Publications by authors named "Bowen Zheng"

61 Publications

Shuganning injection, a traditional Chinese patent medicine, induces ferroptosis and suppresses tumor growth in triple-negative breast cancer cells.

Phytomedicine 2021 May 18;85:153551. Epub 2021 Mar 18.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. Electronic address:

Background: Triple-negative breast cancer (TNBC), lacking targeted therapies currently, is susceptible to ferroptosis, a recently defined form of cell death.

Purpose: To evaluate the anticancer activity of Shuganning injection (SGNI), a traditional Chinese patent medicine, on TNBC cells; To elucidate the mechanism of SGNI induced ferroptosis.

Methods: The anticancer activity of SGNI was examined via in vitro cell proliferation assays and in vivo xenograft growth assay. Ferroptosis was determined by flow-cytometric analysis of lipid ROS, labile iron pool measurement, and propidium iodide exclusion assay. The dependency on heme oxygenase 1 (HO-1) of SGNI induced ferroptosis was confirmed by genetic knockdown and pharmacological inhibition of the protein.

Results: SGNI selectively inhibited the proliferation of TNBC cells compared to non-TNBC breast cancer cells and normal cells. The cell death induced by SGNI in TNBC cells showed distinct morphology from apoptosis and could not be rescued by the pan-caspase inhibitor Z-VAD(OMe)-FMK. On the other hand, SGNI induced cell death was blocked by the lipid ROS scavengers ferrostatin-1 and liproxstatin-1, the acyl-CoA synthetase long chain family member 4 inhibitor rosiglitazone, and the iron chelators 1,10-phenanthroline and deferoxamine. These data indicated that SGNI induced a ferroptotic cell death of TNBC cells. Mechanistically, SGNI induced ferroptosis was dependent on HO-1, which promotes intracellular labile iron pool accumulation, and was alleviated by HO-1 knockdown and inhibition by tin protoporphyrin IX. In line with the in vitro data, SGNI significantly inhibited the xenograft growth of TNBC cell line MD-MB-231 in nude mice.

Conclusion: Collectively, our study elaborates on a promising regimen for TNBC treatment through induction of ferroptosis by SGNI, a traditional Chinese patent medicine currently available in the clinic, which merits further investigation.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2021.153551DOI Listing
May 2021

Using Machine Learning to Unravel the Value of Radiographic Features for the Classification of Bone Tumors.

Biomed Res Int 2021 11;2021:8811056. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Radiology, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, China.

Objectives: To build and validate random forest (RF) models for the classification of bone tumors based on the conventional radiographic features of the lesion and patients' clinical characteristics, and identify the most essential features for the classification of bone tumors.

Materials And Methods: In this retrospective study, 796 patients (benign bone tumors: 412 cases, malignant bone tumors: 215 cases, intermediate bone tumors: 169 cases) with pathologically confirmed bone tumors from Nanfang Hospital of Southern Medical University, Foshan Hospital of TCM, and University of Hong Kong-Shenzhen Hospital were enrolled. RF models were built to classify tumors as benign, malignant, or intermediate based on conventional radiographic features and potentially relevant clinical characteristics extracted by three musculoskeletal radiologists with ten years of experience. SHapley Additive exPlanations (SHAP) was used to identify the most essential features for the classification of bone tumors. The diagnostic performance of the RF models was quantified using receiver operating characteristic (ROC) curves.

Results: The features extracted by the three radiologists had a satisfactory agreement and the minimum intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC) was 0.761 (CI: 0.686-0.824, < .001). The binary and tertiary models were built to classify tumors as benign, malignant, or intermediate based on the imaging and clinical features from 627 and 796 patients. The AUC of the binary (19 variables) and tertiary (22 variables) models were 0.97 and 0.94, respectively. The accuracy of binary and tertiary models were 94.71% and 82.77%, respectively. In descending order, the most important features influencing classification in the binary model were margin, cortex involvement, and the pattern of bone destruction, and the most important features in the tertiary model were margin, high-density components, and cortex involvement.

Conclusions: This study developed interpretable models to classify bone tumors with great performance. These should allow radiographers to identify imaging features that are important for the classification of bone tumors in the clinical setting.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8811056DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7984886PMC
May 2021

Identification and characterization of a novel mutant isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 inhibitor for glioma treatment.

Biochem Biophys Res Commun 2021 04 11;551:38-45. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, 999078, Macau. Electronic address:

Isocitrate dehydrogenase 1 (IDH1) mutant R132H, promoting the oncometabolite D-2-hydroxyglutarate (D2HG), is a driver mutation and an emerging therapeutic target in glioma. This study identified a novel mutant IDH1 inhibitor, WM17, by virtual screening and enzymatic confirmation. It could bind to and increase mutant IDH1 protein's thermostability in both endogenous heterozygous cells and exogenous overexpressed cells. Consequently, WM17 reversed the accumulation of D2HG and histone hypermethylation in IDH1 mutated cells. Finally, we concluded that WM17 significantly inhibited cell migration in IDH1 mutated glioma cells, although it has no apparent effect on cell proliferation. Further studies are guaranteed toward the development of WM17 as a therapeutic agent for IDH1 mutated glioma.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.bbrc.2021.02.112DOI Listing
April 2021

An Interpretable Model-Based Prediction of Severity and Crucial Factors in Patients with COVID-19.

Biomed Res Int 2021 1;2021:8840835. Epub 2021 Mar 1.

Department of Medical Services Section, Nanfang Hospital, Southern Medical University, Guangzhou, Guangdong 510515, China.

