Publications by authors named "Brad G Wouters"

6 Publications

  • Page 1 of 1

tissue pathology from spatially encoded mass spectrometry classifiers visualized in real time through augmented reality.

Chem Sci 2020 Jul 23;11(33):8723-8735. Epub 2020 Jul 23.

Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, University Health Network 100 College Street, Room 7-207, MaRS Building, Princess Margaret Cancer Research Tower, 7th floor (STTARR) Toronto ON M5G 1P5 Canada +1-416-581-8473.

Integration between a hand-held mass spectrometry desorption probe based on picosecond infrared laser technology (PIRL-MS) and an optical surgical tracking system demonstrates tissue pathology from point-sampled mass spectrometry data. Spatially encoded pathology classifications are displayed at the site of laser sampling as color-coded pixels in an augmented reality video feed of the surgical field of view. This is enabled by two-way communication between surgical navigation and mass spectrometry data analysis platforms through a custom-built interface. Performance of the system was evaluated using murine models of human cancers sampled in the presence of body fluids with a technical pixel error of 1.0 ± 0.2 mm, suggesting a 84% or 92% (excluding one outlier) cancer type classification rate across different molecular models that distinguish cell-lines of each class of breast, brain, head and neck murine models. Further, through end-point immunohistochemical staining for DNA damage, cell death and neuronal viability, spatially encoded PIRL-MS sampling is shown to produce classifiable mass spectral data from living murine brain tissue, with levels of neuronal damage that are comparable to those induced by a surgical scalpel. This highlights the potential of spatially encoded PIRL-MS analysis for use during neurosurgical applications of cancer type determination or point-sampling tissue during tumor bed examination to assess cancer removal. The interface developed herein for the analysis and the display of spatially encoded PIRL-MS data can be adapted to other hand-held mass spectrometry analysis probes currently available.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0sc02241aDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8163395PMC
July 2020

Mass Spectrometry Imaging Reveals a Gradient of Cancer-like Metabolic States in the Vicinity of Cancer Not Seen in Morphometric Margins from Microscopy.

Anal Chem 2021 03 2;93(10):4408-4416. Epub 2021 Mar 2.

Techna Institute for the Advancement of Technology for Health, University Health Network, 100 College Street, Toronto, Ontario M5G 1P5, Canada.

Spatially resolved ambient mass spectrometry imaging methods have gained popularity to characterize cancer sites and their borders using molecular changes in the lipidome. This utility, however, is predicated on metabolic homogeneity at the border, which would create a sharp molecular transition at the morphometric borders. We subjected murine models of human medulloblastoma brain cancer to mass spectrometry imaging, a technique that provides a direct readout of tissue molecular content in a spatially resolved manner. We discovered a distance-dependent gradient of cancer-like lipid molecule profiles in the brain tissue within 1.2 mm of the cancer border, suggesting that a cancer-like state progresses beyond the histologic border, into the healthy tissue. The results were further corroborated using orthogonal liquid chromatography and mass spectrometry (LC-MS) analysis of selected tissue regions subjected to laser capture microdissection. LC-MS/MS analysis for robust identification of the affected molecules implied changes in a number of different lipid classes, some of which are metabolized from the essential docosahexaenoic fatty acid (DHA) present in the interstitial fluid. Metabolic molecular borders are thus not as sharp as morphometric borders, and mass spectrometry imaging can reveal molecular nuances not observed with microscopy. Caution must be exercised in interpreting multimodal imaging results stipulated on a coincidental relationship between metabolic and morphometric borders of cancer, at least within animal models used in preclinical research.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1021/acs.analchem.0c04129DOI Listing
March 2021

The Future of Radiobiology.

J Natl Cancer Inst 2018 04;110(4):329-340

Radiation Research Program, Division of Cancer Treatment and Diagnosis, National Cancer Institute, National Institutes of Health, Bethesda, MD.

