Publications by authors named "Bradley B Jarrold"

5 Publications

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Combinations of peptides synergistically activate the regenerative capacity of skin cells in vitro.

Int J Cosmet Sci 2021 Jul 17. Epub 2021 Jul 17.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio, USA.

Objective: To explore synergistic effects related to skin regeneration, peptides with distinct biological mechanisms of action were evaluated in combination with different skin cell lines in the presence or absence of niacinamide (Nam). Furthermore, the synergistic responses of peptide combinations on global gene expression were compared with the changes that occur with fractional laser resurfacing treatment, a gold standard approach for skin rejuvenation, to further define optimal peptide combinations.

Methods: Microarray profiling was used to characterize the biological responses of peptide combinations (+/- Nam) relative to the individual components in epidermal keratinocyte and dermal fibroblast cell lines. Cellular functional assays were utilized to confirm the synergistic effects of peptide combinations. Bioinformatics approaches were used to link the synergistic effects of peptide combinations on gene expression to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response from fractional laser treatment.

Results: Microarray analysis of skin cells treated with peptide combinations revealed synergistic changes in gene expression compared with individual peptide controls. Bioinformatic analysis of synergy genes in keratinocytes revealed the activation of NRF2-mediated oxidative stress responses by a combination of Ac-PPYL, Pal-KTTKS and Nam. Additional analysis revealed direct downstream transcriptional targets of NRF2/ARE exhibiting synergistic regulation by this combination of materials, which was corroborated by a cellular reporter assay. NRF2-mediated oxidative stress response pathways were also found to be activated in the transcriptomics of the early skin rejuvenation response to fractional laser treatment, suggesting the importance of this biology in the early stages of tissue repair. Additionally, the second combination of peptides (pal-KT and Ac-PPYL) was found to synergistically restore cellular ATP levels that had been depleted due to the presence of ROS, indicating an additional mechanism, whereby peptide synergies may accelerate skin repair.

Conclusion: Through combinatorial synergy studies, we have identified additional in vitro skin repair mechanisms beyond the previously described functions of individual peptides and correlated these to the transcriptomics of the skin rejuvenation response of fractional laser treatment. These findings suggest that specific peptides can act together, via complementary and synergistic mechanisms, to holistically enhance the regenerative capacity of in vitro skin cells.
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July 2021

Metabolic dysfunction in human skin: Restoration of mitochondrial integrity and metabolic output by nicotinamide (niacinamide) in primary dermal fibroblasts from older aged donors.

Aging Cell 2020 10 29;19(10):e13248. Epub 2020 Sep 29.

Dermatological Sciences, Translational and Clinical Research Institute, Medical School, Newcastle University, Newcastle upon Tyne, UK.

Alterations in metabolism in skin are accelerated by environmental stressors such as solar radiation, leading to premature aging. The impact of aging on mitochondria is of interest given their critical role for metabolic output and the finding that environmental stressors cause lowered energy output, particularly in fibroblasts where damage accumulates. To better understand these metabolic changes with aging, we performed an in-depth profiling of the expression patterns of dermal genes in face, forearm, and buttock biopsies from females of 20-70 years of age that encode for all subunits comprising complexes I-V of the mitochondrial electron transport chain. This complements previous preliminary analyses of these changes. "Oxidative phosphorylation" was the top canonical pathway associated with aging in the face, and genes encoding for numerous subunits had decreased expression patterns with age. Investigations on fibroblasts from older aged donors also showed decreased gene expression of numerous subunits from complexes I-V, oxidative phosphorylation rates, spare respiratory capacity, and mitochondrial number and membrane potential compared to younger cells. Treatment of older fibroblasts with nicotinamide (Nam) restored these measures to younger cell levels. Nam increased complexes I, IV, and V activity and gene expression of representative subunits. Elevated mt-Keima staining suggests a possible mechanism of action for these restorative effects via mitophagy. Nam also improved mitochondrial number and membrane potential in younger fibroblasts. These findings show there are significant changes in mitochondrial functionality with aging and that Nam treatment can restore bioenergetic efficiency and capacity in older fibroblasts with an amplifying effect in younger cells.
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October 2020

Age-induced and photoinduced changes in gene expression profiles in facial skin of Caucasian females across 6 decades of age.