This study established an interpretable machine learning model to predict the severity of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19) and output the most crucial deterioration factors. Clinical information, laboratory tests, and chest computed tomography (CT) scans at admission were collected. Two experienced radiologists reviewed the scans for the patterns, distribution, and CT scores of lung abnormalities. Six machine learning models were established to predict the severity of COVID-19. After parameter tuning and performance comparison, the optimal model was explained using Shapley Additive explanations to output the crucial factors. This study enrolled and classified 198 patients into mild ( = 162; 46.93 ± 14.49 years old) and severe ( = 36; 60.97 ± 15.91 years old) groups. The severe group had a higher temperature (37.42 ± 0.99°C vs. 36.75 ± 0.66°C), CT score at admission, neutrophil count, and neutrophil-to-lymphocyte ratio than the mild group. The XGBoost model ranked first among all models, with an AUC, sensitivity, and specificity of 0.924, 90.91%, and 97.96%, respectively. The early stage of chest CT, total CT score of the percentage of lung involvement, and age were the top three contributors to the prediction of the deterioration of XGBoost. A higher total score on chest CT had a more significant impact on the prediction. In conclusion, the XGBoost model to predict the severity of COVID-19 achieved excellent performance and output the essential factors in the deterioration process, which may help with early clinical intervention, improve prognosis, and reduce mortality.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/8840835DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7930914PMC
March 2021

A 3D densely connected convolution neural network with connection-wise attention mechanism for Alzheimer's disease classification.

Magn Reson Imaging 2021 05 13;78:119-126. Epub 2021 Feb 13.

Reasearch Center for Medical AI, Shenzhen Institutes of Advanced Technology, Chinese Academy of Sciences, China; Key Laboratory for Magnetic Resonance and Multimodality Imaging of Guangdong Province, China. Electronic address:

Purpose: Alzheimer's disease (AD) is a progressive and irreversible neurodegenerative disease. In recent years, machine learning methods have been widely used on analysis of neuroimage for quantitative evaluation and computer-aided diagnosis of AD or prediction on the conversion from mild cognitive impairment (MCI) to AD. In this study, we aimed to develop a new deep learning method to detect or predict AD in an efficient way.

Materials And Methods: We proposed a densely connected convolution neural network with connection-wise attention mechanism to learn the multi-level features of brain MR images for AD classification. We used the densely connected neural network to extract multi-scale features from pre-processed images, and connection-wise attention mechanism was applied to combine connections among features from different layers to hierarchically transform the MR images into more compact high-level features. Furthermore, we extended the convolution operation to 3D to capture the spatial information of MRI. The features extracted from each 3D convolution layer were integrated with features from all preceding layers with different attention, and were finally used for classification. Our method was evaluated on the baseline MRI of 968 subjects from ADNI database to discriminate (1) AD versus healthy subjects, (2) MCI converters versus healthy subjects, and (3) MCI converters versus non-converters.

Results: The proposed method achieved 97.35% accuracy for distinguishing AD patients from healthy control, 87.82% for MCI converters against healthy control, and 78.79% for MCI converters against non-converters. Compared with some neural networks and methods reported in recent studies, the classification performance of our proposed algorithm was among the top ranks and improved in discriminating MCI subjects who were in high risks of conversion to AD.

Conclusions: Deep learning techniques provide a powerful tool to explore minute but intricate characteristics in MR images which may facilitate early diagnosis and prediction of AD.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mri.2021.02.001DOI Listing
May 2021

Redesign of protein nanocages: the way from 0D, 1D, 2D to 3D assembly.

Chem Soc Rev 2021 Mar 15;50(6):3957-3989. Epub 2021 Feb 15.

College of Food Science and Nutritional Engineering, China Agricultural University, Beijing Key Laboratory of Functional Food from Plant Resources, Beijing 100083, China.

Compartmentalization is a hallmark of living systems. Through compartmentalization, ubiquitous protein nanocages such as viral capsids, ferritin, small heat shock proteins, and DNA-binding proteins from starved cells fulfill a variety of functions, while their shell-like structures hold great promise for various applications in the field of nanomedicine and nanotechnology. However, the number and structure of natural protein nanocages are limited, and these natural protein nanocages may not be suited for a given application, which might impede their further application as nanovehicles, biotemplates or building blocks. To overcome these shortcomings, different strategies have been developed by scientists to construct artificial protein nanocages, and 1D, 2D and 3D protein arrays with protein nanocages as building blocks through genetic and chemical modification to rival the size and functionality of natural protein nanocages. This review outlines the recent advances in the field of the design and construction of artificial protein nanocages and their assemblies with higher order, summarizes the strategies for creating the assembly of protein nanocages from zero-dimension to three dimensions, and introduces their corresponding applications in the preparation of nanomaterials, electrochemistry, and drug delivery. The review will highlight the roles of both the inter-subunit/intermolecular interactions at the key interface and the protein symmetry in constructing and controlling protein nanocage assemblies with different dimensions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1039/d0cs01349hDOI Listing
March 2021

Genome-Wide Analysis of MDHAR Gene Family in Four Cotton Species Provides Insights into Fiber Development via Regulating AsA Redox Homeostasis.

Plants (Basel) 2021 Jan 25;10(2). Epub 2021 Jan 25.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China.

Monodehydroasorbate reductase (MDHAR) (EC1.6.5.4), a key enzyme in ascorbate-glutathione recycling, plays important roles in cell growth, plant development and physiological response to environmental stress via control of ascorbic acid (AsA)-mediated reduction/oxidation (redox) regulation. Until now, information regarding function and regulatory mechanism in have been limited. Herein, a genome-wide identification and comprehensive bioinformatic analysis of 36 family genes in four species, , , and , were performed, indicating their close evolutionary relationship. Expression analysis of in different cotton tissues and under abiotic stress and phytohormone treatment revealed diverse expression features. Fiber-specific expression analysis showed that , and were preferentially expressed in fiber fast elongating stages to reach peak values in 15-DPA fibers, with corresponding coincident observances of MDHAR enzyme activity, AsA content and ascorbic acid/dehydroascorbic acid (AsA/DHA) ratio. Meanwhile, there was a close positive correlation between the increase of AsA content and AsA/DHA ratio catalyzed by MDHAR and fiber elongation development in different fiber-length cotton cultivars, suggesting the potential important function of MDHAR for fiber growth. Following HO stimulation, demonstrated immediate responses at the levels of mRNA, enzyme, the product of AsA and corresponding AsA/DHA value, and antioxidative activity. These results for the first time provide a comprehensive systemic analysis of the gene family in plants and the four cotton species and demonstrate the contribution of MDHAR to fiber elongation development by controlling AsA-recycling-mediated cellular redox homeostasis.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants10020227DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7912408PMC
January 2021

The miR-623/CXCL12 axis inhibits LPS-induced nucleus pulposus cell apoptosis and senescence.

