Publications by authors named "Boy Helder"

10 Publications

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Anti-IL-17A treatment reduces serum inflammatory, angiogenic and tissue remodeling biomarkers accompanied by less synovial high endothelial venules in peripheral spondyloarthritis.

Sci Rep 2020 12 3;10(1):21094. Epub 2020 Dec 3.

Department of Rheumatology and Clinical Immunology, Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Amsterdam UMC, University of Amsterdam, Meibergdreef 9, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Spondyloarthritis (SpA) is characterized by inflammation and new bone formation. The exact pathophysiology underlying these processes remains elusive. We propose that the extensive neoangiogenesis in SpA could play a role both in sustaining/enhancing inflammation and in new bone formation. While ample data is available on effects of anti-TNF on angiogenesis, effects of IL-17A blockade on serum markers are largely unknown. We aimed to assess the impact of secukinumab (anti-IL-17A) on synovial neoangiogenesis in peripheral SpA, and how this related to changes in inflammatory and tissue remodeling biomarkers. Serum samples from 20 active peripheral SpA patients included in a 12 week open-label trial with secukinumab were analyzed for several markers of angiogenesis and tissue remodeling. Synovial biopsies taken before and after treatment were stained for vascular markers. Serum levels of MMP-3, osteopontin, IL-6 (all P < 0.001), IL-31, S100A8, S100A9, Vascular Endothelial Growth Factor A (VEGF-A), IL-33, TNF-α (all P < 0.05) decreased significantly upon anti-IL17A treatment. Secukinumab treatment resulted in a decrease in the number of synovial high endothelial venules and lymphoid aggregate score. These results indicate that anti-IL-17A not only diminishes inflammation, but also impacts angiogenesis and tissue remodeling/new bone formation. This may have important implications for disease progression and/or structural damage.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-020-78204-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7713433PMC
December 2020

cDC1 are required for the initiation of collagen-induced arthritis.

J Transl Autoimmun 2020 16;3:100066. Epub 2020 Sep 16.

Department of Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology.

Rheumatoid arthritis (RA) is chronic autoimmune disease which etiology remains unknown. Several cell types have been described to potentiate/aggravate the arthritic process however the initiating event in synovial inflammation is still elusive. Dendritic cells (DCs) are essential for the initiation of primary immune responses and thus we hypothesized that these cells might be crucial for RA induction. DCs are a heterogeneous population of cells comprising different subsets with distinct phenotype and function. Here we investigated which DC subset(s) is/are crucial for the initiation of the arthritic process. We have previously demonstrated that Flt3-/- mice, with reduced DCs, were protected from collagen induced arthritis (CIA). Here we have shown that GM-CSF derived DCs in Flt3L-/- mice are functional but not sufficient to induce arthritis. Batf3 mice lacking both CD103 and CD8α cDC1 were resistant to collagen induced arthritis (CIA), demonstrating that this DC subset is crucial for arthritis development. CEP-701 (a Flt3L inhibitor) treatment prevented CIA induction, and reduced dramatically the numbers CD103 cDC1s present in the lymph nodes and synovium. Hence this study identified cDC1 as the main subset orchestrating the initiation of cell-mediated immunity in arthritis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtauto.2020.100066DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7522802PMC
September 2020

Transcriptional profiling of human microglia reveals grey-white matter heterogeneity and multiple sclerosis-associated changes.

Nat Commun 2019 03 13;10(1):1139. Epub 2019 Mar 13.

Neuroimmunology Research Group, Netherlands Institute for Neuroscience, Meibergdreef 47, 1105BA, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Here we report the transcriptional profile of human microglia, isolated from normal-appearing grey matter (GM) and white matter (WM) of multiple sclerosis (MS) and non-neurological control donors, to find possible early changes related to MS pathology. Microglia show a clear region-specific profile, indicated by higher expression of type-I interferon genes in GM and higher expression of NF-κB pathway genes in WM. Transcriptional changes in MS microglia also differ between GM and WM. MS WM microglia show increased lipid metabolism gene expression, which relates to MS pathology since active MS lesion-derived microglial nuclei show similar altered gene expression. Microglia from MS GM show increased expression of genes associated with glycolysis and iron homeostasis, possibly reflecting microglia reacting to iron depositions. Except for ADGRG1/GPR56, expression of homeostatic genes, such as P2RY12 and TMEM119, is unaltered in normal-appearing MS tissue, demonstrating overall preservation of microglia homeostatic functions in the initiation phase of MS.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-08976-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6416318PMC
March 2019

Silencing NIK potentiates anti-VEGF therapy in a novel 3D model of colorectal cancer angiogenesis.

Oncotarget 2018 Jun 19;9(47):28445-28455. Epub 2018 Jun 19.

Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

Angiogenesis is essential for colorectal cancer (CRC) progression, as demonstrated by the beneficial clinical effects of therapeutics inhibiting VEGF signaling. However, alternative mechanisms of neovascularization can develop, resulting in treatment failure. Previously we demonstrated NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) contributes to pathological angiogenesis. Here, we investigate NIK as a therapeutic target in endothelial cells (EC) in CRC. To determine NIK expression levels in CRC tissues, we immunostained both primary colorectal tumors and tumors metastasized to the liver. Additionally, a 3D tumor-stromal cell interaction model was developed including EC, fibroblasts and CRC cells to study tumor angiogenesis. This model tested efficacy of NIK-targeting siRNA (siNIK) in EC alone or in combination with the anti-VEGF antibody, bevacizumab. Both primary CRC and liver metastases contained blood vessels expressing NIK. In patients receiving chemotherapy plus bevacizumab, immature NIK vessels ( < 0.05) were increased as compared to chemotherapy alone. Activation of NIK by lymphotoxin-beta receptor (LTβR) induced increases in pro-angiogenic mediators, including interleukin (IL)-6, IL-8, chemokine (C-X-C motif) ligand (CXCL)1 and CXCL5 in EC and fibroblasts, accompanied by sprouting in the 3D model, which was blocked by siNIK in EC. Treatment with bevacizumab plus siNIK in EC resulted in a synergistic effect and reduced VEGF and bFGF-induced sprouting ( < 0.05). Here, we demonstrate a role for NIK in CRC-associated angiogenesis. Targeting NIK in EC in combination with anti-VEGF antibody bevacizumab may hold therapeutic potential to increase efficiency in blocking tumor neovascularization, either to prevent treatment failure due to activation of accessory pathways such as NF-κB signaling or as a rescue treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.18632/oncotarget.25442DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6033358PMC
June 2018

Noncanonical NF-κB signaling in microvessels of atherosclerotic lesions is associated with inflammation, atheromatous plaque morphology and myocardial infarction.

Atherosclerosis 2018 03 31;270:33-41. Epub 2018 Jan 31.

Amsterdam Rheumatology and Immunology Center, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands; Laboratory for Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center/University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, The Netherlands. Electronic address:

Background And Aims: Neovascularization is associated with atherosclerotic plaque instability and increased chance of myocardial infarction (MI). Patients with chronic inflammatory diseases (CID) have increased risk of atherosclerosis, and evidence demonstrates that NF-κB inducing kinase (NIK)-mediated noncanonical NF-κB signaling in endothelial cells (EC) is linked to inflammation and angiogenesis. Here, we hypothesized NIK may also be activated in EC of atherosclerotic lesion microvessels.

Methods: Using cohorts of atherosclerotic lesions from coronary and carotid arteries, we quantified NIK expression in plaque microvessels and compared it to pathological markers, including inflammatory cell content, plaque characteristics and MI. Differences in gene transcripts were evaluated between stable and ruptured lesions.

Results: NIKEC were present in both coronary and carotid lesions. In CID patients, plaques with stenosis >40% had an increased number of NIKEC and higher content of immune cells (p < .05) as compared to controls. Immune cells per NIKEC were also greater in CID patients (p < .05), with pronounced differences as stenosis increased. In unstable lesions, NIKEC were elevated as were EC expressing CXCL12 (p < .05). NIKEC were increased in lesions with lipid content >40% (p < .05) and more abundant in coronary artery lesions implicated in MI (p < .05). These vessels also associated with atheromatous rather than fibrous plaque morphology (p < .05). Transcriptomic profiling demonstrated components of noncanonical NF-κB pathway were also upregulated in ruptured plaques (p < .05).

Conclusions: NIKEC associate with chronic inflammation in advanced lesions and are linked to markers of local inflammation, lipid content, unstable plaque phenotype and development of MI. Therefore, targeting noncanonical NF-κB signaling may hold therapeutic potential for patients with atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.atherosclerosis.2018.01.032DOI Listing
March 2018

Targeting non-canonical nuclear factor-κB signalling attenuates neovascularization in a novel 3D model of rheumatoid arthritis synovial angiogenesis.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2017 02 17;56(2):294-302. Epub 2016 Nov 17.

Amsterdam Rheumatology and immunology Center

Objective: Angiogenesis is crucial in RA disease progression. Lymphotoxin β receptor (LTβR)-induced activation of the non-canonical nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) pathway via NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK) has been implicated in this process. Consequently, inhibition of this pathway may hold therapeutic potential in RA. We describe a novel three-dimensional (3D) model of synovial angiogenesis incorporating endothelial cells (ECs), RA fibroblast-like synoviocytes (RAFLSs) and RA synovial fluid (RASF) to further investigate the contributions of NF-κB in this process.

