Publications by authors named "Bowen Zhao"

57 Publications

miR-34c-5p mediates the cellular malignant behaviors of oral squamous cell carcinoma through targeted binding of TRIM29.

Ann Transl Med 2021 Oct;9(20):1537

Department of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital of Harbin Medical University, Harbin, China.

Background: This investigation examined the effects of the microRNA miR-34c-5p on the proliferation, migration, and invasion of oral squamous cell carcinoma (OSCC) and the mechanisms involved.

Methods: The Gene Expression Omnibus (GEO) database was used to filter the chips, and the GEO2R software (https://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/geo/geo2r/) was used to analyze the microarray data (GSE28100 and GSE45238). Gene set enrichment analysis (GSEA) was used to study the relationship between the expression of miR-34c-5p and the distant metastasis and pathological grade of OSCC. The correlation between TRIM29 (tripartite motif containing 29) expression and the malignant clinical phenotype of OSCC was also examined. The mRNA and protein expression levels of miR-34c-5p and TRIM29 were measured by real time quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and Western blot analysis. The proliferation, migration, invasion and apoptosis of the human oral squamous carcinoma cell lines CAL-27 and Tca8113 was assessed by performing cell-counting kit-8 (CCK-8) assays, colony formation assays, transwell tests, wound scratch tests and flow cytometry. Luciferase reporter assays were used to predict the relationship between miR-34c-5p and TRIM29. A xenograft nude model was established and used to evaluate the effect of miR-34c-5p on tumor growth in female BALB/c mice.

Results: The expression of miR-34c-5p was significantly correlated with the proliferation, migration, and metastasis of OSCC. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p promoted the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cells, and suppressed their apoptosis. Inversely, low expression of miR-34c-5p suppressed the proliferation, migration, and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cells, and promoted their apoptosis. Overexpression of miR-34c-5p promoted tumor growth in the xenograft nude mice model. The expression of TRIM29 was related to malignant clinical phenotype of OSCC. Overexpression of TRIM29 inhibited the proliferation, migration and invasion of CAL-27 and Tca8113 cell, and induced their apoptosis. TRIM29 knockout had just the opposite effect. Importantly, miR-34c-5p binds to TRIM29 and inhibited TRIM29 expression.

Conclusions: MiR-34c-5p regulates the proliferation, migration, invasion, and apoptosis of OSCC through targeted binding of TRIM29. This may represent a novel therapeutic target for the treatment of patients with OSCC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/atm-21-4679DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8576676PMC
October 2021

MDF-SA-DDI: predicting drug-drug interaction events based on multi-source drug fusion, multi-source feature fusion and transformer self-attention mechanism.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Oct 20. Epub 2021 Oct 20.

School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200030, P.R. China.

One of the main problems with the joint use of multiple drugs is that it may cause adverse drug interactions and side effects that damage the body. Therefore, it is important to predict potential drug interactions. However, most of the available prediction methods can only predict whether two drugs interact or not, whereas few methods can predict interaction events between two drugs. Accurately predicting interaction events of two drugs is more useful for researchers to study the mechanism of the interaction of two drugs. In the present study, we propose a novel method, MDF-SA-DDI, which predicts drug-drug interaction (DDI) events based on multi-source drug fusion, multi-source feature fusion and transformer self-attention mechanism. MDF-SA-DDI is mainly composed of two parts: multi-source drug fusion and multi-source feature fusion. First, we combine two drugs in four different ways and input the combined drug feature representation into four different drug fusion networks (Siamese network, convolutional neural network and two auto-encoders) to obtain the latent feature vectors of the drug pairs, in which the two auto-encoders have the same structure, and their main difference is the number of neurons in the input layer of the two auto-encoders. Then, we use transformer blocks that include self-attention mechanism to perform latent feature fusion. We conducted experiments on three different tasks with two datasets. On the small dataset, the area under the precision-recall-curve (AUPR) and F1 scores of our method on task 1 reached 0.9737 and 0.8878, respectively, which were better than the state-of-the-art method. On the large dataset, the AUPR and F1 scores of our method on task 1 reached 0.9773 and 0.9117, respectively. In task 2 and task 3 of two datasets, our method also achieved the same or better performance as the state-of-the-art method. More importantly, the case studies on five DDI events are conducted and achieved satisfactory performance. The source codes and data are available at https://github.com/ShenggengLin/MDF-SA-DDI.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab421DOI Listing
October 2021

Data-driven framework for high-accuracy color restoration of RGBN multispectral filter array sensors under extremely low-light conditions.