Mech Ageing Dev 2021 03 25;194:111417. Epub 2020 Dec 25.

Department of Spine Surgery, Yiyang Central Hospital, Yiyang, Hunan, China.

Nucleus pulposus cell (NPC) is the major cell type maintaining the physiological function of intervertebral discs by producing extracellular matrix (ECM). NPC apoptosis and senescence together contribute to NPC loss, finally leading to intervertebral disc degeneration (IDD). Herein, miR-623 showed to be downregulated within IDD tissue samples according to both bioinformatics and experimental analyses. In LPS-injured NPCs, miR-623 overexpression promoted LPS-suppressed cell proliferation; moreover, miR-623 overexpression inhibited cell apoptosis and senescence, increased ECM secretion, and reduced levels of inflammatory factors. In contrast to miR-623, CXCL12 expression was significantly upregulated in IDD tissues; miR-623 directly bound CXCL12 to inhibit its expression. In LPS-stimulated NPCs, CXCL12 silencing also LPS-induced changes in cell proliferation, cell senescence, ECM secretion, and inflammatory factor levels. More importantly, CXCL12 overexpression aggravated LPS-induced changes and significantly reversed the protective effects of miR-623 overexpression. In conclusion, the miR-623/CXCL12 axis could affect NPC apoptosis and senescence, ECM deposition, and inflammatory factor levels under LPS stimulation in vitro. The p65 signaling might be involved.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.mad.2020.111417DOI Listing
March 2021

Can ultrasonography differentiate anastomotic and non-anastomotic biliary strictures after orthotopic liver transplantation- a single-center experience.

Eur J Radiol 2021 Jan 27;134:109416. Epub 2020 Nov 27.

Department of Ultrasound, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-Sen University, 600 Tianhe Road, Guangzhou, Guangdong Province, 510630, PR China. Electronic address:

Purpose: To evaluate the role of ultrasonography (US) in differentiating anastomotic biliary strictures (AS) and non-anastomotic biliary strictures (NAS) after orthotopic liver transplantation (OLT).

Method: This retrospective study included 1259 OLT recipients between 2005-2018. Seventy-six with anastomotic strictures (AS) and 103 with non-anastomotic strictures (NAS) were analyzed. The reference standard was cholangiography. The sensitivity, specificity, accuracy of US was evaluated.

Results: There were significant differences between AS and NAS groups (p < 0.001) for skipped and irregular dilatation of intrahepatic bile duct and visualization of hilar biliary lumen. The better US imaging feature for NAS was poorly visualized and non- visible hilar bile duct luminal contour. The sensitivity, specificity and accuracy were 94.2 %, 84.2 % and 88.9 % respectively. Combined two predictors greatly increased the specificity to 93.4 % while diminished its sensitivity and accuracy.

Conclusion: US is useful and efficient to differentiate AS and NAS after OLT.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejrad.2020.109416DOI Listing
January 2021

High expression of HOXA5 is associated with poor prognosis in acute myeloid leukemia.

Curr Probl Cancer 2021 Jun 13;45(3):100673. Epub 2020 Nov 13.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicine, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, China. Electronic address:

Background: HOXA5 is considered as an oncogene in many tumors. This study in- vestigated the HOXA5 expression in Chinese acute myeloid leukemia (AML) patients and evaluated the predictive significance of HOXA5 with a single-center retrospective study.

Methods: We investigated the expression pattern and prognostic value of HOXA5 in patients with AML through by using a series of databases and various datasets, including the ONCOMINE, TCGA, and STRING datasets. The bone marrow samples of 53 newly diagnosed AML patients (non-M3 subtype) and 19 benign individuals were collected in our center. HOXA5 mRNA expression levels were detected by real-time qPCR, HOXA5 protein expression levels were detected by Western Blot. Clinical data was obtained from inpatient medical records.

Results: Two microarrays in Oncomine showed that the expression level of HOXA5 was significantly upregulated in AML. Our data revealed that AML patients had higher HOXA5 mRNA and protein expression levels than the controls (P < 0.001). The blast percentage in bone marrow of HOXA5 high-expression group was higher that of HOXA5 low-expression group (P < 0.05). Higher expression level of HOXA5 revealed a worse OS in AML (P < 0.05).

Conclusion: Our findings suggested that HOXA5 might have the potential ability to act as a diagnostic biomarker and potential therapeutic target for AML.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.currproblcancer.2020.100673DOI Listing
June 2021

Compression-Induced Tensile Mechanical Behaviors of the Crystalline Rock under Dynamic Loads.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Nov 12;13(22). Epub 2020 Nov 12.

Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

Characterization of the tensile mechanical behaviors of rocks under dynamic loads is of great significance for the practical engineering. However, thus far, its micromechanics have rarely been studied. This paper micromechanically investigated the compression-induced tensile mechanical behaviors of the crystalline rock using the grain-based model (GBM) by universal distinct element code (UDEC). Results showed that the crystalline rock has the rate- and heterogeneity-dependency of tensile behaviors. Essentially, dynamic Brazilian tensile strength increased in a linear manner as the loading rate increased. With the size distribution and morphology of grain-scale heterogeneity weakened, it increased, and this trend was obviously enhanced as the loading rate increased. Additionally, the rate-dependent characteristic became strong with the grain heterogeneity weakened. The grain heterogeneity prominently affected the stress distribution inside the synthetic crystalline rock, especially in the mixed compression and tension zone. Due to heterogeneity, there were tensile stress concentrations (TSCs) in the sample which could favor microcracking and strength weakening of the sample. As the grain heterogeneity weakened or the loading rate increased, the magnitude of the TSC had a decreasing trend and there was a transition from the sharp TSC to the smooth tensile stress distribution zone. The progressive failure of the crystalline rock was notably influenced by the loading rate, which mainly represented the formation of the crushing zone adjacent to two loading points. Our results are meaningful for the practical engineering such as underground protection works from stress waves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13225107DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7696292PMC
November 2020

Combinatory Effect of ALA-PDT and Itraconazole Treatment for Trichosporon asahii.

