Publications by authors named "Brad Greatrix"

2 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

Beta-carotene and apocarotenals promote retinoid signaling in BEAS-2B human bronchioepithelial cells.

Arch Biochem Biophys 2006 Nov 20;455(1):48-60. Epub 2006 Sep 20.

DSM Nutritional Products, R&D, Human Nutrition and Health, P. O. Box 3255, CH-4002 Basel, Switzerland.

High dose beta-carotene supplementation of smokers was associated with increased lung cancer risk in two intervention trials. It was proposed that generation of apocarotenals in smoke-exposed lungs impaired retinoic acid (RA) signaling, leading to squamous metaplasia and cell proliferation. To test this, we compared RA target gene regulation by retinoids, apocarotenals or beta-carotene by transcriptomics in BEAS-2B cells cultured to promote squamous differentiation. Retinoids, beta-carotene as well as apocarotenals induced known RA target genes. Retinoids upregulated involucrin, indicating that retinoids did not rescue BEAS-2B cells from squamous differentiation. Muc5AC, a marker for mucous differentiation, was transiently induced. beta-Carotene and apocarotenals less strongly induced involucrin and did not induce muc5AC. In summary, apocarotenals or beta-carotene upregulated RA target genes suggesting promotion, not inhibition, of RA signaling in BEAS-2B cells. Furthermore, apocarotenals and beta-carotene regulated gene expression independently of RA signaling. Squamous differentiation is not unequivocally linked to RA deficiency in BEAS-2B cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.abb.2006.08.023DOI Listing
November 2006

beta-carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform mRNA expression patterns do not influence lung adenoma multiplicity in the NNK-initiated A/J mouse model.

Nutr Cancer 2006 ;54(2):252-62

DSM Nutritional Products Ltd, Research and Development, Human Nutrition and Health, Basel, Switzerland.

A number of epidemiological studies have reported associations of beta-carotene plasma levels or intake with decreased lung cancer risk. However, intervention studies in smokers reported increased lung tumor rates after high long-term beta-carotene supplementation. For insight into these conflicting results, we studied the influence of beta-carotene on tobacco smoke carcinogen-induced lung cancer development in the A/J-mouse using 4-(N-Methyl-N-nitro samino)-1-(3-pyridyl)-1-butanone (NNK) as the initiator and lung adenoma multiplicity as the functional endpoint. Gene regulation of the putative tumor suppressor RARbeta in mouse lung was analyzed by quantitative real-time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) for its relevance in predicting the endpoint of lung cancer. A/J-mice achieved plasma beta-carotene levels of up to 3 micromol/L within 4 wk and up to 6 micromol/L after 6 mo of supplementation on a diet modified to enhance beta-carotene absorption. Despite high lung beta-carotene concentrations of up to 6 micromol/kg, tumor multiplicity was not significantly affected by the beta-carotene treatment, either in carcinogen-initiated or non-initiated mice, and was unrelated to beta-carotene dose and the time point of treatment during cancer formation. Tumor multiplicity did not correlate with beta-carotene plasma levels in NNK-treated animals. All RARbeta isoforms were significantly suppressed in the lungs of NNK- and NNK plus high dose beta-carotene-treated animals. However, the number of tumors per mouse did not correlate with the RARbeta-isoform expression levels. beta-carotene alone after 3 mo of supplementation mildly but significantly increased levels of RARbeta1, beta2, and beta4. This increase persisted for 6 mo for RARbeta2 and beta4. In summary, we found no effect of beta-carotene on tumor formation in the NNK-initiated A/J-mouse lung cancer model with respect to dose or time point of treatment. beta-Carotene-induced changes in RARbeta isoform gene expression levels were not predictive for the number of lung tumors but were indicative of intact beta-carotene metabolism and persistent sensitivity to retinoic acid in the mice. Down-regulation of RARbeta in NNK-induced adenoma-bearing lungs was similar to that observed in human lung cancer and further confirms the A/J-mouse as a valuable model for lung carcinogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1207/s15327914nc5402_12DOI Listing
December 2006