Innovation and progress in radiation oncology depend on discovery and insights realized through research in radiation biology. Radiobiology research has led to fundamental scientific insights, from the discovery of stem/progenitor cells to the definition of signal transduction pathways activated by ionizing radiation that are now recognized as integral to the DNA damage response (DDR). Radiobiological discoveries are guiding clinical trials that test radiation therapy combined with inhibitors of the DDR kinases DNA-dependent protein kinase (DNA-PK), ataxia telangiectasia mutated (ATM), ataxia telangiectasia related (ATR), and immune or cell cycle checkpoint inhibitors. To maintain scientific and clinical relevance, the field of radiation biology must overcome challenges in research workforce, training, and funding. The National Cancer Institute convened a workshop to discuss the role of radiobiology research and radiation biologists in the future scientific enterprise. Here, we review the discussions of current radiation oncology research approaches and areas of scientific focus considered important for rapid progress in radiation sciences and the continued contribution of radiobiology to radiation oncology and the broader biomedical research community.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/jnci/djx231DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5928778PMC
April 2018

Targeting tumour hypoxia to prevent cancer metastasis. From biology, biosensing and technology to drug development: the METOXIA consortium.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2015 27;30(5):689-721. Epub 2014 Oct 27.

a Department of Physics , University of Oslo , Oslo , Norway .

The hypoxic areas of solid cancers represent a negative prognostic factor irrespective of which treatment modality is chosen for the patient. Still, after almost 80 years of focus on the problems created by hypoxia in solid tumours, we still largely lack methods to deal efficiently with these treatment-resistant cells. The consequences of this lack may be serious for many patients: Not only is there a negative correlation between the hypoxic fraction in tumours and the outcome of radiotherapy as well as many types of chemotherapy, a correlation has been shown between the hypoxic fraction in tumours and cancer metastasis. Thus, on a fundamental basis the great variety of problems related to hypoxia in cancer treatment has to do with the broad range of functions oxygen (and lack of oxygen) have in cells and tissues. Therefore, activation-deactivation of oxygen-regulated cascades related to metabolism or external signalling are important areas for the identification of mechanisms as potential targets for hypoxia-specific treatment. Also the chemistry related to reactive oxygen radicals (ROS) and the biological handling of ROS are part of the problem complex. The problem is further complicated by the great variety in oxygen concentrations found in tissues. For tumour hypoxia to be used as a marker for individualisation of treatment there is a need for non-invasive methods to measure oxygen routinely in patient tumours. A large-scale collaborative EU-financed project 2009-2014 denoted METOXIA has studied all the mentioned aspects of hypoxia with the aim of selecting potential targets for new hypoxia-specific therapy and develop the first stage of tests for this therapy. A new non-invasive PET-imaging method based on the 2-nitroimidazole [(18)F]-HX4 was found to be promising in a clinical trial on NSCLC patients. New preclinical models for testing of the metastatic potential of cells were developed, both in vitro (2D as well as 3D models) and in mice (orthotopic grafting). Low density quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR)-based assays were developed measuring multiple hypoxia-responsive markers in parallel to identify tumour hypoxia-related patterns of gene expression. As possible targets for new therapy two main regulatory cascades were prioritised: The hypoxia-inducible-factor (HIF)-regulated cascades operating at moderate to weak hypoxia (<1% O(2)), and the unfolded protein response (UPR) activated by endoplasmatic reticulum (ER) stress and operating at more severe hypoxia (<0.2%). The prioritised targets were the HIF-regulated proteins carbonic anhydrase IX (CAIX), the lactate transporter MCT4 and the PERK/eIF2α/ATF4-arm of the UPR. The METOXIA project has developed patented compounds targeting CAIX with a preclinical documented effect. Since hypoxia-specific treatments alone are not curative they will have to be combined with traditional anti-cancer therapy to eradicate the aerobic cancer cell population as well.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3109/14756366.2014.966704DOI Listing
May 2016

E-Cadherin loss associated with EMT promotes radioresistance in human tumor cells.

Radiother Oncol 2011 Jun 15;99(3):392-397. Epub 2011 Jun 15.

Department of Radiation Oncology (MAASTRO lab), Maastricht University Medical Centre, The Netherlands.