Lasers Surg Med 2020 Nov 8. Epub 2020 Nov 8.

Department of Dermatology, Sun Yat-sen Memorial Hospital, Sun Yat-sen University, 107 West Yanjiang Road, Guangzhou, 510120, China.

Background And Objectives: Trichosporiosis is an opportunistic infection that includes superficial infections, white piedra, hypersensitivity pneumonitis, and invasive trichosporonosis. The effect of antifungal agents against these infections is largely weakened by drug resistance and biofilms-related virulence. Photodynamic therapy (PDT) is a new therapeutic approach developed not only to combat cancerous lesions but also to treat infectious diseases such as fungal infections. However, there are few studies on the antimicrobial mechanism of 5-aminolevulinic acid PDT (ALA-PDT) in treating Trichosporon. In this work, we explored the possibility of combining ALA-PDT with an antifungal agent to enhance the therapeutic efficacy of Trichosporon asahii (T. asahii) in a clinical setting and in vitro.

Study Design/materials And Methods: The biofilms of T. asahii were constructed by a 96-well plate-based method in vitro. The planktonic and adherent T. asahii were exposed to different concentrations of photosensitizers and different light doses. After PDT treatment, counting colony-forming units and tetrazolium (XTT) reduction assay were used to estimate the antifungal efficacy. The minimal inhibitory concentration of itraconazole before and after PDT treatment was determined by the broth dilution method, and XTT viability assay was used to detect and evaluate the synergistic potential of ALA-PDT and itraconazole combinations in inhibiting biofilms. Scanning electron microscopy (SEM) was performed to assess the disruption of biofilms.

Results: Using combination therapy, we have successfully treated a patient who had a T. asahii skin infection. Further in vitro studies showed that the antifungal effect of ALA-PDT on planktonic and adherent T. asahii was dependent on the concentration of ALA and light dosages used. We also found that the sensitivity of both planktonic and biofilm cells to itraconazole were increased after ALA-PDT. Synergistic effect were observed for biofilms in ALA-PDT and itraconazole-combined treatment. The disruption of biofilms was confirmed by SEM, suggesting that ALA-PDT effectively damaged the biofilms and the destruction was further enhanced by ALA-PDT combination of antifungal agents.

Conclusions: In conclusion, these data suggest that ALA-PDT could be an alternative strategy for controlling infections caused by Trichosporon. The combination therapy of ALA-PDT with itraconazole could result in increased elimination of planktonic cells and biofilms compared with single therapy. All these findings indicate that it could be a promising treatment against trichosporonosis. Lasers Surg. Med. © 2020 Wiley Periodicals LLC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/lsm.23343DOI Listing
November 2020

A Novel Strategy for Single-Session Ultrasound-Guided Radiofrequency Ablation of Large Benign Thyroid Nodules: A Pilot Cohort Study.

Front Endocrinol (Lausanne) 2020 7;11:560508. Epub 2020 Oct 7.

Department of Interventional Ultrasound, Third Affiliated Hospital of Sun Yat-sen University, Guangzhou, China.

Ultrasound-guided radiofrequency ablation (RFA) of thyroid nodules (TNs) is a minimally invasive procedure that has been widely used to induce volume reduction in symptomatic solid benign TNs. The goal of this study was to investigate a novel therapeutic approach for single-session ablation of large thyroid nodules (LTNs, vol > 20 ml). We performed a pilot cohort study of 21 patients with symptomatic solid benign LTNs (vol > 20 ml), who accepted ultrasound-guided RFA treatment between September 2018 and November 2019. RFA was performed using an 18-gauge internally cooled electrode with ultrasonographic guidance in a single session combined with intraoperative hydrodissection and immediate contrast-enhanced ultrasound (CEUS) to optimize safety and efficacy. Nodule volume was evaluated before ablation and at 1, 3, and 6 months after initial ablation, and all patients were asked to assess the cosmetic score (from 1 to 4) and symptom score (from 0 to 10) before ablation and at every follow-up after ablation. At the 6 month follow-up, there was significant nodule volume reduction, from 27.49 ml ± 7.9 (standard deviation) to 3.82 ml ± 5.02 ( = 0.001). Cosmetic signs ( = 0.001) and pressure symptoms ( = 0.001) were significantly improved. All patients underwent RFA without any major complications, and very few patients developed a change in voice (2/21). However, the changes subsided within 1 month. Almost half of the patients received an additional RFA (11/21) treatment to achieve complete ablation on the intraoperative immediate CEUS evaluation. RFA is effective for treating LTNs (vol > 20 ml) and controlling clinical symptoms with a low complication rate. Patients were satisfied with cosmetic sign and pressure symptom improvement. The intraoperative hydrodissection and immediate CEUS represent a novel therapeutic approach for single-session ablation of LTNs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fendo.2020.560508DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7575788PMC
May 2021

Deep learning modeling approach for metasurfaces with high degrees of freedom.

Opt Express 2020 Oct;28(21):31932-31942

Metasurfaces have shown promising potentials in shaping optical wavefronts while remaining compact compared to bulky geometric optics devices. The design of meta-atoms, the fundamental building blocks of metasurfaces, typically relies on trial and error to achieve target electromagnetic responses. This process includes the characterization of an enormous amount of meta-atom designs with varying physical and geometric parameters, which demands huge computational resources. In this paper, a deep learning-based metasurface/meta-atom modeling approach is introduced to significantly reduce the characterization time while maintaining accuracy. Based on a convolutional neural network (CNN) structure, the proposed deep learning network is able to model meta-atoms with nearly freeform 2D patterns and different lattice sizes, material refractive indices and thicknesses. Moreover, the presented approach features the capability of predicting a meta-atom's wide spectrum response in the timescale of milliseconds, attractive for applications necessitating fast on-demand design and optimization of a meta-atom/metasurface.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.401960DOI Listing
October 2020

A New Shear Strength Criterion for Rock Masses with Non-Persistent Discontinuities Considering the Nonlinear Progressive Failure Process.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Oct 22;13(21). Epub 2020 Oct 22.