Opt Express 2021 Jul;29(15):23654-23670

RGBN multispectral filter array provides a cost-effective and one-shot acquisition solution to capture well-aligned RGB and near-infrared (NIR) images which are useful for various optical applications. However, signal responses of the R, G, B channels are inevitably distorted by the undesirable spectral crosstalk of the NIR bands, thus the captured RGB images are adversely desaturated. In this paper, we present a data-driven framework for effective spectral crosstalk compensation of RGBN multispectral filter array sensors. We set up a multispectral image acquisition system to capture RGB and NIR image pairs under various illuminations which are subsequently utilized to train a multi-task convolutional neural network (CNN) architecture to perform simultaneous noise reduction and color restoration. Moreover, we present a technique for generating high-quality reference images and a task-specific joint loss function to facilitate the training of the proposed CNN model. Experimental results demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed method, outperforming the state-of-the-art color restoration solutions and achieving more accurate color restoration results for desaturated and noisy RGB images captured under extremely low-light conditions.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1364/OE.426940DOI Listing
July 2021

VIP Stabilizes the Cytoskeleton of Schlemm's Canal Endothelia via Reducing Caspase-3 Mediated ZO-1 Endolysosomal Degradation.

Oxid Med Cell Longev 2021 13;2021:9397960. Epub 2021 Sep 13.

Department of Ophthalmology, Tongji Hospital, Tongji Medical College, Huazhong University of Science and Technology, Wuhan 430030, China.

Objectives: In glaucomatous eyes, the main aqueous humor (AH) outflow pathway is damaged by accumulated oxidative stress arising from the microenvironment, vascular dysregulation, and aging, which results in increased outflow resistance and ocular hypertension. Schlemm's canal (SC) serves as the final filtration barrier of the main AH outflow pathway. The present study is aimed at investigating the possible regulation of vasoactive intestinal peptide (VIP) on the cytoskeleton by stabilizing ZO-1 in SC.

Methods: Model of chronic ocular hypertension (COH) induced by episcleral venous cauterization was treated with topical VIP. The ultrastructure of junctions, ZO-1 levels, and permeability of the SC inner wall to FITC-dextran (70 kDa) were detected in the COH models. The F-actin distribution, F/G-actin ratio, and ZO-1 degradation pathway in human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) and HEK 293 cells were investigated.

Results: ZO-1 in the outer wall of the SC was less than that in the inner wall. COH elicited junction disruption, ZO-1 reduction, and increased permeability of the SC inner wall to FITC-dextran in rats. ZO-1 plays an essential role in maintaining the F/G-actin ratio and F-actin distribution. VIP treatment attenuated the downregulation of ZO-1 associated with COH or HO-induced oxidative damage. In HO-stimulated HUVECs, the caspase-3 inhibitor prevents ZO-1 disruption. Caspase-3 activation promoted endolysosomal degradation of ZO-1. Furthermore, a decrease in caspase-3 activation and cytoskeleton redistribution was demonstrated in VIP + HO-treated cells. The knockdown of ZO-1 or the overexpression of caspase-3 blocked the effect of VIP on the cytoskeleton.

Conclusion: This study provides insights into the role of VIP in stabilizing the interaction between the actin cytoskeleton and cell junctions and may provide a promising targeted strategy for glaucoma treatment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1155/2021/9397960DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8452417PMC
September 2021

NeuroPpred-Fuse: an interpretable stacking model for prediction of neuropeptides by fusing sequence information and feature selection methods.

Brief Bioinform 2021 Nov;22(6)

State Key Laboratory of Microbial Metabolism, and School of Life Sciences and Biotechnology, Shanghai Jiao Tong University, Shanghai 200240, China.