Background And Purpose: Hypoxia is a hallmark of solid cancers and associated with metastases and treatment failure. During tumor progression epithelial cells often acquire mesenchymal features, a phenomenon known as epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition (EMT). Intratumoral hypoxia has been linked to EMT induction. We hypothesized that signals from the tumor microenvironment such as growth factors and tumor oxygenation collaborate to promote EMT and thereby contribute to radioresistance.

Materials And Methods: Gene expression changes under hypoxia were analyzed using microarray and validated by qRT-PCR. Conversion of epithelial phenotype upon hypoxic exposure, TGFβ addition or oncogene activation was investigated by Western blot and immunofluorescence. Cell survival following ionizing radiation was assayed using clonogenic survival.

Results: Upon hypoxia, TGFβ addition or EGFRvIII expression, MCF7, A549 and NMuMG epithelial cells acquired a spindle shape and lost cell-cell contacts. Expression of epithelial markers such as E-cadherin decreased, whereas mesenchymal markers such as vimentin and N-cadherin increased. Combining hypoxia with TGFβ or EGFRvIII expression, lead to more rapid and pronounced EMT-like phenotype. Interestingly, E-cadherin expression and the mesenchymal appearance were reversible upon reoxygenation. Mesenchymal conversion and E-cadherin loss were associated with radioresistance.

Conclusions: Our findings describe a mechanism by which the tumor microenvironment may contribute to tumor radioresistance via E-cadherin loss and EMT.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.radonc.2011.05.044DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4948667PMC
June 2011

Taking advantage of tumor cell adaptations to hypoxia for developing new tumor markers and treatment strategies.

J Enzyme Inhib Med Chem 2009 Apr;24 Suppl 1:1-39

Laboratory for Stem Cell Research, Aalborg University, Aarhus, Denmark.

Cancer cells in hypoxic areas of solid tumors are to a large extent protected against the action of radiation as well as many chemotherapeutic drugs. There are, however, two different aspects of the problem caused by tumor hypoxia when cancer therapy is concerned: One is due to the chemical reactions that molecular oxygen enters into therapeutically targeted cells. This results in a direct chemical protection against therapy by the hypoxic microenvironment, which has little to do with cellular biological regulatory processes. This part of the protective effect of hypoxia has been known for more than half a century and has been studied extensively. However, in recent years there has been more focus on the other aspect of hypoxia, namely the effect of this microenvironmental condition on selecting cells with certain genetic prerequisites that are negative with respect to patient prognosis. There are adaptive mechanisms, where hypoxia induces regulatory cascades in cells resulting in a changed metabolism or changes in extracellular signaling. These processes may lead to changes in cellular intrinsic sensitivity to treatment irrespective of oxygenation and, furthermore, may also have consequences for tissue organization. Thus, the adaptive mechanisms induced by hypoxia itself may have a selective effect on cells, with a fine-tuned protection against damage and stress of many kinds. It therefore could be that the adaptive mechanisms may take advantage of for new tumor labeling/imaging and treatment strategies. One of the Achilles' heels of hypoxia research has always been the exact measurements of tissue oxygenation as well as the control of oxygenation in biological tumor models. Thus, development of technology that can ease this control is vital in order to study mechanisms and perform drug development under relevant conditions. An integrated EU Framework project 2004-2009, termed EUROXY, demonstrates several pathways involved in transcription and translation control of the hypoxic cell phenotype and evidence of cross-talk with responses to pH and redox changes. The carbonic anhydrase isoenzyme CA IX was selected for further studies due to its expression on the surface of many types of hypoxic tumors. The effort has led to marketable culture flasks with sensors and incubation equipment, and the synthesis of new drug candidates against new molecular targets. New labeling/imaging methods for cancer diagnosing and imaging of hypoxic cancer tissue are now being tested in xenograft models and are also in early clinical testing, while new potential anti-cancer drugs are undergoing tests using xenografted tumor cancers. The present article describes the above results in individual consortium partner presentations.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14756360902784425DOI Listing
April 2009
-->