Key Laboratory of Shale Gas and Geoengineering, Institute of Geology and Geophysics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100029, China.

The shear strength characteristics of rock masses containing non-persistent discontinuities are strongly affected by discontinuities and rock bridges. The linear Jennings criterion cannot reflect the nonlinear mechanical behavior during progressive failure of rock masses with non-persistent discontinuities. In this study, a new nonlinear shear strength criterion was developed. First of all, a series of shear test data about artificial rock mass samples were collected on the basis of the published literatures, and five types of samples were differentiated according to the positions of discontinuities. After that, a new nonlinear shear strength criterion was proposed by introducing two correction coefficients and into the basic form of the Jennings criterion, which could correct the weight of the cohesion and the internal friction coefficient of rock bridges respectively. Then, the new criterion was determined by fitting the basic form of the Jennings criterion with the laboratory data. It was found that the parameters and had a nonlinear exponential and negative exponential relation with the connectivity rate respectively. It indicated that both the cohesion and the internal friction coefficient estimated by the new criterion were superior to those estimated by the Jennings criterion. Compared with the linear Jennings criterion, the new nonlinear shear strength criterion had a better applicability.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13214694DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7659485PMC
October 2020

Gastrodin alleviates bone damage by modulating protein expression and tissue redox state.

FEBS Open Bio 2020 11 21;10(11):2404-2416. Epub 2020 Oct 21.

School and Hospital of Stomatology, Liaoning Provincial Key Laboratory of Oral Diseases, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Fluorosis is a common disease characterized by disruptions in bone metabolism and enamel development. The production of reactive oxygen species is thought to play an important role in fluorosis. Gastrodin (4-hydroxybenzylalcohol4-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside) has been reported to have antioxidative activity, and so here we examined whether gastrodin has protective effects against oxidative stress and bone tissue toxicity in rats with fluorosis. Wistar rats were given different doses of gastrodin 1 month after fluoride administration, and samples of blood, bone and teeth were collected after 2, 3 and 4 months; glutathione peroxidase glu, CAT and SOD levels in the fluorosis group were lower than those in the control group. Gastrodin treatment in rats ameliorated oxidative stress and fluoride accumulation that were induced by fluoride; treatment with 400 mg·kg gastrodin protected trabecular bone structure and reduced femur and alveolar bone injury in rats with fluorosis. Enhanced expression of cysteinyl aspartate-specific proteinase (caspase) 3, caspase-9 and Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 induced by fluoride were also reversed by gastrodin. In summary, the present data suggest that gastrodin, and in particular a dose of 400 mg·kg , can improve the antioxidative capacity of rats, reduce concentration of fluoride in tissues, alleviate bone damage and modulate expression of Bcl-2, Bax, caspase-3 and caspase-9.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/2211-5463.12991DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7609800PMC
November 2020

Progressive Failure Characteristics of Brittle Rock under High-Strain-Rate Compression Using the Bonded Particle Model.

Materials (Basel) 2020 Sep 6;13(18). Epub 2020 Sep 6.

China Highway Engineering Consultanting Corporation, Beijing 100089, China.

This paper microscopically investigated progressive failure characteristics of brittle rock under high-strain-rate compression using the bonded particle model (BPM). We considered the intact sample and the flawed sample loaded by split Hopkinson pressure bar respectively. Results showed that the progressive failure characteristics of the brittle rock highly depended on the strain rate. The intact sample first experienced in microcracking, then crack coalescing, and finally splitting into fragments. The total number of the micro cracks, the proportion of the shear cracks, the number of fragments and the strain at the peak stress all increased with the increasing strain rate. Also, a transition existed for the failure of the brittle rock from brittleness to ductility as the strain rate increased. For the flawed sample, the microcracking initiation position and the types of the formed macro cracks were influenced by the flaw angle in the initial stage. However, propagation of these early-formed macro cracks were prohibited in the later stages. New micro cracks were produced and then coalesced into diagonal macro cracks which could all form 'X'-shape failure configuration regardless of the incline angle of the flaw. We explored micromechanics on progressive failure characteristics of the brittle rock under dynamic loads.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ma13183943DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7559500PMC
September 2020

Corporate crisis management on social media: A morality violations perspective.

Heliyon 2020 Jul 20;6(7):e04435. Epub 2020 Jul 20.

Suzanne Parker Thornhill Chair Professor and Eminent Scholar in Business Information Technology, Pamplin College of Business, Virginia Tech, Pamplin Hall, Suite 1007, 880 West Campus Drive, Blacksburg, VA, 24061, USA.

Communication via a social network function enabled by social media has greatly empowered consumers' secondary crisis communication, as compared to a firm's crisis communication, and has thus changed corporate crisis management. This study aims to uncover consumers' decision process of engaging in secondary crisis communication in a social media context. Drawing on the social control perspective and impression management theory, this study examines the role of perceived morality violations and consumers' susceptibility to social influence in shaping consumers' secondary crisis communication in corporate crises. Moreover, leveraging cognitive dissonance theory, this study further examines the effects of corporate responses on the process of consumers' secondary crisis communication. A survey design with four scenarios was conducted to test a series of hypotheses relating to the decision process of secondary crisis communication. Our empirical results demonstrate that consumers' approach to secondary crisis communication on social media depends largely to the degree to which they perceive moral violations in the firms' crisis response. The findings also show that consumers tend to want to believe they are doing the "right thing" when considering secondary crisis communication and thus are afraid of being disliked by others for their purchasing decisions related to a firm in crisis. Such social conformance can result in a snowballing of negative word of mouth in product-harm crises cases. Findings contribute to the literature on social media crisis management and consumers' communication behavior on social media during product-harm crises.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.heliyon.2020.e04435DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7378572PMC
July 2020

Full control of dual-band vortex beams using a high-efficiency single-layer bi-spectral 2-bit coding metasurface.