Neuropeptides acting as signaling molecules in the nervous system of various animals play crucial roles in a wide range of physiological functions and hormone regulation behaviors. Neuropeptides offer many opportunities for the discovery of new drugs and targets for the treatment of neurological diseases. In recent years, there have been several data-driven computational predictors of various types of bioactive peptides, but the relevant work about neuropeptides is little at present. In this work, we developed an interpretable stacking model, named NeuroPpred-Fuse, for the prediction of neuropeptides through fusing a variety of sequence-derived features and feature selection methods. Specifically, we used six types of sequence-derived features to encode the peptide sequences and then combined them. In the first layer, we ensembled three base classifiers and four feature selection algorithms, which select non-redundant important features complementarily. In the second layer, the output of the first layer was merged and fed into logistic regression (LR) classifier to train the model. Moreover, we analyzed the selected features and explained the feasibility of the selected features. Experimental results show that our model achieved 90.6% accuracy and 95.8% AUC on the independent test set, outperforming the state-of-the-art models. In addition, we exhibited the distribution of selected features by these tree models and compared the results on the training set to that on the test set. These results fully showed that our model has a certain generalization ability. Therefore, we expect that our model would provide important advances in the discovery of neuropeptides as new drugs for the treatment of neurological diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1093/bib/bbab310DOI Listing
November 2021

Characterization of Shallow Whole-Metagenome Shotgun Sequencing as a High-Accuracy and Low-Cost Method by Complicated Mock Microbiomes.

Front Microbiol 2021 30;12:678319. Epub 2021 Jul 30.

Pharmacology and Toxicology Research Center, Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences and Peking Union Medical College, Beijing, China.

Characterization of the bacterial composition and functional repertoires of microbiome samples is the most common application of metagenomics. Although deep whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (WMS) provides high taxonomic resolution, it is generally cost-prohibitive for large longitudinal investigations. Until now, 16S rRNA gene amplicon sequencing (16S) has been the most widely used approach and usually cooperates with WMS to achieve cost-efficiency. However, the accuracy of 16S results and its consistency with WMS data have not been fully elaborated, especially by complicated microbiomes with defined compositional information. Here, we constructed two complex artificial microbiomes, which comprised more than 60 human gut bacterial species with even or varied abundance. Utilizing real fecal samples and mock communities, we provided solid evidence demonstrating that 16S results were of poor consistency with WMS data, and its accuracy was not satisfactory. In contrast, shallow whole-metagenome shotgun sequencing (shallow WMS, S-WMS) with a sequencing depth of 1 Gb provided outputs that highly resembled WMS data at both genus and species levels and presented much higher accuracy taxonomic assignments and functional predictions than 16S, thereby representing a better and cost-efficient alternative to 16S for large-scale microbiome studies.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fmicb.2021.678319DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8361837PMC
July 2021

-score of some pulsed-wave Doppler indices of right pulmonary artery segments of normal fetuses in the second and third trimestries.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Aug 15:1-5. Epub 2021 Aug 15.

Ultrasound and Echocardiography Department, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Technical Guidance Center for Fetal Echocardiography of Zhejiang Province and Sir Run Run Shaw Institute of Clinical Medicine of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Objective: To establish the -score equation of right pulmonary artery (RPA) segments for some valuable pulse-wave Doppler parameters (PWD) and estimate their reference ranges in normal fetuses.

Methods: Two hundred and seventy-three normal singleton fetuses at 18-38 weeks were enrolled in this fetal echocardiography of a prospective cross-sectional study. The proximal, middle, and distal segments of RPA of pulsed-wave Doppler parameters, such as peak systolic velocity (PSV) and pulsation index (PI) were obtained by using fetal Doppler echocardiography. The mean and standard deviation (SD) of each parameter and gestational age (GA) were analyzed by regression, and the optimal model of -score was established.

Results: There was a significant correlation between fetal pulmonary artery Doppler parameters and gestational age, during the whole pregnancy, PI showed a downward trend with the progress of gestational week, while PSV showed an upward trend. Whether it was the original data or the data converted for the normal distribution of -score, the model that best described the mean value of parameters was quadratic regression. The SDs for PSV of the middle segment was a linear equation, others were constants. From proximal to distal of RPA, PSV showed a decreasing trend while PI showed an increasing trend.

Conclusion: -score models and reference values for some PWD parameters of three segments of RPA were proposed against GA, which may quantitatively assess the flow dynamics of fetal RPA and quantitatively assess fetal lung circulation development and hemodynamic changes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1960974DOI Listing
August 2021

Knockdown of ER-α36 expression inhibits glioma proliferation, invasion and epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition.

Anat Rec (Hoboken) 2021 Jul 31. Epub 2021 Jul 31.

