Publications by authors named "Bradley A Krasnick"

40 Publications

Renal Function After Retroperitoneal Sarcoma Resection with Nephrectomy: A Matched Analysis of the United States Sarcoma Collaborative Database.

Ann Surg Oncol 2021 Mar 4;28(3):1690-1696. Epub 2020 Nov 4.

Department of Surgery, University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Nephrectomy often is required during en bloc resection of a retroperitoneal sarcoma (RPS) to achieve an R0 or R1 resection. The impact of nephrectomy on postoperative renal function in this patient population, who also may benefit from subsequent nephrotoxic systemic therapy, is not well described.

Methods: The United States Sarcoma Collaborative (USSC) database was queried for patients undergoing RPS resection between 2000 and 2016. Patients with missing pre- or postoperative measures of renal function were excluded. A matched cohort was created using coarsened exact matching. Weighted logistic regression was used to control further for differences between the nephrectomy and non-nephrectomy cohorts. The primary outcomes were postoperative acute kidney injury (AKI), acute renal failure (ARF), and dialysis.

Results: The initial cohort consisted of 858 patients, 3 (0.3%) of whom required postoperative dialysis. The matched cohort consisted of 411 patients, 108 (26%) of whom underwent nephrectomy. The patients who underwent nephrectomy had higher rates of postoperative AKI (14.8% vs 4.3%; p < 0.01) and ARF (4.6% vs 1.3%; p = 0.04), but no patients required dialysis postoperatively. Logistic regression modeling showed that the risk of AKI (odds ratio [OR], 5.16; p < 0.01) and ARF (OR 5.04; p < 0.01) after nephrectomy persisted despite controlling for age and preoperative renal function.

Conclusions: Nephrectomy is associated with an increased risk of postoperative AKI and ARF after RPS resection. This study was unable to statistically assess the impact of nephrectomy on postoperative dialysis, but the risk of postoperative dialysis is 0.5% or less regardless of nephrectomy status.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-09290-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7897241PMC
March 2021

A closer look at the natural history and recurrence patterns of high-grade truncal/extremity leiomyosarcomas: A multi-institutional analysis from the US Sarcoma Collaborative.

Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 30;34:292-297. Epub 2020 Jun 30.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA. Electronic address:

Background/objective: Natural history and outcomes for truncal/extremity (TE) soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is derived primarily from studies investigating all histiotypes as one homogenous cohort. We aimed to define the recurrence rate (RR), recurrence patterns, and response to radiation of TE leiomyosarcomas (LMS).

Methods: Patients from the US Sarcoma Collaborative database with primary, high-grade TE STS were identified. Patients were grouped into LMS or other histology (non-LMS). Primary endpoints were locoregional recurrence-free survival (LR-RFS), distant-RFS (D-RFS), and disease specific survival (DSS).

Results: Of 1215 patients, 93 had LMS and 1122 non-LMS. In LMS patients, median age was 63 and median tumor size was 6 cm. In non-LMS patients, median age was 58 and median tumor size was 8 cm. In LMS patients, overall RR was 42% with 15% LR-RR and 29% D-RR. The 3yr LR-RFS, D-RFS, and DSS were 84%, 65%, and 76%, respectively. When considering high-risk (>5 cm and high-grade, n = 49) LMS patients, the overall RR was 45% with 12% LR-RR and 35% D-RR. 61% received radiation. The 3yr LR-RFS (78vs93%, p = 0.39), D-RFS (53vs63%, p = 0.27), and DSS (67vs91%, p = 0.17) were similar in those who did and did not receive radiation. High-risk, non-LMS patients had a similar overall RR of 42% with 15% LR-RR and 30% D-RR. 60% of non-LMS patients received radiation. There was an improved 3yr LR-RFS (82vs75%, p = 0.030) and DSS (77vs65%,p = 0.007) in non-LMS patients who received radiation.

Conclusions: In our cohort, patients with LMS have a low local recurrence rate (12-15%) and modest distant recurrence rate (29-35%). However, LMS patients had no improvement in local control or long-term outcomes with radiation. The value of radiation in these patients merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.suronc.2020.06.003DOI Listing
September 2020

Indications and outcomes of enucleation versus formal pancreatectomy for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Aug 5. Epub 2020 Aug 5.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, 410 W 10th Ave, OH 43210, Columbus, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Pancreatoduodenectomy (PD) or distal pancreatectomy (DP) are common procedures for patients with a pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET). Nevertheless, certain patients may benefit from a pancreas-preserving resection such as enucleation (EN). The aim of this study was to define the indications and differences in long-term outcomes among patients undergoing EN and PD/DP.

Methods: Patients undergoing resection of a pNET between 1992 and 2016 were identified. Indications and outcomes were evaluated, and propensity score matching (PSM) analysis was performed to compare long-term outcomes between patients who underwent EN versus PD/DP.

Results: Among 1034 patients, 143 (13.8%) underwent EN, 304 (29.4%) PD, and 587 (56.8%) DP. Indications for EN were small size (1.5 cm, IQR:1.0-1.9), functional tumors (58.0%) that were mainly insulinomas (51.7%). After PSM (n = 109 per group), incidence of postoperative pancreatic fistula (POPF) grade B/C was higher after EN (24.5%) compared with PD/DP (14.0%) (p = 0.049). Median recurrence-free survival (RFS) was comparable among patients who underwent EN (47 months, 95% CI:23-71) versus PD/DP (37 months, 95% CI: 33-47, p = 0.480).

Conclusion: Comparable long-term outcomes were noted among patients who underwent EN versus PD/DP for pNET. The incidence of clinically significant POPF was higher after EN.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2020.06.015DOI Listing
August 2020

The clonal evolution of metastatic colorectal cancer.

Sci Adv 2020 Jun 10;6(24):eaay9691. Epub 2020 Jun 10.

The Alvin J. Siteman Comprehensive Cancer Center, Washington University in St. Louis, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Tumor heterogeneity and evolution drive treatment resistance in metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). Patient-derived xenografts (PDXs) can model mCRC biology; however, their ability to accurately mimic human tumor heterogeneity is unclear. Current genomic studies in mCRC have limited scope and lack matched PDXs. Therefore, the landscape of tumor heterogeneity and its impact on the evolution of metastasis and PDXs remain undefined. We performed whole-genome, deep exome, and targeted validation sequencing of multiple primary regions, matched distant metastases, and PDXs from 11 patients with mCRC. We observed intricate clonal heterogeneity and evolution affecting metastasis dissemination and PDX clonal selection. Metastasis formation followed both monoclonal and polyclonal seeding models. In four cases, metastasis-seeding clones were not identified in any primary region, consistent with a metastasis-seeding-metastasis model. PDXs underrepresented the subclonal heterogeneity of parental tumors. These suggest that single sample tumor sequencing and current PDX models may be insufficient to guide precision medicine.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1126/sciadv.aay9691DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7286679PMC
June 2020

Development and Validation of a Modified Eighth AJCC Staging System for Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Ann Surg 2020 Jun 4. Epub 2020 Jun 4.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Objective: To improve the prognostic accuracy of the eighth edition of AJCC staging system for pNETs with establishment and validation of a new staging system.