Opt Express 2020 Jun;28(12):17374-17383

Vortex beams (VBs) carrying orbital angular moment (OAM) modes have been proven to be promising resources for increasing communication capacity. Although considerable attention has been paid on metasurface-based VB generators due to the unprecedented advantages of metasurface, most applications are usually limited at a single band with a fixed OAM mode. In this work, an emerging dual-band reflection-type coding metasurface is proposed to mitigate these issues by newly engineered meta-atoms, which could achieve independent 2-bit phase modulations at two frequency bands. The proposed coding metasurface could efficiently realize and fully control dual-band VBs carrying frequency selective OAM modes under the linearly polarized incidence. As the first illustrative example, a dual-band VB generator with normal beam direction is fabricated and characterized at two widely used communication bands (Ku and Ka bands). Moreover, by encoding proper coding sequences, versatile beams carrying frequency selective OAM modes can be achieved. Therefore, by adding a gradient phase sequence to the first VB generator, the second one is designed to steer the generated beams to a preset direction, which could enable diverse scenarios. The measurement results of both VB generators agree very well with the numerical ones, validating the full control capability of the proposed approach.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.394571DOI Listing
June 2020

Descriptions of Pedesta wangi sp. nov. and the female of P. xiaoqingae (Huang & Zhan, 2004) from China (Lepidoptera: Hesperiidae).

Zootaxa 2019 Nov 20;4700(3):zootaxa.4700.3.4. Epub 2019 Nov 20.

School of Food and Bioengineering, Zhengzhou University of Light Industry, No.5 Dongfeng Road, Zhengzhou, Henan, 450002, P. R. China.

A new species of the genus Pedesta Hemming, 1934, viz. P. wangi sp. nov., is described as new to science from northwestern Guangxi, southern China. Based upon 455 bp partial COI sequences, a neighbor-joining (NJ) tree including the new species and twelve congeneric species is reconstructed. It shows that P. wangi sp. nov. is a cryptic species of P. xiaoqingae (Huang & Zhan, 2004), and the mean Kimura-2-Parameter distance between them reaches 2.8%. Wing patterns and genitalic structures of the males of the two species are illustrated and compared. In addition, three female samples are associated with P. xiaoqingae male in the NJ tree, and its wing pattern and genitalia are illustrated and described herein for the first time.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.11646/zootaxa.4700.3.4DOI Listing
November 2019

Kanglaite injection plus platinum-based chemotherapy for stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer: A meta-analysis of 27 RCTs.

Phytomedicine 2020 Feb 19;67:153154. Epub 2019 Dec 19.

State Key Laboratory of Quality Research in Chinese Medicines, Macau University of Science and Technology, Macau, PR China. Electronic address:

Background: Kanglaite injection (KLT) is a broad-spectrum anti-tumor drug, which is extracted from the seeds of the Chinese medicinal herb Coix lacryma-jobi, and has been widely used for the treatment of advanced lung cancer.

Purpose: To evaluate the combined effects of Kanglaite injection plus platinum-based chemotherapy (PBC) on patients with stage III/IV non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC).

Study Design: A systematic review and meta-analysis of randomized clinical trials (RCTs).

Materials And Methods: Twelve databases were searched from their inceptions until July 05, 2019. All the RCTs comparing the efficacy and safety of Kanglaite injection plus PBC versus PBC alone were selected. Analyses were performed using Review Manager 5.3, Comprehensive Meta-Analysis 3.0 and Trial Sequential Analysis (TSA). Disease control rate (DCR) was defined as the primary endpoint, objective response rate (ORR), survival rate, quality of life (QOL), cellular immunity function, and toxicities were defined as the secondary endpoints.

Results: Twenty-seven RCTs recruiting 2,243 patients with stage III/IV NSCLC were included. The results showed that, compared with PBC alone, Kanglaite injection plus PBC improved DCR (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.15-1.26, p < 0.00001), ORR (RR = 1.45, 95% CI 1.31-1.60, p < 0.00001), 1-year survival rate (RR = 1.20, 95% CI 1.02-1.43, p = 0.03), QOL (RR = 1.32, 95% CI 1.25-1.40, p < 0.00001), CD4T cells (WMD = 4.86, 95% CI 4.00-5.73, p < 0.00001), CD4/CD8 ratio (WMD = 0.19, 95% CI 0.07-0.31, p < 0.002), and reduced severe toxicities by 59% (RR = 0.41, 95% CI 0.33-0.51, p < 0.00001). Most results were robust and the quality of evidence was from moderate to low.

Conclusions: Kanglaite injection in combination with PBC showed significantly higher efficacy than PBC alone in the treatment of stage III/IV NSCLC. Moreover, the combination therapy can improve cellular immunity and attenuate the severe toxicities caused by chemotherapy. However, high-quality RCTs are warranted to further assess the effects of the combined therapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.phymed.2019.153154DOI Listing
February 2020

Synergistic Effects on Incorporation of β-Tricalcium Phosphate and Graphene Oxide Nanoparticles to Silk Fibroin/Soy Protein Isolate Scaffolds for Bone Tissue Engineering.

Polymers (Basel) 2020 Jan 2;12(1). Epub 2020 Jan 2.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang 110122, China.

In bone tissue engineering, an ideal scaffold is required to have favorable physical, chemical (or physicochemical), and biological (or biochemical) properties to promote osteogenesis. Although silk fibroin (SF) and/or soy protein isolate (SPI) scaffolds have been widely used as an alternative to autologous and heterologous bone grafts, the poor mechanical property and insufficient osteoinductive capability has become an obstacle for their in vivo applications. Herein, β-tricalcium phosphate (β-TCP) and graphene oxide (GO) nanoparticles are incorporated into SF/SPI scaffolds simultaneously or individually. Physical and chemical properties of these composite scaffolds are evaluated using field emission scanning electron microscope (FESEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and attenuated total reflectance Fourier transformed infrared spectroscopy (ATR-FTIR). Biocompatibility and osteogenesis of the composite scaffolds are evaluated using bone marrow mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs). All the composite scaffolds have a complex porous structure with proper pore sizes and porosities. Physicochemical properties of the scaffolds can be significantly increased through the incorporation of β-TCP and GO nanoparticles. Alkaline phosphatase activity (ALP) and osteogenesis-related gene expression of the BMSCs are significantly enhanced in the presence of β-TCP and GO nanoparticles. Especially, β-TCP and GO nanoparticles have a synergistic effect on promoting osteogenesis. These results suggest that the β-TCP and GO enhanced SF/SPI scaffolds are promising candidates for bone tissue regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/polym12010069DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7023539PMC
January 2020

Evolutionary Analysis of Calcium-Dependent Protein Kinase in Five Species.