Department of Genetics and Key Laboratory for Experimental Teratology of the Ministry of Education, School of Basic Medical Science, Shandong University, Jinan, China.

Estrogen receptor-α36 (ER-α36), a subtype of the estrogen receptor, is reported to play roles in tumorigenesis and tamoxifen resistance in several tumors, especially breast cancer. However, the role of ER-α36 in glioma proliferation and invasion remains unknown. Here, we explored the function of ER-α36 in glioma cells, using U87 and U251 cell lines. We found that ER-α36 was upregulated in glioma tissues compared to adjacent nontumor tissues. In U87 and U251 glioma cell lines, inhibition of ER-α36 expression by shRNA suppressed cell proliferation and invasion. In addition, the expression of an epithelial marker, ZO-1, was upregulated while that of one mesenchymal marker, N-cadherin, was downregulated with ER-α36 knockdown. We also found that inhibition of ER-α36 inactivated both PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK signals. Taken together, these data indicated that overexpression of ER-α36 is associated with glioma proliferation and progression but that inhibition of ER-α36 leads to suppressed invasion and the epithelial-to-mesenchymal transition via PI3K/AKT and MEK/ERK pathway inactivation in glioma cells.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ar.24723DOI Listing
July 2021

The maintenance of microbial community in human fecal samples by a cost effective preservation buffer.

Sci Rep 2021 06 29;11(1):13453. Epub 2021 Jun 29.

Beijing QuantiHealth Technology Co., Ltd., Beijing, 100070, China.

In the burgeoning microbiome field, powerful sequencing approaches and accompanied bioanalytical methods have made tremendous contributions to the discoveries of breakthroughs, which favor to unravel the intimate interplay between gut microbiota and human health. The proper preservation of samples before being processed is essential to guarantee the authenticity and reliability of microbiome studies. Hence, the development of preservation methods is extremely important to hold samples eligible for the consequent analysis, especially population cohort-based investigations or those spanning species or geography, which frequently facing difficulties in suppling freezing conditions. Although there are several commercial products available, the exploration of cost-efficient and ready-to-use preservation methods are still in a large demand. Here, we performed shotgun metagenomic sequencing and demonstrated that microbial consortia in human fecal samples were substantially preserved within a temporary storage of 4 h, independent of the storage temperature. We also verified a previous reported self-made preservation buffer (PB buffer) could not only preserve fecal microbiota at room temperature up to 4 weeks but also enable samples to endure a high temperature condition which mimics temperature variations in summer logistics. Moreover, PB buffer exhibited suitability for human saliva as well. Collectively, PB buffer may be a valuable choice to stabilize samples if neither freezing facilities nor liquid nitrogen is available.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-021-92869-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8242035PMC
June 2021

Multi-frequency localized wave energy for delamination identification using laser ultrasonic guided wave.

Ultrasonics 2021 Jun 10;116:106486. Epub 2021 Jun 10.

School of Aerospace Engineering, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005, China. Electronic address:

Delamination is the most common and dangerous failure mode for multilayered structures. Delamination defects of different shapes and sizes have different sensitivity to guided wave of different frequencies and modes. So that it is necessary to study the application of multi-frequency methods for achieving detection. In this study, the algorithm of multi-frequency localized wave energy is present using laser ultrasonic guided waves for delamination identification. Localized wave energy is acoustic energy in space under specific wavenumber. New wavenumber components occur in damaged composite plates and its localized wave energy can be used for delamination identification. The localized wave energy is not only related to mode conversion caused by the decrease of structural thickness above the delamination, but also the scattering waves in delamination region. The scattering waves make acoustic energy redistributed and it is enhanced at specific spatial position. The discovery has been verified in simulation and experiment. Multi-frequency experimental results show lower noises and more discernible profile of delamination region in two specimens, including medial and non-medial delamination. In the case of medial delamination, the actual dispersion curve is closer to the dispersion curve of upper laminate at high frequency; in the case of non-medial delamination, the actual dispersion curve is similar to the ideal situation ignoring the effect of epoxy resin. Based on the actual dispersion curves, two critical parameters of proper frequencies and filter threshold are selected for delamination identification using laser ultrasonic guided wave.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ultras.2021.106486DOI Listing
June 2021

Preliminary study on the evaluation of mitral annulus displacement in normal fetuses by automated cardiac motion quantitation.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Mar 11:1-9. Epub 2021 Mar 11.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound and Echocardiography, Zhejiang University School of Medicine Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Hangzhou, China.