Background: Validation of the updated eighth AJCC staging system for pNETs has been limited and controversial.

Methods: Data from the SEER registry (1975-2016) (n = 3303) and a multi-institutional database (2000-2016) (n = 825) was used as development and validation cohorts, respectively. A mTNM was proposed by maintaining the eighth AJCC T and M definitions, and the recently proposed N status as N0 (no LNM), N1 (1-3 LNM), and N2 (≥4 LNM), but adopting a new stage classification.

Results: The eighth TNM staging system failed to stratify patients with stage I versus IIA, stage IIB versus IIIA, and overall stage I versus II relative to long-term OS in both database. There was a monotonic decrement in survival based on the proposed mTNM staging classification among patients derived from both the SEER (5-year OS, stage I 87.0% vs stage II 80.3% vs stage III 72.9% vs stage IV 57.2%, all P < 0.001), and multi-institutional (5-year OS, stage I 97.6% vs stage II 82.7% vs stage III 78.4% vs stage IV 50.0%, all P < 0.05) datasets. On multivariable analysis, mTNM staging remained strongly associated with prognosis, as the hazard of death incrementally increased with each stage among patients in the 2 cohorts.

Conclusion: A mTNM pNETs clinical staging system using N0, N1, N2 nodal categories was better at stratifying patients relative to long-term OS than the eighth AJCC staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000004039DOI Listing
June 2020

Long non-coding RNA RAMS11 promotes metastatic colorectal cancer progression.

Nat Commun 2020 05 1;11(1):2156. Epub 2020 May 1.

Department of Internal Medicine, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

Colorectal cancer (CRC) is the most common gastrointestinal malignancy in the U.S.A. and approximately 50% of patients develop metastatic disease (mCRC). Despite our understanding of long non-coding RNAs (lncRNAs) in primary colon cancer, their role in mCRC and treatment resistance remains poorly characterized. Therefore, through transcriptome sequencing of normal, primary, and distant mCRC tissues we find 148 differentially expressed RNAs Associated with Metastasis (RAMS). We prioritize RAMS11 due to its association with poor disease-free survival and promotion of aggressive phenotypes in vitro and in vivo. A FDA-approved drug high-throughput viability assay shows that elevated RAMS11 expression increases resistance to topoisomerase inhibitors. Subsequent experiments demonstrate RAMS11-dependent recruitment of Chromobox protein 4 (CBX4) transcriptionally activates Topoisomerase II alpha (TOP2α). Overall, recent clinical trials using topoisomerase inhibitors coupled with our findings of RAMS11-dependent regulation of TOP2α supports the potential use of RAMS11 as a biomarker and therapeutic target for mCRC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-020-15547-8DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7195452PMC
May 2020

Specific Growth Rate as a Predictor of Survival in Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Multi-institutional Study from the United States Neuroendocrine Study Group.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Oct 23;27(10):3915-3923. Epub 2020 Apr 23.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) are often indolent; however, identifying patients at risk for rapidly progressing variants is critical, particularly for those with small tumors who may be candidates for expectant management. Specific growth rate (SGR) has been predictive of survival in other malignancies but has not been examined in PNETs.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients who underwent PNET resection from 2000 to 2016 was performed utilizing the multi-institutional United States Neuroendocrine Study Group database. Patients with ≥ 2 preoperative cross-sectional imaging studies at least 30 days apart were included in our analysis (N = 288). Patients were grouped as "high SGR" or "low SGR." Demographic and clinical factors were compared between the groups. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analysis were used for survival analysis. Cox proportional hazard analysis was used to assess the impact of various clinical factors on overall survival (OS).

Results: High SGR was associated with higher T stage at resection, shorter doubling time, and elevated HbA1c (all P ≤ 0.01). Patients with high SGR had significantly decreased 5-year OS (63 vs 80%, P = 0.01) and disease-specific survival (72 vs 91%, P = 0.03) compared to those with low SGR. In patients with small (≤ 2 cm) tumors (N = 106), high SGR predicted lower 5-year OS (79 vs 96%, P = 0.01). On multivariate analysis, high SGR was independently associated with worse OS (hazard ratio 2.67, 95% confidence interval 1.05-6.84, P = 0.04).

Conclusion: High SGR is associated with worse survival in PNET patients. Evaluating PNET SGR may enhance clinical decision-making, particularly when weighing expectant management versus surgery in patients with small tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08497-4DOI Listing
October 2020

Neoadjuvant radiation improves margin-negative resection rates in extremity sarcoma but not survival.

J Surg Oncol 2020 Jun 30;121(8):1249-1258. Epub 2020 Mar 30.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio.

Background And Objectives: Radiation improves limb salvage in extremity sarcomas. Timing of radiation therapy remains under investigation. We sought to evaluate the effects of neoadjuvant radiation (NAR) on surgery and survival of patients with extremity sarcomas.

Materials And Methods: A multi-institutional database was used to identify patients with extremity sarcomas undergoing surgical resection from 2000-2016. Patients were categorized by treatment strategy: surgery alone, adjuvant radiation (AR), or NAR. Survival, recurrence, limb salvage, and surgical margin status was analyzed.

Results: A total of 1483 patients were identified. Most patients receiving radiotherapy had high-grade tumors (82% NAR vs 81% AR vs 60% surgery; P < .001). The radiotherapy groups had more limb-sparing operations (98% AR vs 94% NAR vs 87% surgery; P < .001). NAR resulted in negative margin resections (90% NAR vs 79% surgery vs 75% AR; P < .0001). There were fewer local recurrences in the radiation groups (14% NAR vs 17% AR vs 27% surgery; P = .001). There was no difference in overall or recurrence-free survival between the three groups (OS, P = .132; RFS, P = .227).

Conclusion: In this large study, radiotherapy improved limb salvage rates and decreased local recurrences. Receipt of NAR achieves more margin-negative resections however this did not improve local recurrence or survival rates over.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25905DOI Listing
June 2020

Impact of Insurance Status on Survival in Gastroenteropancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Sep 26;27(9):3147-3153. Epub 2020 Mar 26.

Department of Surgery, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA.

Background: Insurance status predicts access to medical care in the USA. Previous studies have shown uninsured patients with some malignancies have worse outcomes than insured patients. The impact of insurance status on patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (GEP-NETs) is unclear.