Plants (Basel) 2019 Dec 24;9(1). Epub 2019 Dec 24.

Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization of Ministry of Education, College of Life Sciences, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China.

Calcium-dependent protein kinase (CPK) is crucial in Ca signal transduction, and is a large gene family in plants. In our previous work, we reported CPKs were important for natural rubber biosynthesis. However, this gene family in other rubber producing plants has not been investigated. Here, we report the CPKs in five representative species, including three rubber-producing and two non-rubber species. A total of 34, 34, 40, 34 and 30 CPKs were identified from , , , and , respectively. All CPKs were classified into four individual groups (group I to IV). In addition, 10 , 11 , 20 , 13 n and 7 c duplicated paralogs were identified. Further evolutionary analysis showed that, compared to other subfamilies, the group III had been expanded in the species, especially in the rubber-producing species. Meanwhile, the in group III from species tend to expand with low calcium binding capacity. This study provides a systematical evolutionary investigation of the CPKs in five representative species, suggesting that the sub-family specific expansion of CPKs might be related to natural rubber producing.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/plants9010032DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7020201PMC
December 2019

LncRNA DANCR promotes the proliferation, migration, and invasion of tongue squamous cell carcinoma cells through miR-135a-5p/KLF8 axis.

Cancer Cell Int 2019 19;19:302. Epub 2019 Nov 19.

1Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, 117 North Nanjing Street, Shenyang, 110002 People's Republic of China.

Background: Tongue squamous cell carcinoma (TSCC) is a most invasive cancer with high mortality and poor prognosis. It is reported that lncRNA DANCR has implications in multiple types of cancers. However, its biological role and underlying mechanism in TSCC progress are not well elucidated.

Methods: Our present study first investigated the function of DANCR on the proliferation, migration and invasion of TSCC cells by silencing or overexpressing DANCR. Further, the miR-135a-5p-Kruppel-like Factor 8 (KLF8) axis was focused on to explore the regulatory mechanism of DANCR on TSCC cell malignant phenotypes. Xenografted tumor growth using nude mice was performed to examine the role of DANCR in vivo.

Results: DANCR knockdown reduced the viability and inhibited the migration and invasion of TSCC cells in vitro, while ectopic expression of DANCR induced opposite effects. In vivo, the tumor growth and the expression of matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)-2/9 and KLF8 were also blocked by DANCR inhibition. In addition, we found that miR-135-5p directly targeted DANCR, which was negatively correlated with DANCR on TSCC progression. Its inhibition reversed the beneficial effects of DANCR silence on TSCC malignancies. Furthermore, the expression of KLF8 evidently altered by both DANCR and miR-135a-5p. Silencing KLF8 using its specific siRNA showed that KLF8 was responsible for the induction of miR-135a-5p inhibitor on TSCC cell malignancies and MMP-2/9 expression.

Conclusions: These findings, for the first time, suggest that DANCR plays an oncogenic role in TSCC progression via targeting miR-135a-5p/KLF8 axis, which provides a promising biomarker and treatment approach for preventing TSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12935-019-1016-6DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6862788PMC
November 2019

Recovery from mechanical degradation of graphene by defect enlargement.

Nanotechnology 2019 Nov 4;31(8):085707. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

Department of Mechanical Engineering, University of California, Berkeley, CA 94720, United States of America.

The extraordinary properties of graphene have made it an elite candidate for a broad range of emerging applications since its discovery. However, the introduction of structural defects during graphene production often compromises the theoretically predicted performance of graphene-based technologies to a great extent. In this study, a counterintuitive defect enlargement strategy to recover from defect-induced mechanical degradation is explored, of which the realization may lead to an enhanced operating efficiency and manufacturing feasibility. Our molecular-dynamics simulation results show that the enlargement of a preexisting defect to an elliptical shape can potentially recover from the mechanical degradation that the very defect has caused. For a defective graphene sheet having a failure strain of 48% of the pristine graphene sheet, enlarging the defect can enhance the failure strain up to 80% of the pristine graphene sheet. The mechanism of degradation recovery lies in a reduced change in curvature during deformation, which is further solidified by theoretical quantification and stress-field analysis. This theory can also predict and pinpoint the location of the initiation of the fracture-where the curvature changes most significantly during the deformation. In addition, the influence of an elliptical defect on the mechanical properties of a graphene sheet is systematically studied, which is not well understood today. Finally, the degradation recovery potential of defect of various sizes is examined, showing that the initial defect that can create the highest degree of geometric asymmetry has the best potential for degradation recovery. This study investigates the recovery from defect-induced mechanical degradation and the influence of elliptical defects on the mechanical properties of a graphene sheet, which widens our understanding of the possibility of fine-tuning mechanical properties via defect engineering and has the potential to improve materials for emerging technologies such as supercapacitor devices.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1088/1361-6528/ab5401DOI Listing
November 2019

Comparative Proteomic Analysis of Molecular Differences between Leaves of Wild-Type Upland Cotton and Its - Mutant.

Molecules 2019 Oct 19;24(20). Epub 2019 Oct 19.

