e-cigarettes in the United States by product and flavor type, CDC, CDC Foundation, and Truth Initiative analyzed retail scanner data during September 14, 2014-May 17, 2020, from Information Resources, Inc. (IRI). During this period, total e-cigarette sales increased by 122.2%, from 7.7 million to 17.1 million units per 4-week interval. By product type, the proportion of total sales that was prefilled cartridge products increased during September 2014-August 2019 (47.5% to 89.4%). During August 2019-May 2020, the proportion of total sales that was disposable products increased from 10.3% to 19.8%, while the proportion that was prefilled cartridge products decreased (89.4% to 80.2%). Among prefilled cartridge sales, the proportion of mint sales increased during September 2014-August 2019 (<0.1% to 47.6%); during August 2019-May 2020, mint sales decreased (47.6% to 0.3%), as menthol sales increased (10.7% to 61.8%). Among disposable e-cigarette sales during September 2014-May 2020, the proportion of mint sales increased (<0.1% to 10.5%), although tobacco-flavored (52.2% to 17.2%) and menthol-flavored (30.3% to 10.2%) sales decreased; during the same period, sales of all other flavors combined increased (17.2% to 62.1%). E-cigarette sales increased during 2014-2020, but fluctuations occurred overall and by product and flavor type, which could be attributed to consumer preferences and accessibility. Continued monitoring of e-cigarette sales and use is critical to inform strategies at the national, state, and community levels to minimize the risks of e-cigarettes on individual- and population-level health. As part of a comprehensive approach to prevent and reduce youth e-cigarettes use, such strategies could include those that address youth-appealing product innovations and flavors.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.15585/mmwr.mm6937e2DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7498168PMC
September 2020

Multilevel analysis of school anti-smoking education and current cigarette use among South African students.

Pan Afr Med J 2017 24;26:37. Epub 2017 Jan 24.

Georgia State University, School of Public Health, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: South Africa (SA) implemented the Global Youth Tobacco Survey (GYTS) four times between 1999 and 2011. Data from the four surveys indicated that downward trends in cigarette use among students may have stalled. Understanding the effect of school anti-smoking education on current smoking among students within schools and variability across schools may provide important insights into policies aimed at preventing or reducing tobacco use among students. The objective was to assess the student- and school-level effects of students' exposure to school anti-smoking education on current cigarette use among the study population using the most recent wave of GYTS data in SA (2011).

Methods: An analytic sample of students 13-15 years of age was selected (n=3,068) from the SA GYTS 2011. A taxonomy of two-level logistic regression models was fit to assess the relationship of various tobacco use, control, and exposure predictor variables on current cigarette smoking among the study population.

Results: At the student-level in the full model, secondhand smoke (SHS) exposure, peer smoking, and ownership of a promotional item were significantly associated with higher risk of current smoking. At the school-level in the full model, average exposure to peer smoking was associated with significant increases in the prevalence of current cigarette use, while average family anti-smoking education was significantly associated with decreases in the outcome variable. School anti-smoking education was not a statistically significant predictor at the student- or school-levels.

Conclusion: in this study, exposure to school anti-smoking education had no association with current cigarette smoking among the study population. Consistent with previous studies, having peers that smoked was highly associated with a student being a current smoker. Interestingly, at the school-level in the multilevel analysis, schools with higher rates of average family anti-smoking education had lower prevalence of current smoking. This finding has potential implications for tobacco control in SA, particularly if the school-level, family-centered protective effect can be operationalized as a prevention tool in the country's tobacco control program.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.11604/pamj.2017.26.37.7880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5398222PMC
June 2017

Methodology of the Global Adult Tobacco Survey - 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):3-23. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

World Health Organization, Geneva, Switzerland.