Objectives: The aim of this study was to assess the characteristics of mitral annular plane systolic excursion (MAPSE) in different longitudinal directions in normal fetuses using a new method, automatic cardiac motion quantification (aCMQ).

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 164 fetuses with structurally normal hearts. The time-displacement curves of the septal mitral annulus (SMA) in three directions, including point A, B and C (MAPSE-SMA-A, MAPSE-SMA-B, MAPSE-SMA-C), were recorded by aCMQ. The time to peak (TTP) in three directions, including point A, B and C (TTP-SMA-A, TTP-SMA-B, TTP-SMA-C) were recorded. In the same way, various parameters of the lateral mitral annulus (LMA) were obtained including MAPSE-LMA-A, MAPSE-LMA-B, MAPSE-LMA-C, TTP-LMA-A, TTP-LMA-B and TTP-LMA-C. Free angle M-mode echocardiography (FAM) was used to obtain MAPSE of LMA (FAM-MAPSE). Finally, all the data were analyzed statistically.

Results: MAPSE was positively correlated with gestational age, and the difference between the second- and third-trimester groups was statistically significant. MAPSE-LMA in point B and C were greater than those of SMA. MAPSE-LMA-C and MAPSE-SMA-A were the largest in three directions.The difference between point B and C were statistically significant ( .05), with no significant difference at point A ( > .05). There was no significant difference found in all TTP (all  > .05). The MAPSE-LMA-C was less than the FAM-MAPSE, and the differences were found significantly ( < .05), but there was better correlation ( < .05).

Conclusions: The longitudinal movement of the fetal mitral annulus is comprehensive, with multiple directions and different displacements. Perpendicular to the mitral annulus is the maximum displacement. It is positively related to the gestational age. From the second trimester, the longitudinal contraction of the left ventricle wall has good synchronization. It possesses clinical value in selecting different methods and parameters during evaluating left ventricular function.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2021.1900102DOI Listing
March 2021

Comparison of left atrial and left atrial appendage mechanics in the risk stratification of stroke in patients with atrial fibrillation.

Cardiovasc Ultrasound 2021 Jan 9;19(1). Epub 2021 Jan 9.

Department of Cardiology, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University School of Medicine, 3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

Background: Left atrial (LA) and left atrial appendage (LAA) dysfunction has been demonstrated to contribute to atrial fibrillation (AF)-related stroke. However, usefulness of LA and LAA mechanics has not been fully compared. We sought to investigate the association of LA and LAA mechanics with stroke and to compare their diagnostic values in the risk stratification of stroke in patients with nonvalvular AF.

Methods: A total of 208 consecutive patients with AF (63.58 ± 10.37 years, 63.9% male,57.7% persistent AF) who underwent echocardiography before catheter ablation were prospectively enrolled. Speckle-tracking was used to measure LA and LAA global longitudinal strain (GLS). LA and LAA mechanical dispersions (MD) were defined as the standard deviation (SD) of time to peak positive strain corrected by the R-R interval.

Results: Patients with prior stroke/ transient ischemic attack (TIA) (n = 31) had significantly higher LA and LAA MD than those without (n = 177) (11.56 ± 4.38% vs. 8.43 ± 3.44%, 15.15 ± 5.46% vs. 10.94 ± 4.40%, both P < 0.01). In multivariable analysis, LA and LAA MD were independently associated with stroke/TIA (odds ratio, 1.18-1.29, 1.19-1.22, respectively, both P < 0.01), providing incremental values over clinical and standard echocardiographic parameters. In a subgroup analysis, LA MD was more useful than LAA MD in patients with normal LA volumes, while LAA MD was superior to LA MD in patients with LA enlargement.

Conclusions: Higher LA and LAA mechanical dispersion are independently associated with stroke/TIA in AF patients and had incremental values over clinical and conventional echocardiographic parameters. What's more, priorities of dispersion assessment are different depending on patients' LA size.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1186/s12947-020-00232-zDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7797160PMC
January 2021

Multicritical Deconfined Quantum Criticality and Lifshitz Point of a Helical Valence-Bond Phase.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 Dec;125(25):257204

Department of Physics, Boston University, 590 Commonwealth Avenue, Boston, Massachusetts 02215, USA.