Patients And Methods: A retrospective cohort study of adult patients with resected GEP-NETs was performed using the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group (USNETSG) database (2000-2016). Demographic and clinical factors were compared by insurance status. Patients ≥ 65 years were excluded, as these patients are almost universally covered by Medicare. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were used for survival analysis. Logistic regression was used to assess factors associated with overall survival (OS).

Results: The USNETSG database included 2022 patients. Of those, 1425 were aged 18-64 years at index operation and were included in our analysis. Uninsured patients were more likely to have an emergent operation (7.9% versus 2.5%, p = 0.01) and less likely to receive postoperative somatostatin analog therapy (1.6% versus 9.9%, p = 0.03). OS at 1, 5, and 10 years was significantly higher for insured patients (96.3%, 88.2%, and 73.8%, respectively) than uninsured patients (87.7%, 71.9%, and 44.0%, respectively) (p < 0.01). On Cox multivariate regression analysis controlling for T/M stage, tumor grade, ASA class, and income level, being uninsured was independently associated with worse OS [hazard ratio (HR) 2.69, 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.32-5.48, p = 0.006].

Conclusions: Insurance status is an independent predictor of survival in patients with GEP-NETs. Our study highlights the importance of access to medical care, disparities related to insurance status, and the need to mitigate these disparities.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-020-08359-zDOI Listing
September 2020

Long-Term Outcomes after Spleen-Preserving Distal Pancreatectomy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: Results from the US Neuroendocrine Study Group.

Neuroendocrinology 2021 11;111(1-2):129-138. Epub 2020 Feb 11.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio, USA,

Background: The adoption of spleen-preserving distal pancreatectomy (SPDP) for malignant disease such as pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs) has been controversial. The objective of the current study was to assess the impact of SPDP on outcomes of patients with pNETs.

Methods: Patients undergoing a distal pancreatectomy for pNET between 2002 and 2016 were identified in the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to compare short- and long-term outcomes of patients undergoing SPDP versus distal pancreatectomy with splenectomy (DPS).

Results: Among 621 patients, 103 patients (16.6%) underwent an SPDP. Patients who underwent SPDP were more likely to have lower BMI (median, 27.5 [IQR 24.0-31.2] vs. 28.7 [IQR 25.7-33.6]; p = 0.005) and have undergone minimally invasive surgery (n = 56, 54.4% vs. n = 185, 35.7%; p < 0.001). After PSM, while the median total number of lymph nodes examined among patients who underwent an SPDP was lower compared with DPS (3 [IQR 1-8] vs. 9 [5-13]; p < 0.001), 5-year overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival (RFS) were comparable (OS: 96.8 vs. 92.0%, log-rank p = 0.21, RFS: 91.1 vs. 84.7%, log-rank p = 0.93). In addition, patients undergoing SPDP had less intraoperative blood loss (median, 100 mL [IQR 10-250] vs. 150 mL [IQR 100-400]; p = 0.001), lower incidence of serious complications (n = 13, 12.8% vs. n = 28, 27.5%; p = 0.014), and shorter length of stay (median: 5 days [IQR 4-7] vs. 6 days [IQR 5-13]; p = 0.049) compared with patients undergoing DPS.

Conclusion: SPDP for pNET was associated with acceptable perioperative and long-term outcomes that were comparable to DPS. SPDP should be considered for patients with pNET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1159/000506399DOI Listing
February 2020

Evaluating the ACS-NSQIP Risk Calculator in Primary GI Neuroendocrine Tumor: Results from the United States Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group.

Am Surg 2019 Dec;85(12):1334-1340

From the *Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

The ACS established an online risk calculator to help surgeons make patient-specific estimates of postoperative morbidity and mortality. Our objective was to assess the accuracy of the ACS-NSQIP calculator for estimating risk after curative intent resection for primary GI neuroendocrine tumors (GI-NETs). Adult patients with GI-NET who underwent complete resection from 2000 to 2017 were identified using a multi-institutional database, including data from eight academic medical centers. The ability of the NSQIP calculator to accurately predict a particular outcome was assessed using receiver operating characteristic curves and the area under the curve (AUC). Seven hundred three patients were identified who met inclusion criteria. The most commonly performed procedures were resection of the small intestine with anastomosis (N = 193, 26%) and partial colectomy with anastomosis (N = 136, 18%). The majority of patients were younger than 65 years (N = 482, 37%) and ASA Class III (N = 337, 48%). The most common comorbidities were diabetes (N = 128, 18%) and hypertension (N = 395, 56%). Complications among these patients based on ACS NSQIP definitions included any complication (N = 132, 19%), serious complication (N = 118, 17%), pneumonia (N = 7, 1.0%), cardiac complication (N = 1, 0.01%), SSI (N = 80, 11.4%), UTI (N = 17, 2.4%), venous thromboembolism (N = 18, 2.5%), renal failure (N = 16, 2.3%), return to the operating room (N = 27, 3.8%), discharge to nursing/rehabilitation (N = 22, 3.1%), and 30-day mortality (N = 9, 1.3%). The calculator provided reasonable estimates of risk for pneumonia (AUC = 0.721), cardiac complication (AUC = 0.773), UTI (AUC = 0.716), and discharge to nursing/rehabilitation (AUC = 0.779) and performed poorly (AUC < 0.7) for all other complications Fig. 1). The ACS-NSQIP risk calculator estimates a similar proportion of risk to actual events in patients with GI-NET but has low specificity for identifying the correct patients for many types of complications. The risk calculator may require modification for some patient populations.
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December 2019

Trends in the Number of Lymph Nodes Evaluated Among Patients with Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors in the United States: A Multi-Institutional and National Database Analysis.

Ann Surg Oncol 2020 Apr 14;27(4):1203-1212. Epub 2019 Dec 14.

Department of Surgery, Division of Surgical Oncology, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: The role of routine lymphadenectomy in the surgical treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNET) remains poorly defined. The objective of the current study was to investigate trends in the number of lymph nodes (LN) evaluated for pNET treatment at a nationwide level.

Methods: Patients undergoing surgery for pNET between 2000 and 2016 were identified in the U.S. Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group (US-NETSG) database as well as the Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results (SEER) database. The number of LNs examined was evaluated over time.

Results: The median number of evaluated LNs increased roughly fourfold over the study period (US-NETSG, 2000: 3 LNs vs. 2016: 13 LNs; SEER, 2000: 3 LNs vs. 2016: 11 LNs, both p < 0.001). While no difference in 5-year OS and RFS was noted among patients who had 1-3 lymph node metastases (LNM) vs. ≥ 4 LNM between 2000-2007 (OS 73.5% vs. 69.9%, p = 0.12; RFS: 64.9% vs. 40.1%, p = 0.39), patients who underwent resection and LN evaluation during the period 2008-2016 had an incrementally worse survival if the patient had node negative disease, 1-3 LNM and ≥ 4 LNM (OS 86.8% vs. 82.7% vs. 74.9%, p < 0.001; RFS: 86.3% vs. 64.7% vs. 50.4%, p < 0.001). On multivariable analysis, a more recent year of diagnosis, pancreatic head tumor location, and tumor size > 2 cm were associated with 12 or more LNs evaluated in both US-NETSG and SEER databases.