In 2008, the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) and the World Health Organization developed the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), an instrument to monitor global tobacco use and measure indicators of tobacco control. GATS, a nationally representative household survey of persons aged 15 years or older, was conducted for the first time during 2008-2010 in 14 low- and middle-income countries. In each country, GATS used a standard core questionnaire, sample design, and procedures for data collection and management and, as needed, added country-specific questions that were reviewed and approved by international experts. The core questionnaire included questions about various characteristics of the respondents, their tobacco use (smoking and smokeless), and a wide range of tobacco-related topics (cessation; secondhand smoke; economics; media; and knowledge, attitudes, and perceptions). In each country, a multistage cluster sample design was used, with households selected proportionate to the size of the population. Households were chosen randomly within a primary or secondary sampling unit, and one respondent was selected at random from each household to participate in the survey. Interviewers administered the survey in the country's local language(s) using handheld electronic data collection devices. Interviews were conducted privately, and same-sex interviewers were used in countries where mixed-sex interviews would be culturally inappropriate. All 14 countries completed the survey during 2008-2010. In each country, the ministry of health was the lead coordinating agency for GATS, and the survey was implemented by national statistical organizations or surveillance institutes. This article describes the background and rationale for GATS and includes a comprehensive description of the survey methods and protocol.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499800DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to secondhand smoke among adults - Philippines, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):48-57. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in exposure to secondhand smoke (SHS) among adults at home, in indoor workplaces, and in various public places in the Philippines across various socio-demographic groups.

Methods: Data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey conducted in 2009 in the Philippines were used. The data consist of survey answers from 9705 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older. We considered that respondents were exposed to SHS if during the previous 30 days they reported that they lived in a home, worked in a building, or visited a public place where people smoked. The public places included in our analysis were indoor workplaces, public transportation vehicles, restaurants, government buildings or offices, and healthcare facilities. The differences in various socioeconomic and demographic groups' exposure to SHS in these places were also examined.

Results: Of respondents who reported working indoors, 36.8% were exposed to SHS. Men (43.3% [95% CI 39.7-46.9]) were more likely than women (28.8% [95% CI 25.4-32.4]) to be exposed to SHS (p < 0.001). Of those working in sites where smoking was not allowed, 13.9% were exposed to SHS, whereas 66.5% were exposed where smoking is allowed in some enclosed areas, and 90.7% were exposed where smoking is allowed everywhere. During the 30 days preceding the survey, more than 50% of those who took public transportation were exposed to SHS; exposure for those who visited public buildings was 33.6% in restaurants, 25.5% in government buildings or offices, and 7.6% in healthcare facilities.

Conclusion: Despite a national law passed and several local government ordinances that have promulgated smoke-free workplaces, schools, government offices, and healthcare facilities, our findings show that a large proportion of adults were exposed to SHS at work and in public places, which offers opportunities to strengthen and improve enforcement of the smoke-free initiatives and ordinances in the Philippines.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501530DOI Listing
June 2016

Tracking MPOWER in 14 countries: results from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey, 2008-2010.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):24-37. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

Headquarters, WHO, Geneva, Switzerland.

Background: The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER is a technical package of six tobacco control measures that assist countries in meeting their obligations of the WHO Framework Convention Tobacco Control and are proven to reduce tobacco use. The Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS) systematically monitors adult tobacco use and tracks key tobacco control indicators.

Methods: GATS is a nationally representative household survey of adults aged 15 and older, using a standard and consistent protocol across countries; it includes information on the six WHO MPOWER measures. GATS Phase I was conducted from 2008-2010 in 14 high-burden low- and middle-income countries. We selected one key indicator from each of the six MPOWER measures and compared results across 14 countries.

Results: Current tobacco use prevalence rates ranged from 16.1% in Mexico to 43.3% in Bangladesh. We found that the highest rate of exposure to secondhand smoke in the workplace was in China (63.3%). We found the highest 'smoking quit attempt' rates in the past 12 months among cigarette smokers in Viet Nam (55.3%) and the lowest rate was in the Russian Federation (32.1%). In five of the 14 countries, more than one-half of current smokers in those 5 countries said they thought of quitting because of health warning labels on cigarette packages. The Philippines (74.3%) and the Russian Federation (68.0%) had the highest percentages of respondents noticing any cigarette advertising, promotion and sponsorship. Manufactured cigarette affordability ranged from 0.6% in Russia to 8.0% in India.

Conclusions: Monitoring tobacco use and tobacco control policy achievements is crucial to managing and implementing measures to reverse the epidemic. GATS provides internationally-comparable data that systematically monitors and tracks the progress of the other five MPOWER measures.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913501911DOI Listing
June 2016

Exposure to anti- and pro-tobacco advertising, promotions or sponsorships: Turkey, 2008.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):58-67. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Introduction: In 2008, Turkey became one of 26 countries with a complete ban on all forms of direct and indirect tobacco marketing. We assessed the level of exposure to anti- and pro-cigarette advertising and to cigarette promotions and sponsorships among various demographic groups in Turkey.