The S=1/2 square-lattice J-Q model hosts a deconfined quantum phase transition between antiferromagnetic and dimerized (valence-bond solid) ground states. We here study two deformations of this model-a term projecting staggered singlets, as well as a modulation of the J terms forming alternating "staircases" of strong and weak couplings. The first deformation preserves all lattice symmetries. Using quantum Monte Carlo simulations, we show that it nevertheless introduces a second relevant field, likely by producing topological defects. The second deformation induces helical valence-bond order. Thus, we identify the deconfined quantum critical point as a multicritical Lifshitz point-the end point of the helical phase and also the end point of a line of first-order transitions. The helical-antiferromagnetic transitions form a line of generic deconfined quantum-critical points. These findings extend the scope of deconfined quantum criticality and resolve a previously inconsistent critical-exponent bound from the conformal-bootstrap method.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.125.257204DOI Listing
December 2020

[Quantification of microbial DNA in laboratory environment during DNA extraction].

Sheng Wu Gong Cheng Xue Bao 2020 Dec;36(12):2541-2547

Institute of Medicinal Plant Development, Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences & Peking Union Medical College, Beijing 100193, China.

Metagenomic sequencing provides a powerful tool for microbial research. However, traditional experimental DNA extraction process will inevitably mix with environmental microorganisms which float in the air. It is still unclear whether the mixed environmental microbial DNA will heavily affect the metagenomic results of samples with extremely low microbial content. In this study, we first collected environmental bacteria in the laboratory and quantified the mixed environmental microbial DNA content during DNA extraction based on a qPCR-based quantification assay. We then extracted DNA from pure water in order to determine the mixed microbial taxons during extraction under open environment. At last, we extracted total DNA from a skin sample in a Biosafety cabinet or under open laboratory environment, to assess the impact of the mixed environmental microorganisms on the metagenomic results. Our results showed that DNA extraction under open laboratory environment in Beijing region resulted in 28.9 pg contaminant, which may accout for 30% of total DNA amount from skin samples. Metagenomic analysis revealed that the main incorporated environmental taxons were Cutibacterium acnes and Escherichia coli. Tens of environmental bacteria were foisted in the skin DNA samples, which largely decreased the relative abundance of dominant species and thus deteriorated the result accuracy. Therefore, analyzing microbial composition of samples with extremely low DNA content should better performed under aseptic environment.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.13345/j.cjb.200526DOI Listing
December 2020

A preliminary study on the prenatal diagnosis of fetal conotruncal defects using intelligent navigation echocardiography.

Int J Gynaecol Obstet 2021 Apr 5;153(1):138-145. Epub 2021 Jan 5.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound and Echocardiography, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital of Clinical Medicine of Zhejiang University, Zhejiang, China.

Objective: To compare the accuracy, efficiency, and consistency between experienced and less-experienced professionals using intelligent navigation echocardiography.

Methods: In this prospective study, we enrolled 93 second- and third-trimester fetuses with conotruncal defects (CTD) from July 2017 to February 2018. One or more spatiotemporal image correlation volume data sets were collected per case. The fetuses with CTD were diagnosed by the following two groups of professionals (n = 20 in each) with different experience levels using intelligent navigation echocardiography and two-dimensional ultrasound: group A with 15 years of experience and group B with 1 year of experience. The diagnostic consistency and accuracy of the technologies between the two groups were analyzed.

Results: Satisfactory consistency was noted in the two groups (group A, τ = 0.855, P < 0.05, and group B, τ = 0.821, P < 0.05), and no significant difference in accuracy (χ = 3.218, P > 0.05) in using intelligent navigation echocardiography was reported between the two groups. However, there a significant difference in accuracy (χ = 0.021, P < 0.05) when using two-dimensional ultrasound was observed between the two groups.

Conclusion: Intelligent navigation echocardiography was found to be efficient and accurate for the diagnosis of CTD and good consistency existed in the experienced and less-experienced professionals.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijgo.13429DOI Listing
April 2021

Effects of matrine on the proliferation and apoptosis of vincristine-resistant retinoblastoma cells.

Exp Ther Med 2020 Sep 13;20(3):2838-2844. Epub 2020 Jul 13.