College of Life Sciences, Key Laboratory of Xinjiang Phytomedicine Resource and Utilization of Ministry of Education, Shihezi University, Shihezi 832003, China.

mutant () ovules of upland cotton have been used to investigate cotton fiber development for decades. However, the molecular differences of green tissues between and wild-type (WT) cotton were barely reported. Here, we found that gossypol content, the most important secondary metabolite of cotton leaves, was higher in L. cv Xuzhou-142 (Xu142) WT than in . Then, we performed comparative proteomic analysis of the leaves from Xu142 WT and its . A total of 4506 proteins were identified, of which 103 and 164 appeared to be WT- and -specific, respectively. In the 4239 common-expressed proteins, 80 and 74 were preferentially accumulated in WT and , respectively. Pathway enrichment analysis and protein-protein interaction network analysis of both variety-specific and differential abundant proteins showed that secondary metabolism and chloroplast-related pathways were significantly enriched. Quantitative real-time PCR confirmed that the expression levels of 12 out of 16 selected genes from representative pathways were consistent with their protein accumulation patterns. Further analyses showed that the content of chlorophyll a in WT, but not chlorophyll b, was significantly increased compared to . This work provides the leaf proteome profiles of Xu142 and its mutant, indicating the necessity of further investigation of molecular differences between WT and leaves.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/molecules24203769DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6832260PMC
October 2019

EMS1 and BRI1 control separate biological processes via extracellular domain diversity and intracellular domain conservation.

Nat Commun 2019 09 13;10(1):4165. Epub 2019 Sep 13.

College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, 710119, Xi'an, Shaanxi Province, China.

In flowering plants, EMS1 (Excess Microsporocytes 1) perceives TPD1 (Tapetum Determinant 1) to specify tapeta, the last somatic cell layer nurturing pollen development. However, the signaling components downstream of EMS1 are relatively unknown. Here, we use a molecular complementation approach to investigate the downstream components in EMS1 signaling. We show that the EMS1 intracellular domain is functionally interchangeable with that of the brassinosteroid receptor BRI1 (Brassinosteroid Insensitive 1). Furthermore, expressing EMS1 together with TPD1 in the BRI1 expression domain could partially rescue bri1 phenotypes, and led to the dephosphorylation of BES1, a hallmark of active BRI1 signaling. Conversely, expressing BRI1 in the EMS1 expression domain could partially rescue ems1 phenotypes. We further show that PpEMS1 and PpTPD1 from the early land plant Physcomitrella patens could completely rescue ems1 and tpd1 phenotypes, respectively. We propose that EMS1 and BRI1 have evolved distinct extracellular domains to control different biological processes but can act via a common intracellular signaling pathway.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41467-019-12112-wDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6744412PMC
September 2019

USF2 enhances the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs by promoting ATF4 transcriptional activities.

J Periodontal Res 2020 Jan 26;55(1):68-76. Epub 2019 Aug 26.

Department of Orthodontics, School of Stomatology, China Medical University, Shenyang, China.

Objective: Our study aimed to elucidate the regulatory molecules related to the osteogenic differentiation of periodontal ligament cells (PDLCs).

Background: Periodontal ligament cells are a favorable source for cell-based therapy in periodontal bone engineering and regeneration due to their potential multilineage differentiation ability. However, the molecular mechanism and signaling pathways related to the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs are still unclear.

Methods: Osteoblast-specific protein expression levels were examined by ELISA in osteogenic-induced PDLCs (induced-PDLC group). A microarray assay and a bioinformatics analysis were carried out to reveal significantly expressed genes and the related pathways in induced-PDLCs, and these findings were then confirmed by qRT-PCR and a luciferase reporter assay. Finally, overexpressing and silencing gene systems were established to identify the specific transcriptional relationship and function of the target genes on the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs.

Results: Osteogenically differentiated PDLCs with high levels of osteoblast-specific proteins were established. The upstream stimulatory factor 2 (USF2) and activating transcription factor 4 (ATF4) mRNA levels were upregulated the most through the MAPK signaling pathway in the induced-PDLC group. USF2 could bind to the transcriptional initiation region of ATF4 and regulate its transcriptional activities. Additionally, the overexpression of USF2 promoted osteoblast-specific gene expression and the Alizarin red staining of PDLCs, while simultaneously overexpressing USF2 and silencing ATF4 reversed the favorable osteogenic effect of the induced-PDLCs by reducing osteoblast-specific gene expression and the Alizarin red staining level.

Conclusion: Our study demonstrated that USF2 could enhance the osteogenic differentiation of PDLCs by regulating ATF4 transcriptional activities, which provides a new strategy to utilize USF2 and ATF4 as potential target molecules for periodontal bone regeneration.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1111/jre.12689DOI Listing
January 2020

Functional study of the brassinosteroid biosynthetic genes from Selagnella moellendorfii in Arabidopsis.

PLoS One 2019 25;14(7):e0220038. Epub 2019 Jul 25.

College of Life Sciences, Shaanxi Normal University, Xi'an, China.

Brassinosteroids (BRs) are essential hormones for plant growth and development. Enzymes DET2 and CYP90 family are responsible for BR biosynthesis in seed plants. Yet, their roles in non-seed plants are unknown. Here, we report the first functional study of DET2 and all 4 CYP90 genes isolated from Selaginella moellendorfii. Sm89026 (SmCPD) belonged to a clade with CYP90A1 (CPD) and CYP90B1 (DWF4) while Sm182839, Sm233379 and Sm157387 formed a distinct clade with CYP90C1 (ROT3) and CYP90D1. SmDET2, SmCPD and Sm157387 were highly expressed in both leaves and strobili while Sm233379 was only highly expressed in the leaves but not strobili, implying their differential functions in a tissue-specific manner in S. moellendorfii. We showed that only SmDET2 and SmCPD completely rescued Arabidopsis det2 and cpd mutant phenotypes, respectively, suggestive of their conserved BR biosynthetic functions. However, neither SmCPD nor other CYP90 genes rescued any other cyp90 mutants. Yet overexpression of Sm233379 altered plant fertility and BR response, which means that Sm233379 is not an ortholog of any CYP90 genes in Arabidopsis but appears to have a BR function in the S. moellendorfii leaves. This function is likely turned off during the development of the strobili. Our results suggest a dramatic functional divergence of CYP90 family in the non-seed plants. While some of them are functionally similar to that of seed plants, the others may be functionally distinct from that of seed plants, shedding light for future exploration.
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http://journals.plos.org/plosone/article?id=10.1371/journal.pone.0220038PLOS
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6658078PMC
March 2020