Conclusion: The number of LNs examined nearly quadrupled over the last decade. The increased number of LNs examined suggested a growing adoption of the AJCC staging manual recommendations regarding LN evaluation in the treatment of pNET.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-08120-1DOI Listing
April 2020

Tumor burden score predicts tumor recurrence of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors after curative resection.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Aug 9;22(8):1149-1157. Epub 2019 Dec 9.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To investigate the feasibility of Tumor Burden Score (TBS) to predict tumor recurrence following curative-intent resection of non-functional pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (NF-pNETs).

Method: The TBS cut-off values were determined by a statistical tool, X-tile. The influence of TBS on recurrence-free survival (RFS) was examined.

Results: Among 842 NF-pNETs patients, there was an incremental worsening of RFS as the TBS increased (5-year RFS, low, medium, and high TBS: 92.0%, 73.3%, and 59.3%, respectively; P < 0.001). TBS (AUC 0.74) out-performed both maximum tumor size (AUC 0.65) and number of tumors (AUC 0.5) to predict RFS (TBS vs. maximum tumor size, p = 0.05; TBS vs. number of tumors, p < 0.01). The impact of margin (low TBS: R0 80.4% vs. R1 71.9%, p = 0.01 vs. medium TBS: R0 55.8% vs. R1 37.5%, p = 0.67 vs. high TBS: R0 31.9% vs. R1 12.0%, p = 0.11) and nodal (5-year RFS, low TBS: N0 94.9% vs. N1 68.4%, p < 0.01 vs. medium TBS: N0 81.8% vs. N1 55.4%, p < 0.01 vs. high TBS: N0 58.0% vs. N1 54.2%, p = 0.15) status on 5-year RFS outcomes disappeared among patients who had higher TBS.

Conclusions: TBS was strongly associated with risk of recurrence and outperformed both tumor size and number alone.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2019.11.009DOI Listing
August 2020

Impact of perioperative blood transfusion on survival in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor patients: analysis from the US Neuroendocrine Study Group.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 Jul 2;22(7):1042-1050. Epub 2019 Dec 2.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Section of Surgical Sciences, Vanderbilt University Medical Center, Nashville, TN, USA. Electronic address:

Background: Packed red blood cell (PRBC) transfusion has been associated with worse survival in multiple malignancies but its impact on pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs) is unknown. The aim of this study was to determine the impact of PRBC transfusion on survival following PNET resection.

Methods: A retrospective cohort study of PNET patients was performed using the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group database. Demographic and clinical factors were compared. Kaplan-Meier and log-rank analyses were performed. Factors associated with transfusion, overall (OS), recurrence-free (RFS) and progression-free survival (PFS) were assessed by logistic regression.

Results: Of 1129 patients with surgically resected PNETs, 156 (13.8%) received perioperative PRBC transfusion. Transfused patients had higher ASA Class, lower preoperative hemoglobin, larger tumors, more nodal involvement, and increased major complications (all p < 0.010). Transfused patients had worse median OS (116 vs 150 months, p < 0.001), worse RFS (83 vs 128 months, p < 0.01) in curatively resected (n = 1047), and worse PFS (11 vs 24 months, p = 0.110) in non-curatively resected (n = 82) patients. On multivariable analysis, transfusion was associated with worse OS (HR 1.80, p = 0.011) when controlling for TNM stage, tumor grade, final resection status, and pre-operative anemia.

Conclusion: PRBC transfusion is associated with worse survival for patients undergoing PNET resection.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2019.10.2441DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7263954PMC
July 2020

Trends in the Use of Adjuvant Chemotherapy for High-Grade Truncal and Extremity Soft Tissue Sarcomas.

J Surg Res 2020 01 5;245:577-586. Epub 2019 Sep 5.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: In the randomized controlled trial (RCT) EORTC 62931, adjuvant chemotherapy failed to show improvement in relapse-free survival (RFS) or overall survival (OS) for patients with resected high-grade soft tissue sarcoma (STS). We evaluated whether the negative results of this 2012 RCT have influenced multidisciplinary treatment patterns for patients with high-grade STS undergoing resection at seven academic referral centers.

Methods: The U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative database was queried to identify patients who underwent curative-intent resection of primary high-grade truncal or extremity STS from 2000 to 2016. Patients with recurrent tumors, metastatic disease, and those receiving neoadjuvant chemotherapy were excluded. Patients were divided by treatment era into early (2000-2011, pre-European Organisation for Research and Treatment of Cancer [EORTC] trial) and late (2012-2016, post-EORTC trial) cohorts for analysis. Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy and clinicopathologic variables were compared between the two cohorts. Univariate and multivariate regression analyses were used to determine factors associated with OS and RFS.

Results: 949 patients who met inclusion criteria were identified, with 730 patients in the early cohort and 219 in the late cohort. Adjuvant chemotherapy rates were similar between the early and late cohorts (15.6% versus 14.6%; P = 0.73). Patients within the early and late cohorts demonstrated similar median OS (128 months versus median not reached, P = 0.84) and RFS (107 months versus median not reached, P = 0.94). Receipt of adjuvant chemotherapy was associated with larger tumor size (13.6 versus 8.9 cm, P < 0.001), younger age (53.3 versus 63.7 years, P < 0.001), and receipt of adjuvant radiation (P < 0.001). On multivariate regression analysis, risk factors associated with decreased OS were increasing American Society of Anesthesiologists class (P = 0.02), increasing tumor size (P < 0.001), and margin-positive resection (P = 0.01). Adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with OS (P = 0.88). Risk factors associated with decreased RFS included increasing tumor size (P < 0.001) and margin-positive resection (P = 0.03); adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with RFS (P = 0.23).

Conclusions: Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy for resected high-grade truncal or extremity STS have not decreased over time within the U.S. Sarcoma Collaborative, despite RCT data suggesting a lack of efficacy. In this retrospective multi-institutional analysis, adjuvant chemotherapy was not associated with RFS or OS on multivariate analysis, consistent with the results from EORTC 62931. Rates of adjuvant chemotherapy for high-grade STS were low in both cohorts but may be influenced more by selection bias based on clinicopathologic variables such as tumor size, margin status, and patient age than by prospective, randomized data.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2019.08.002DOI Listing
January 2020

Precision delivery of RAS-inhibiting siRNA to KRAS driven cancer via peptide-based nanoparticles.

Oncotarget 2019 Jul 30;10(46):4761-4775. Epub 2019 Jul 30.

Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, Saint Louis, MO, USA.

Over 95% of pancreatic adenocarcinomas (PDACs), as well as a large fraction of other tumor types, such as colorectal adenocarcinoma, are driven by KRAS activation. However, no direct RAS inhibitors exist for cancer therapy. Furthermore, the delivery of therapeutic agents of any kind to PDAC in particular has been hindered by the extensive desmoplasia and resultant drug delivery challenges that accompanies these tumors. Small interfering RNA (siRNA) is a promising modality for anti-neoplastic therapy due to its precision and wide range of potential therapeutic targets. Unfortunately, siRNA therapy is limited by low serum half-life, vulnerability to intracellular digestion, and transient therapeutic effect. We assessed the ability of a peptide based, oligonucleotide condensing, endosomolytic nanoparticle (NP) system to deliver siRNA to KRAS-driven cancers. We show that this peptide-based NP is avidly taken up by cancer cells , can deliver KRAS-specific siRNA, inhibit KRAS expression, and reduce cell viability. We further demonstrate that this system can deliver siRNA to the tumor microenvironment, reduce KRAS expression, and inhibit pancreatic cancer growth . In a spontaneous KPPC model of PDAC, this system effectively delivers siRNA to stroma-rich tumors. This model has the potential for translational relevance for patients with KRAS driven solid tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.27109DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6677667PMC
July 2019

New Nodal Staging for Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: A Multi-institutional and National Data Analysis.

Ann Surg 2019 Jul 26. Epub 2019 Jul 26.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH.

Objective: To determine the prognostic role of metastatic lymph node (LN) number and the minimal number of LNs for optimal staging of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (pNETs).

Background: Prognosis relative to number of LN metastasis (LNM), and minimal number of LNs needed to evaluate for accurate staging, have been poorly defined for pNETs.

Methods: Number of LNM and total number of LN evaluated (TNLE) were assessed relative to recurrence-free survival (RFS) and overall survival (OS) in a multi-institutional database. External validation was performed using Surveillance, Epidemiology and End Results (SEER) registry.

Results: Among 854 patients who underwent resection, 233 (27.3%) had at least 1 LNM. Patients with 1, 2, or 3 LNM had a comparable worse RFS versus patients with no nodal metastasis (5-year RFS, 1 LNM 65.6%, 2 LNM 68.2%, 3 LNM 63.2% vs 0 LNM 82.6%; all P < 0.001). In contrast, patients with ≥4 LNM (proposed N2) had a worse RFS versus patients who either had 1 to 3 LNM (proposed N1) or node-negative disease (5-year RFS, ≥4 LNM 43.5% vs 1-3 LNM 66.3%, 0 LNM 82.6%; all P < 0.05) [C-statistics area under the curve (AUC) 0.650]. TNLE ≥8 had the highest discriminatory power relative to RFS (AUC 0.713) and OS (AUC 0.726) among patients who had 1 to 3 LNM, and patients who had ≥4 LNM in the multi-institutional and SEER database (n = 2764).

Conclusions: Regional lymphadenectomy of at least 8 lymph nodes was necessary to stage patients accurately. The proposed nodal staging of N0, N1, and N2 optimally staged patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000003478DOI Listing
July 2019

Predictors of Disease-Free and Overall Survival in Retroperitoneal Sarcomas: A Modern 16-Year Multi-Institutional Study from the United States Sarcoma Collaboration (USSC).

Sarcoma 2019 2;2019:5395131. Epub 2019 Jun 2.

University of Wisconsin, Madison, WI, USA.

Background: Retroperitoneal sarcomas (RPS) comprise approximately 15% of all soft-tissue sarcomas and frequently associated with significant morbidity and as little as 30% 5-year survival. Here, we provide a large, contemporary, and multi-institutional experience to determine which tumor, patient, and treatment characteristics are associated with long-term outcomes in RPS.

Methods: 571 patients with primary RPS were identified from the United States Sarcoma Collaboration (USSC). RPS patients who underwent resection from January 2000 to April 2016 were included with patient, tumor, and treatment-specific variables investigated as independent predictors of survival. Survival analyses for disease-free and overall survival were conducted using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards model methods.

Results: The study cohort was 55% female, with a median age of 58.9 years (IQR: 48.6-70.0). The most common tumor histiotypes were liposarcoma (34%) and leiomyosarcoma (28%). Median follow-up was 30.6 months (IQR: 11.2-60.4). Median disease-free survival was 35.3 months (95% CI: 27.6-43.0), with multivariate predictors of poorer disease-free survival including higher grade tumors, nodal-positive disease, and multivisceral resection. Median overall survival was 81.6 months (95% CI: 66.3-96.8). Multivariate predictors of shorter overall survival included higher grade tumors, nodal-positive and multifocal disease, systemic chemotherapy, and grossly positive margins (2) following resection.

Conclusions: The strongest predictors of disease-free and overall survival are tumor-specific characteristics, while surgical factors are less impactful. Nonsurgical therapies are not associated with improved outcomes despite persistent interest and utilization. Complete macroscopic resection (0/1) remains a persistent potentially modifiable risk factor associated with improved overall survival in patients with retroperitoneal sarcomas.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2019/5395131DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6589263PMC
June 2019

Resection of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: defining patterns and time course of recurrence.

HPB (Oxford) 2020 02 21;22(2):215-223. Epub 2019 Jun 21.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University, Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA. Electronic address:

Background: To define recurrence patterns and time course, as well as risk factors associated with recurrence following curative resection of pNETs.

Method: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for pNET between 1997 and 2016 were identified from the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group. Data on baseline and tumor-specific characteristics, overall survival (OS), timing and first-site of recurrence, predictors and recurrence management were analyzed.

Results: Among 1020 patients, 154 (15.1%) patients developed recurrence. Among patients who experienced recurrence, 76 (49.4%) had liver-only recurrence, while 35 (22.7%) had pancreas-only recurrence. The proportion of liver-only recurrence increased from 54.3% within one-year after surgery to 61.5% from four-to-six years after surgery; whereas the proportion of pancreas-only recurrence decreased from 26.1% to 7.7% over these time periods. While liver-only recurrence was associated with tumor characteristics, pancreas-only recurrence was only associated with surgical margin status. Patients undergoing curative resection of recurrence had comparable OS with patients who had no recurrence (median OS, pancreas-only recurrence, 133.9 months; liver-only recurrence, not attained; no recurrence, 143.0 months, p = 0.499) CONCLUSIONS: Different recurrence patterns and timing course, as well as risk factors suggest biological heterogeneity of pNET recurrence. A personalized approach to postoperative surveillance and treatment of recurrence disease should be considered.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2019.05.020DOI Listing
February 2020

Defining the Role of Lymphadenectomy for Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumors: An Eight-Institution Study of 695 Patients from the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Aug 19;26(8):2517-2524. Epub 2019 Apr 19.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Preoperative factors that reliably predict lymph node (LN) metastases in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) are unclear. The number of LNs needed to accurately stage PanNETs has not been defined.