Methods: We used the data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in November 2008 in Turkey. The data consist of answers to GATS questions by 9030 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults 15 years of age or older. To find differences in exposure to the advertising by sex, age, education level and smoking status, we analyzed responses to GATS questions about cigarette advertisements and anti-cigarette smoking information in various forms and through various advertising channels, during the 30 days before the survey, using bivariate analysis.

Results: Overall, 13.3% of respondents aged 15 years or older noticed some type of cigarette marketing during the 30 days before the survey: 7.1% saw advertisements, 5.3% saw promotions and 3.3% saw sports sponsorships. Men were more likely than women to have seen cigarette promotions (7.8% versus 3.0%) and sports sponsorships (5.3% versus 1.4%). Respondents aged 15-24 years were more likely than those aged 25 years or older to have seen cigarette advertisements (10.2% versus 6.2%), promotions (8.7% versus 4.4%) and sponsorships (6.6% versus 2.3%), respectively. Respondents were most likely to have seen cigarette advertisements on television (3.4%) or in shops (2.7%). In addition, 2.8% of respondents reported seeing a clothing item with a brand name or logo, 2.5% reported that they received free samples of cigarettes and 0.3% received gifts along with the purchase of cigarettes. Almost 9 of 10 survey respondents (88.8%) reported having noticed some anti-cigarette information during the 30 days before the survey. Most anti-cigarette information was seen on television (85.5%). The anti-cigarette information was seen by slightly more cigarette smokers (91.6%) than nonsmokers (87.6%). Persons with less than a primary education were less likely to notice anti-cigarette information than those with a higher level of education, in all examined media channels.

Conclusions: Our findings showed a low prevalence of noticing cigarette marketing, which indicates high compliance with the Turkish law banning such marketing. GATS data provide an in-depth understanding of the level of exposure to pro- and anti-cigarette information in 2008 and they are of practical assistance to those who implement policies to reduce the demand for tobacco. The challenge now is to maintain rigorous enforcement. To do so requires ongoing surveillance to produce data on the effectiveness of the enforcement efforts.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913502369DOI Listing
June 2016

Prevalence of tobacco use among adults in Egypt, 2009.

Glob Health Promot 2016 Jun 16;23(2 Suppl):38-47. Epub 2013 Sep 16.

CDC Foundation, Atlanta, Georgia, USA.

Introduction: We assessed the differences in overall use of tobacco and in the use of various tobacco products, by sex and by frequency of use across various demographic groups.

Methods: We used data from the Global Adult Tobacco Survey (GATS), conducted in 2009 in Egypt. The data consist of answers to GATS by 20,924 respondents from a nationally representative, multistage probability sample of adults aged 15 years or older from all regions of Egypt. Current tobacco use was defined as current smoking or use of smokeless tobacco products, either daily or occasionally. We analyzed the differences in current cigarette, shisha, and smokeless tobacco use by sex and frequency of use (daily or occasional); and by demographic characteristics that included age, region, education level and employment status.

Results: Overall, 19.7% of the Egyptian population currently use some form of tobacco. Men (38.1% [95% confidence interval (CI) 36.8-39.4]) are much more likely than women (0.6% [95% CI 0.4-0.9]) to use tobacco. Almost 96% of men who use tobacco, do so daily. Men are more likely to use manufactured cigarettes (31.8% [95% CI 30.6-33.1]) than shisha (6.2% [95% CI 5.6-6.9]) or smokeless tobacco (4.1% [95% CI 3.4-4.8]). Few women use tobacco (cigarettes (0.2%), shisha (0.3%) and smokeless tobacco (0.3%)); however, all women who currently smoke shisha, do so daily. Lower educational status, being between ages 25-64 and being employed predicted a higher use of tobacco.

Conclusion: Egypt has implemented several initiatives to reduce tobacco use. The World Health Organization (WHO) MPOWER technical package, which aims to reverse the tobacco epidemic, is implemented at various levels throughout the country. Our findings show that there is significant variation in the prevalence of tobacco use and types of tobacco used by adult men and women in Egypt. GATS data can be used to better understand comparative patterns of tobacco use by adults, which in turn can be used to develop interventions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1177/1757975913499801DOI Listing
June 2016