J Am Acad Dermatol 2018 Jan 14;78(1):29-39.e7. Epub 2017 Nov 14.

The Procter & Gamble Company, Cincinnati, Ohio.

Background: Intrinsic and extrinsic factors, including ultraviolet irradiation, lead to visible signs of skin aging.

Objective: We evaluated molecular changes occurring in photoexposed and photoprotected skin of white women 20 to 74 years of age, some of whom appeared substantially younger than their chronologic age.

Methods: Histologic and transcriptomics profiling were conducted on skin biopsy samples of photoexposed (face and dorsal forearm) or photoprotected (buttocks) body sites from 158 women. 23andMe genotyping determined genetic ancestry.

Results: Gene expression and ontologic analysis revealed progressive changes from the 20s to the 70s in pathways related to oxidative stress, energy metabolism, senescence, and epidermal barrier; these changes were accelerated in the 60s and 70s. The gene expression patterns from the subset of women who were younger-appearing were similar to those in women who were actually younger.

Limitations: Broader application of these findings (eg, across races and Fitzpatrick skin types) will require further studies.

Conclusions: This study demonstrates a wide range of molecular processes in skin affected by aging, providing relevant targets for improving the condition of aging skin at different life stages and defining a molecular pattern of epidermal gene expression in women who appear younger than their chronologic age.
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January 2018

Understanding metabolic pathways for skin anti-aging.

J Drugs Dermatol 2009 Jul;8(7 Suppl):s4-7

P&G Beauty & Grooming, The Procter & Gamble Company, Miami Valley Innovation Center, Cincinnati, Ohio 45253, USA.

Global gene expression profiling provides a useful means to identify key aspects of the skin aging process, and provides information to help develop new skin technologies. Important aspects of skin aging that can be addressed include skin hydration, barrier, matrix, pigmentation and antioxidant capacity. Human skin equivalent cultures allow topical application of test compounds, combinations and products to their stratum corneum surface and measurement of predictive biomarkers. Using this in vitro biomarker approach, it is possible to detect skin barrier enhancement in response to the compounds niacinamide and hexamidine, matrix effects to the peptides Pal-KT and Pal-KTTKS, and hydration and matrix responses to niacinamide and N-acetylglucosamine.
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July 2009

Ontogeny of enhanced decorin levels and distribution within myocardium of failing hearts.

Connect Tissue Res 2002 ;43(1):32-43

Department of Human Nutrition, Kansas State University, 213 Justin Hall, Manhattan, KS 66506-1407, USA.

The proteoglycan, decorin, is a regulator of collagen fibril organization and its resulting functional properties. The temporal and spatial expression of decorin during the progression to heart failure is not well understood and may play a significant role in extracellular matrix remodeling. Decorin and types I and III collagen levels were measured in male Spontaneously Hypertensive Heart Failure (SHHF) and control Wistar-Furth rats at 2 and 8 mo, and at congestive heart failure (CHF). Decorin levels increased in the SHHF rats relative to the control rats in CHF. Type I collagen levels increased while type III levels decreased in the SHHF rats in CHF relative to the age matched controls. The SHHF rats have 48 and 45 KDa isoforms of the decorin core protein expressed at all ages while control Wistar-Furths produced only a 45 KDa form. Decorin was localized in the outer ventricle wall but during CHF, decorin was expressed throughout the ventricular myocardium. Immunogold localization of decorin demonstrated an increased distribution of decorin along the myocardium collagen fibrils at CHF. The enhanced expression and greater distribution of decorin may be linked to extracellular matrix remodeling which occurs with the development of heart failure.
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December 2002