Methods: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection of non-functional PanNETs at eight institutions from 2000 to 2016 were analyzed. Preoperative factors associated with LN metastases were identified. A procedure-specific target for LN retrieval to accurately stage patients was determined.

Results: Of 695 patients who underwent resection, 33% of tumors were proximal (head/uncinate) and 67% were distal (neck/body/tail). Twenty-six percent of patients (n = 158) had LN-positive disease, which was associated with a worse 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS; 60% vs. 86%; p < 0.001). The increasing number of positive LNs was not associated with worse RFS. Preoperative factors associated with positive LNs included tumor size ≥ 2 cm (odds ratio [OR] 6.6; p < 0.001), proximal location (OR 2.5; p < 0.001), moderate versus well-differentiation (OR 2.1; p = 0.006), and Ki-67 ≥ 3% (OR 3.1; p < 0.001). LN metastases were also present in tumors without these risk factors: < 2 cm (9%), distal location (19%), well-differentiated (23%), and Ki-67 < 3% (16%). Median LN retrieval was 13 for pancreatoduodenectomy (PD), but only 9 for distal pancreatectomy (DP). Given that PD routinely includes a complete regional lymphadenectomy, a minimum number of LNs to accurately stage patients was not identified. However, for DP, removal of less than seven LNs failed to discriminate 5-year RFS between LN-positive and LN-negative patients (less than seven LNs: 72% vs. 83%, p = 0.198; seven or more LNs: 67% vs. 86%; p = 0.002).

Conclusions: Tumor size ≥ 2 cm, proximal location, moderate differentiation, and Ki-67 ≥ 3% are preoperative factors that predict LN positivity in resected non-functional PanNETs. Given the 9-23% incidence of LN metastases in patients without such risk factors, routine regional lymphadenectomy should be considered. PD inherently includes sufficient LN retrieval, while DP should aim to remove seven or more LNs for accurate staging.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07367-yDOI Listing
August 2019

Minimally invasive versus open distal pancreatectomy for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors: An analysis from the U.S. neuroendocrine tumor study group.

J Surg Oncol 2019 Aug 18;120(2):231-240. Epub 2019 Apr 18.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, Ohio.

Background: To determine short- and long-term oncologic outcomes after minimally invasive distal pancreatectomy (MIDP) with open distal pancreatectomy (ODP) for the treatment of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor (pNET).

Methods: The data of the patients who underwent curative MIDP or ODP for pNET between 2000 and 2016 were collected from a multi-institutional database. Propensity score matching (PSM) was used to generate 1:1 matched patients with MIDP and ODP.

Results: A total of 576 patients undergoing curative DP for pNET were included. Two hundred and fourteen (37.2%) patients underwent MIDP, whereas 362 (62.8%) underwent ODP. MIDP was increasingly performed over time (2000-2004: 9.3% vs 2013-2016: 54.8%; P < 0.01). In the matched cohort (n = 141 in each group), patients who underwent MIDP had less blood loss (median, 100 vs 200 mL, P < 0.001), lower incidence of Clavien-Dindo ≥ III complications (12.1% vs 24.8%, P = 0.026), and a shorter hospital stay versus ODP (median, 4 versus 7 days, P = 0.026). Patients who underwent MIDP had a lower incidence of recurrence (5-year cumulative recurrence, 10.1% vs 31.1%, P < 0.001), yet equivalent overall survival (OS) rate (5-year OS, 92.1% vs 90.9%, P = 0.550) compared with patients who underwent OPD.

Conclusion: Patients undergoing MIDP over ODP in the treatment of pNET had comparable oncologic surgical metrics, as well as similar long-term OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25481DOI Listing
August 2019

Evaluating the ACS NSQIP Risk Calculator in Primary Pancreatic Neuroendocrine Tumor: Results from the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group.

J Gastrointest Surg 2019 11 2;23(11):2225-2231. Epub 2019 Apr 2.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH, USA.

Background: In a changing health care environment where patient outcomes will be more closely scrutinized, the ability to predict surgical complications is becoming increasingly important. The American College of Surgeons National Surgical Quality Improvement Program (ACS NSQIP) online risk calculator is a popular tool to predict surgical risk. This paper aims to assess the applicability of the ACS NSQIP calculator to patients undergoing surgery for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PNETs).

Methods: Using the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group (USNET-SG), 890 patients who underwent pancreatic procedures between 1/1/2000-12/31/2016 were evaluated. Predicted and actual outcomes were compared using C-statistics and Brier scores.

Results: The most commonly performed procedure was distal pancreatectomy, followed by standard and pylorus-preserving pancreaticoduodenectomy. For the entire group of patients studied, C-statistics were highest for discharge destination (0.79) and cardiac complications (0.71), and less than 0.7 for all other complications. The Brier scores for surgical site infection (0.1441) and discharge to nursing/rehabilitation facility (0.0279) were below the Brier score cut-off, while the rest were equal to or above and therefore not useful for interpretation.

Conclusion: This work indicates that the ACS NSQIP risk calculator is a valuable tool that should be used with caution and in coordination with clinical assessment for PNET clinical decision-making.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-019-04120-4DOI Listing
November 2019

Association of Perioperative Transfusion with Recurrence and Survival After Resection of Distal Cholangiocarcinoma: A 10-Institution Study from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium.

Ann Surg Oncol 2019 Jun 15;26(6):1814-1823. Epub 2019 Mar 15.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, GA, USA.

Background: Perioperative allogeneic blood transfusion is associated with poor oncologic outcomes in multiple malignancies. The effect of blood transfusion on recurrence and survival in distal cholangiocarcinoma (DCC) is not known.

Methods: All patients with DCC who underwent curative-intent pancreaticoduodenectomy at 10 institutions from 2000 to 2015 were included. Primary outcomes were recurrence-free (RFS) and overall survival (OS).

Results: Among 314 patients with DCC, 191 (61%) underwent curative-intent pancreaticoduodenectomy. Fifty-three patients (28%) received perioperative blood transfusions, with a median of 2 units. There were no differences in baseline demographics or operative data between transfusion and no-transfusion groups. Compared with no-transfusion, patients who received a transfusion were more likely to have (+) margins (28 vs 14%; p = 0.034) and major complications (46 vs 16%; p < 0.001). Transfusion was associated with worse median RFS (19 vs 32 months; p = 0.006) and OS (15 vs 29 months; p = 0.003), which persisted on multivariable (MV) analysis for both RFS [hazard ratio (HR) 1.8; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.1-3.0; p = 0.031] and OS (HR 1.9; 95% CI 1.1-3.3; p = 0.018), after controlling for portal vein resection, estimated blood loss (EBL), grade, lymphovascular invasion (LVI), and major complications. Similarly, transfusion of ≥ 2 pRBCs was associated with lower RFS (17 vs 32 months; p < 0.001) and OS (14 vs 29 months; p < 0.001), which again persisted on MV analysis for both RFS (HR 2.6; 95% CI 1.4-4.5; p = 0.001) and OS (HR 4.0; 95% CI 2.2-7.5; p < 0.001). The RFS and OS of patients transfused 1 unit was comparable to patients who were not transfused.