Methods: Spheroids consisting of RAFLSs and ECs were stimulated with RASF, the LTβR ligands LTβ and LIGHT, or growth factor bFGF and VEGF, followed by quantification of EC sprouting using confocal microscopy and digital image analysis. Next, the effects of anginex, NIK-targeting siRNA (siNIK), LTβR-Ig fusion protein (baminercept) and a novel pharmacological NIK inhibitor were investigated.

Results: RASF significantly promoted sprout formation, which was blocked by the established angiogenesis inhibitor anginex (P < 0.05). LTβ and LIGHT induced significant sprouting (P < 0.05), as did bFGF/VEGF (P < 0.01). siNIK pre-treatment of ECs led to reductions in LTβR-induced vessel formation (P < 0.05). LTβR-Ig not only blocked LTβ- or LIGHT-induced sprouting, but also RASF-induced sprouting (P < 0.05). The NIK inhibitor blocked angiogenesis induced by LTβ, LIGHT, growth factors (P < 0.05) and RASF (P < 0.01).

Conclusion: We present a novel 3D model of synovial angiogenesis incorporating RAFLSs, ECs and RASF that mimics the in vivo situation. Using this system, we demonstrate that non-canonical NF-κB signalling promotes neovascularization and show that this model is useful for dissecting relative contributions of signalling pathways in specific cell types to angiogenic responses and for testing pharmacological inhibitors of angiogenesis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew393DOI Listing
February 2017

Synovial IL-21/TNF-producing CD4 T cells induce joint destruction in rheumatoid arthritis by inducing matrix metalloproteinase production by fibroblast-like synoviocytes.

J Leukoc Biol 2017 03 12;101(3):775-783. Epub 2016 Oct 12.

Department of Immunology, Imperial College London, Hammersmith Campus, London, United Kingdom.

Bone and cartilage destruction is one of the key manifestations of rheumatoid arthritis (RA). Although the role of T helper (Th)17 cells in these processes is clear, the role of IL-21-producing cells T cells has been neglected. We sought to investigate the role of IL-21 in RA by focusing on the functional characteristics of the main producers of this cytokine, synovial CD4IL-21 T cells. We show that the frequency of both synovial fluid (SF) CD4IL-21 or CD4IL-21TNF T cells in patients with RA was significantly higher compared with patients with psoriatic arthritis (PsA). The frequency of peripheral blood (PB) IL-21CD4 T cells in patients with RA positively correlated with disease activity score 28 (DAS28), serum anticyclic citrullinated peptide (anti-CCP) antibodies and IgM-rheumatoid factor (IgM-RF). IL-21 levels in RA SF were associated with matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-1 and MMP-3. Related to this, IL-21 induced significantly the secretion of MMP-1 and MMP-3 in RA synovial biopsies. Sorted SF CD4IL-21 T cells significantly induced the release of MMP-1 and MMP-3 by fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS) compared with medium or CD4IL-21 T cells in a coculture system. Neutralization of both IL-21 and TNF resulted in significantly less production of MMP by FLS. The results of this study indicate a new role for synovial CD4IL-21TNF T cells in promoting synovial inflammation/joint destruction in patients with RA. Importantly, IL-21 blockade in combination with anti-TNF might be an effective therapy in patients with RA by inhibiting MMP-induced inflammation/joint destruction.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1189/jlb.5A0516-217RRDOI Listing
March 2017

Reduced CLEC9A expression in synovial tissue of psoriatic arthritis patients after adalimumab therapy.

Rheumatology (Oxford) 2016 09 13;55(9):1575-84. Epub 2016 May 13.

Clinical Immunology and Rheumatology Department Experimental Immunology Department

Objectives: We aimed to investigate the early changes in expression of C-type lectin domain family 9, member A (CLEC9A), a C-type lectin that is specifically expressed by the CD141(+) dendritic cell subset that is involved in cross-presentation to CD8(+) T cells, by evaluating gene and/or protein expression in three different compartments [skin, synovial tissue (ST) and serum] after short-term adalimumab treatment in PsA patients compared with placebo.

Methods: Patients with active PsA and psoriasis were randomized to receive adalimumab or placebo for 4 weeks. Synovial and skin biopsies were obtained before and after 4 weeks of treatment and serum samples 4 weeks, 12 weeks and 1 year after treatment. Skin and serum from healthy donors were used as control. CLEC9A expression was assessed by immunohistochemistry, double immunofluorescence using terminal deoxynucleotidyl transferase 2'-deoxyuridine 5'-triphosphate nick-end labelling (TUNEL), quantitative PCR and ELISA.