Beijing Institute of Ophthalmology, Beijing Tongren Eye Center, Capital Medical University, Beijing Ophthalmology and Visual Sciences Key Laboratory, Beijing 100005, P.R. China.

Matrine is an active component of plants and is thought to exhibit anti-tumor effects. However, the effects of matrine on drug-resistant cancer have not been fully elucidated. The present study aimed to investigate the effects of matrine on vincristine (VCR)-resistant retinoblastoma (RB) cells and to assess the underlying mechanisms governing this effect. The drug-resistant cell line SO-Rb50/VCR was established by incubation with VCR at increasing concentrations. The effects of matrine on SO-Rb50 and SO-RB50/VCR cell growth and proliferation were evaluated using light microscopy and Cell-Counting Kit-8 assay. In addition, the effects of matrine on cell apoptosis, proliferation and cell cycle staging together with its potential underlying mechanisms were investigated. Matrine inhibited the proliferation of SO-Rb50 and SO-RB50/VCR cells in a concentration-dependent manner (0.2-1.1 mg/ml). However, matrine at the half-maximal inhibitory concentration (IC) appeared to trigger apoptosis of these cells and had a tendency to arrest the cell cycle at the G0/G1 phase. Matrine treatment also promoted the expression of Bax and reduced the expression of Bcl-2 and cyclin D1 compared with the control. However, matrine was not able to increase the sensitivity of cells to VCR. The results of the present study suggested that matrine has the potential to promote the apoptosis of SO-Rb50/VCR cells and arrest cell cycling, indicating a possible benefit of matrine for the treatment of drug-resistant RB.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3892/etm.2020.8992DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7401942PMC
September 2020

The Effect of Dietary Vitamin K1 Supplementation on Trabecular Meshwork and Retina in a Chronic Ocular Hypertensive Rat Model.

Invest Ophthalmol Vis Sci 2020 07;61(8):40

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Purpose: The pathophysiologic relationship between vitamin K and glaucoma remains largely unknown. The aim of the study was to explore the effect of dietary vitamin K supplementation in a rat glaucoma model.

Methods: Rats were randomly divided into two groups: standard diet and high vitamin K1 (VitK1) diet (300 mg VitK1/kg diet). Induction of chronic ocular hypertension by episcleral vein cauterization was performed on the right eye. The left eye with sham operation served as controls. Rats received standard or high VitK1 diets for 5 weeks after surgery until the end of experiment. Immunohistochemistry analyses of the retina and trabecular meshwork were performed. The change in coagulation function and IOP were evaluated.

Results: We observed a significant declined IOP at 2 weeks after surgery in the high VitK1 group compared with the control group. High VitK1 showed no significant effect on the body weight, rat phenotypes, or coagulation function. High VitK1 significantly inhibited the loss of retinal ganglion cells in the retina and increased the expression of matrix gla protein. High VitK1 also ameliorated the collapsed trabecular meshwork structure and increased collagen staining in the trabecular meshwork.

Conclusions: High VitK1 intake inhibited the loss of retinal ganglion cells during glaucomatous injury, probably by increasing the expression of matrix gla protein. A transient decrease in the IOP was observed in the high VitK1 group, implying a potential effect of VitK1 on aqueous outflow. Retinal ganglion cells protection by high VitK1 supplementation may be due to the IOP-lowering effects as well as neuroprotective effect. Further research is required to delineate these processes.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1167/iovs.61.8.40DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7425704PMC
July 2020

Diagnostic performance of fetal intelligent navigation echocardiography (FINE) in fetuses with double-outlet right ventricle (DORV).

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2020 Nov 8;36(11):2165-2172. Epub 2020 Jul 8.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound and Echocardiography, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, People's Republic of China.