Conclusion: Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with decreased RFS and OS after resection for distal cholangiocarcinoma, after accounting for known adverse pathologic factors. Volume of transfusion seems to exert an independent effect, as 1 unit was not associated with the same adverse effects as ≥ 2 units.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1245/s10434-019-07306-xDOI Listing
June 2019

Influence of carcinoid syndrome on the clinical characteristics and outcomes of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendocrine tumors undergoing operative resection.

Surgery 2019 03 28;165(3):657-663. Epub 2018 Oct 28.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

Background: The incidence, clinical characteristics, and long-term outcomes of patients with gastroenteropancreatic neuroendrocrine tumors and carcinoid syndrome undergoing operative resection have not been well characterized.

Methods: Patients undergoing resection of primary or metastatic gastroenteropancreatic neuroendrocrine tumors between 2000 and 2016 were identified from an 8-institution collaborative database. Clinicopathologic and postoperative characteristics as well as overall survival and disease-free survival were compared among patients with and without carcinoid syndrome.

Results: Among 2,182 patients who underwent resection, 139 (6.4%) had preoperative carcinoid syndrome. Patients with carcinoid syndrome were more likely to have midgut primary tumors (44.6% vs 21.4%, P < .001), lymph node metastasis (63.4% vs 44.3%, P < .001), and metastatic disease (62.8% vs 26.7%, P < .001). There was no difference in tumor differentiation, grade, or Ki67 status. Perioperative carcinoid crisis was rare (1.6% vs 0%, P < .01), and the presence of preoperative carcinoid syndrome was not associated with postoperative morbidity (38.8% vs 45.5%, P = .129). Substantial symptom improvement was reported in 59.5% of patients who underwent curative-intent resection, but occurred in only 22.7% who underwent debulking. Despite an association on univariate analysis (P = .04), carcinoid syndrome was not independently associated with disease-free survival after controlling for confounding factors (hazard ratio 0.97, 95% confidence interval 0.64-1.45). Preoperative carcinoid syndrome was not associated with overall survival on univariate or multivariate analysis.

Conclusion: Among patients undergoing operative resection of gastroenteropancreatic neuroendrocrine tumors, the prevalence of preoperative carcinoid syndrome was low. Although operative intervention with resection or especially debulking in patients with carcinoid syndrome was disappointing and often failed to improve symptoms, after controlling for markers of tumor burden, carcinoid syndrome was not independently associated with worse disease-free survival or overall survival.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.09.008DOI Listing
March 2019

Surgery Provides Long-Term Survival in Patients with Metastatic Neuroendocrine Tumors Undergoing Resection for Non-Hormonal Symptoms.

J Gastrointest Surg 2019 01 17;23(1):122-134. Epub 2018 Oct 17.

Division of Surgical Oncology, The Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, 320 W 10th Ave, M256 Starling Loving Hall, Columbus, OH, 43210-1267, USA.

Introduction: Patients with metastatic neuroendocrine tumor (NET) often have an indolent disease course yet the outcomes for patients with metastatic NET undergoing surgery for non-hormonal (NH) symptoms of GI obstruction, bleeding, or pain is not known.

Methods: We identified patients with metastatic gastroenteropancreatic NET who underwent resection from 2000 to 2016 at 8 academic institutions who participated in the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group.

Results: Of 581 patients with metastatic NET to liver (61.3%), lymph nodes (24.1%), lung (2.1%), and bone (2.5%), 332 (57.1%) presented with NH symptoms of pain (n = 223, 67.4%), GI bleeding (n = 54, 16.3%), GI obstruction (n = 49, 14.8%), and biliary obstruction (n = 22, 6.7%). Most patients were undergoing their first operation (85.4%) within 4 weeks of diagnosis. The median overall survival was 110.4 months, and operative intent predicted survival (p < 0.001) with 66.3% undergoing curative resection. Removal of all metastatic disease was associated with the longest median survival (112.5 months) compared to debulking (89.2 months), or palliative resection (50.0 months; p < 0.001). The 1-, 3-, and 12-month mortality was 3.0%, 4.5%, and 9.0%, respectively. Factors associated with 1-year mortality included palliative operations (OR 6.54, p = 0.006), foregut NET (5.62, p = 0.042), major complication (4.91, p = 0.001), and high tumor grade (11.2, p < 0.001). The conditional survival for patients who lived past 1 year was 119 months.

Conclusions: Patients with metastatic NET and NH symptoms that necessitate surgery have long-term survival, and goals of care should focus on both oncologic and quality of life impact. Surgical intervention remains a critical component of multidisciplinary care of symptomatic patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-018-3986-4DOI Listing
January 2019

Margin status and long-term prognosis of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumor after curative resection: Results from the US Neuroendocrine Tumor Study Group.

Surgery 2019 03 29;165(3):548-556. Epub 2018 Sep 29.

Division of Surgical Oncology, the Ohio State University Wexner Medical Center and James Comprehensive Cancer Center, Columbus, OH. Electronic address:

Background: The impact of margin status on resection of primary pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors has been poorly defined. The objectives of the present study were to determine the impact of margin status on long-term survival of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors after curative resection and evaluate the impact of reresection to obtain a microscopically negative margin.

Methods: Patients who underwent curative-intent resection for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors between 2000 and 2016 were identified at 8 hepatobiliary centers. Overall and recurrence-free survival were analyzed relative to surgical margin status using univariable and multivariable analyses.

Results: Among 1,020 patients, 866 (84.9%) had an R0 (>1 mm margin) resection, whereas 154 (15.1%) had an R1 (≤1 mm margin) resection. R1 resection was associated with a worse recurrence-free survival (10-year recurrence-free survival, R1 47.3% vs R0 62.8%, hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.2-2.7, P = .002); residual tumor at either the transection margin (R1t) or the mobilization margin (R1m) was associated with increased recurrence versus R0 (R1t versus R0: hazard ratio 1.8, 95% confidence interval 1.0-3.0, P = .033; R1m versus R0: hazard ratio 1.3, 95% confidence interval 1.0-1.7, P = .060). In contrast, margin status was not associated with overall survival (10-year overall survival, R1 71.1% vs R0 71.8%, P = .392). Intraoperatively, 539 (53.6%) patients had frozen section evaluation of the surgical margin; 49 (9.1%) patients had a positive margin on frozen section analysis; 38 of the 49 patients (77.6%) had reresection, and a final R0 (secondary R0) margin was achieved in 30 patients (78.9%). Extending resection to achieve an R0 status remained associated with worse overall survival (hazard ratio 3.1, 95% confidence interval 1.6-6.2, P = .001) and recurrence-free survival (hazard ratio 2.6, 95% confidence interval 1.4-5.0, P = .004) compared with primary R0 resection. On multivariable analyses, tumor-specific factors, such as cellular differentiation, perineural invasion, Ki-67 index, and major vascular invasion, rather than surgical margin, were associated with long-term outcomes.