Results: CLEC9A expression was significantly higher in psoriatic skin compared with healthy donor. In psoriatic skin and PsA ST, CLEC9A(+) cells were in close proximity to TUNEL(+) cells. SF CLEC9A levels were significantly lower compared with paired PsA serum. Adalimumab treatment did not affect CLEC9A serum level and skin expression. However, ST CLEC9A protein expression was significantly decreased after adalimumab treatment compared with the placebo group while CLEC9A gene expression remained unchanged. There was a positive correlation between T cell numbers and ST CLEC9A protein expression. CD141(+) cell numbers and chemokine (C motif) receptor 1 expression were not affected with adalimumab treatment.

Conclusion: Altogether, the present study suggests that the downregulation of synovial CLEC9A might be associated with a novel mechanism by which anti-TNF therapy might reduce CD8-mediated inflammation in PsA patients.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/rheumatology/kew204DOI Listing
September 2016

Tertiary Lymphoid Structures in Rheumatoid Arthritis: NF-κB-Inducing Kinase-Positive Endothelial Cells as Central Players.

Am J Pathol 2015 Jul 9;185(7):1935-43. Epub 2015 May 9.

Department of Clinical Immunology & Rheumatology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands; Department of Experimental Immunology, Academic Medical Center, University of Amsterdam, Amsterdam, the Netherlands. Electronic address:

Tertiary lymphoid structures (TLSs) in chronic inflammation, including rheumatoid arthritis (RA) synovial tissue (ST), often contain high endothelial venules and follicular dendritic cells (FDCs). Endothelial cell (EC)-specific lymphotoxin β (LTβ) receptor signaling is critical for the formation of lymph nodes and high endothelial venules. FDCs arise from perivascular platelet-derived growth factor receptor β(+) precursor cells (preFDCs) that require specific group 3 innate lymphoid cells (ILC3s) and LTβ for their expansion. Previously, we showed that RA ST contains ECs that express NF-κB-inducing kinase (NIK), which is pivotal in LTβ-induced noncanonical NF-κB signaling. We studied the relation between NIK(+) ECs, (pre)FDCs, and ILC3s with respect to TLSs in RA ST. TLS(+) tissues exhibited a significantly increased expression of genes involved in noncanonical NF-κB signaling, including NIK, and immunohistochemical analysis revealed that NIK was almost exclusively expressed by ECs. ILC3s were present in human RA ST in very low numbers, but not differentially in TLS(+) tissues. In contrast, TLS(+) tissues contained significantly more NIK(+) ECs and perivascular platelet-derived growth factor receptor β(+) preFDCs, which correlated significantly with the quantity of FDCs. We established a strong link between NIK(+) ECs, (pre)FDCs, and the presence of TLSs, indicating that NIK(+) ECs may not only be important orchestrators of lymph node development but also contribute to the formation of TLSs in chronic inflammation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ajpath.2015.03.012DOI Listing
July 2015

FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)/CD135 axis in rheumatoid arthritis.

Arthritis Res Ther 2013 ;15(6):R209

Introduction: The FMS-related tyrosine kinase 3 ligand (Flt3L)/CD135 axis plays a fundamental role in proliferation and differentiation of dendritic cells (DCs). As DCs play an important role in rheumatoid arthritis (RA) immunopathology we studied in detail the Flt3L/CD135 axis in RA patients.

Methods: The levels of Flt3L in (paired) serum and synovial fluid (SF) were quantified by enzyme-link immunosorbent assay (ELISA). Expression of Flt3L and CD135 in paired peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMCs) and synovial fluid mononuclear cells (SFMCs) was quantified by fluorescence-activated cell sorting (FACS). The expression of Flt3L, CD135 and TNF-Converting Enzyme (TACE) in synovial tissues (STs) and in vitro polarized macrophages and monocyte-derived DCs (Mo-DCs) was assessed by quantitative PCR (qPCR). CD135 ST expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry and TACE ST expression was assessed by immunofluorescence. Flt3L serum levels were assessed in RA patients treated with oral prednisolone or adalimumab.

Results: Flt3L levels in RA serum, SF and ST were significantly elevated compared to gout patients and healthy individuals (HI). RA SF monocytes, natural killer cells and DCs expressed high levels of Flt3L and CD135 compared to HI. RA ST CD68+ and CD163+ macrophages, CD55+ fibroblast-like synoviocytes (FLS), CD31+ endothelial cells or infiltrating monocytes and CD19+ B cells co-expressed TACE. IFN-γ-differentiated macrophages expressed higher levels of Flt3L compared to other polarized macrophages. Importantly, Flt3L serum levels were reduced by effective therapy.

Conclusions: The Flt3L/CD135 axis is active in RA patients and is responsive to both prednisolone and adalimumab treatment. Conceivably, this ligand receptor pair represents a novel therapeutic target.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/ar4403DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC3978611PMC
November 2014
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