Conclusion: Margin status was not associated with long-term survival. The reresection of an initially positive surgical margin to achieve a negative margin did not improve the outcome of patients with pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors. Parenchymal-sparing pancreatic procedures for pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors may be appropriate when feasible.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.surg.2018.08.015DOI Listing
March 2019

Perioperative chemotherapy is not associated with improved survival in high-grade truncal sarcoma.

J Surg Res 2018 11 23;231:248-256. Epub 2018 Jun 23.

Department of Surgery, The Ohio State University, Columbus, Ohio. Electronic address:

Background: The treatment benefit of perioperative chemotherapy (CTX) for truncal soft tissue sarcoma (STS) is not well established. This study evaluates the association of CTX with survival for patients with resected primary high-grade truncal STS.

Materials And Methods: Adult patients with high-grade truncal STS who had curative-intent resection from 2000 to 2016 at seven U.S. institutions were evaluated retrospectively. Patients were stratified by receipt of CTX. Kaplan-Meier curves with log-rank tests were used to compare overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free survival. Logistic regression models were used to evaluate characteristics associated with OS.

Results: Of patients with primary high-grade truncal STS, 235 underwent curative-intent resections. The most common histology was undifferentiated pleomorphic sarcoma and mean tumor size was 7.8 cm. Thirty percent of the patients received CTX (n = 70). Among patients receiving CTX, 34% (n = 24) had neoadjuvant CTX, 44% (n = 31) adjuvant CTX, and 21% (n = 15) had neoadjuvant and adjuvant CTX. Patients receiving CTX were more likely to receive radiation (51% versus 34%, P = 0.01), have deep tumors (86% versus 73%, P = 0.037) and solid organ invasion (14% versus 3%, P = 0.001). On univariate analysis, patients who received CTX had worse OS (P < 0.01) and a trend toward worse recurrence-free survival (P = 0.08). Margin status was the only variable associated with improved OS on multivariate analysis (odds ratio 4.36, 95% confidence interval 1.56, 12.13, P < 0.01).

Conclusions: In this multi-institutional retrospective analysis of resected high-grade truncal STS, receipt of perioperative CTX was not associated with improved OS, which may be related to selection bias. Microscopically negative margin status was the only independent factor associated with OS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jss.2018.05.030DOI Listing
November 2018

Recruitment of CCR2 tumor associated macrophage to sites of liver metastasis confers a poor prognosis in human colorectal cancer.

Oncoimmunology 2018;7(9):e1470729. Epub 2018 Aug 1.

Department of Surgery, Washington University School of Medicine, St. Louis, MO, USA.

The tumor microenvironment (TME) represents a significant barrier to creating effective therapies for metastatic colorectal cancer (mCRC). In several malignancies, bone marrow derived CCR2 inflammatory monocytes (IM) are recruited to the TME by neoplastic cells, where they become immunosuppressive tumor associated macrophages (TAM). Here we report that mCRC expression of the chemokine CCL2 facilitates recruitment of CCR2 IM from the bone marrow to the peripheral blood. Immune monitoring of circulating monocytes in patients with mCRC found this influx was a prognostic biomarker and correlated with worse clinical outcomes. At the metastatic site, mCRC liver tumors were heavily infiltrated by TAM, which displayed a robust ability to dampen endogenous anti-tumor lymphocyte activity. Using a murine model of mCRC that recapitulates these findings from human disease, we show that targeting CCR2 reduces TAM accumulation in liver metastasis and restores anti-tumor immunity. Additional quantitative analysis of hepatic metastatic tumor burden and treatment efficacy found that administration of a small molecule CCR2 inhibitor (CCR2i) improves chemotherapeutic responses and increases overall survival in mice with mCRC liver tumors. Our study suggests that targeting the CCL2/CCR2 chemokine axis decreases TAM at the metastatic site, disrupting the immunosuppressive TME and rendering mCRC susceptible to anti-tumor T-cell responses.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2018.1470729DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6140580PMC
August 2018

Association of perioperative transfusion with survival and recurrence after resection of gallbladder cancer: A 10-institution study from the US Extrahepatic Biliary Malignancy Consortium.

J Surg Oncol 2018 Jun 14;117(8):1638-1647. Epub 2018 May 14.

Division of Surgical Oncology, Department of Surgery, Winship Cancer Institute, Emory University, Atlanta, Georgia.

Background And Objectives: Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with poor outcomes in several malignancies. Its effect in gallbladder cancer (GBC) is unknown.

Methods: All patients with GBC who underwent curative-intent resection at 10-institutions from 2000 to 2015 were included. The effect of blood transfusion on overall survival (OS) and recurrence-free (RFS) was evaluated.

Results: Of 262 patients with curative-intent resection for GBC, 61 patients (23%) received blood transfusions. Radical cholecystectomy was the most common procedure (80%), but major hepatectomy was more frequent in the transfusion versus no-transfusion group (13% vs 4%; P = 0.02). The transfusion group was less likely to have incidentally discovered disease (57% vs 74%) and receive adjuvant therapy (29% vs 48%), but more likely to have preoperative jaundice (23% vs 11%), T3/T4 tumors (60% vs 39%), LVI (71% vs 40%), PNI (71% vs 48%), and major complications (39% vs 12%) (all P < 0.05). Transfusion was associated with lower median OS compared to no-transfusion (20 vs 32 mos; P < 0.001), which persisted on multivariable (MV) analysis (HR:1.9; 95%CI 1.1-3.5; P = 0.035), controlling for comorbidities, serum albumin, INR, preoperative jaundice, major hepatectomy, incidental discovery, margin status, T-Stage, LN status, and major complications. Median RFS of transfused patients was 13mo compared to 49mo for non-transfused patients (P = 0.1). Transfusion, however, was an independent predictor of decreased RFS on MV analysis (HR:2.3; 95%CI 1.1-5.1; P = 0.035).

Conclusions: Perioperative blood transfusion is associated with decreased OS and RFS after resection for GCC, accounting for other adverse factors. Transfusions should thus be administered with well-defined protocols.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/jso.25086DOI Listing
June 2018