The main objective of this study was to investigate the diagnostic performance of FINE in generating and displaying 3 specific abnormal fetal echocardiography views such as left ventricular outflow tract (LVOT) view, right ventricular outflow tract (RVOT) view, and 3-vessels and trachea (3VT) view in fetuses with double-outlet right ventricle (DORV). In this prospective study, thirty fetuses diagnosed with DORV by fetal echocardiography in the second and third trimesters were enrolled. One or more STIC volume data-sets were collected from the 4-chamber view as initial view for each fetus, one optimal volume per fetus was selected for on-line analysis using FINE, and the diagnosis plane image was optimized using the Virtual Intelligent Sonographer Assistance (VIS-assistance).The visualization rates of 3 specific abnormal fetal echocardiography views of DORV and key diagnostic elements were calculated. One or more STIC volumes (n = 30 total) were obtained in 25 patients. A single STIC volume per patient was analyzed using the FINE method. FINE was able to successfully generate and display 3 specific abnormal fetal echocardiography views. The display rates of the 3 specific abnormal fetal echocardiography views (3VT, LVOT, RVOT) were 84.0%, 76.0% and 84.0%, respectively. By applying intelligent navigation technology to STIC volume data-sets, the FINE method can successfully generate three specific abnormal cardiac fetal echocardiography diagnostic views in fetuses with DORV, the FINE method can be used for screening and remote consultation of fetal DORV.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-020-01932-3DOI Listing
November 2020

Quantum Phases of SrCu_{2}(BO_{3})_{2} from High-Pressure Thermodynamics.

Phys Rev Lett 2020 May;124(20):206602

Beijing National Laboratory for Condensed Matter Physics and Institute of Physics, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing 100190, China.

We report heat capacity measurements of SrCu_{2}(BO_{3})_{2} under high pressure along with simulations of relevant quantum spin models and map out the (P,T) phase diagram of the material. We find a first-order quantum phase transition between the low-pressure quantum dimer paramagnet and a phase with signatures of a plaquette-singlet state below T=2  K. At higher pressures, we observe a transition into a previously unknown antiferromagnetic state below 4 K. Our findings can be explained within the two-dimensional Shastry-Sutherland quantum spin model supplemented by weak interlayer couplings. The possibility to tune SrCu_{2}(BO_{3})_{2} between the plaquette-singlet and antiferromagnetic states opens opportunities for experimental tests of quantum field theories and lattice models involving fractionalized excitations, emergent symmetries, and gauge fluctuations.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1103/PhysRevLett.124.206602DOI Listing
May 2020

A Sialylated-Bortezomib Prodrug Strategy Based on a Highly Expressed Selectin Target for the Treatment of Leukemia or Solid Tumors.

Pharm Res 2019 Nov 4;36(12):176. Epub 2019 Nov 4.

College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 85 Hongliu Road, Benxi, 117004, Liaoning, China.

Purpose: This study aimed to explore the potential of sialic acid - related selectin targeting strategy in the treatment of leukemia and some solid tumors. We expected it could "actively" bind tumor cells and kill them, reducing non-specific toxicity to normal cells.

Methods: BOR-SA prodrug was synthesized by reacting an ortho-dihydroxy group in SA with a boronic acid group in BOR. Two kinds of leukemia cells (RAW264.7 and HL60 cells), one solid sarcoma cell model (S180 cells) and their corresponding normal cells (monocytes (MO), neutrophil (NE) and fibroblast (L929)) were selected for the in vitro cell experiments (cytotoxicity, cellular uptake, cell cycle and apoptosis experiments). The S180 tumor-bearing Kunming mice model was established for anti-tumor pharmacodynamic experiments.

Results: In vitro cell assay results showed that uptake of BOR-SA by HL60 and S180 cells were increased compared with the control group. BOR-SA induced a lower IC, higher ratio of apoptosis and cell cycle arrest of tumor cells. In vivo anti-S180 tumor pharmacodynamics experiments showed that mice in the BOR-SA group had higher tumor inhibition rate, higher body weight and lower immune organ toxicity compared with the control group.

Conclusions: sialic acid-mediated selectin targeting strategy may have great potential in the treatment of related tumors.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11095-019-2714-4DOI Listing
November 2019

Preliminary results analysis for left ventricular systolic function in normal fetuses by automated cardiac motion quantitation.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Aug 10;34(16):2701-2709. Epub 2019 Oct 10.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound & Echocardiography, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Technical Guidance Center for Fetal Echocardiography of Zhejiang Province & Sir Run Run Shaw Institute of Clinical Medicine of Zhejiang University, Hangzhou, China.

Background: Fetal heart evaluation has been proven to have the utility in the differential diagnosis of cardiomyopathies or prediction of perinatal mortality in congenital heart disease. The purpose of this study is to introduce a novel method that can measure the global and regional longitudinal strain of left ventricle in fetuses, described as automated cardiac motion quantitation (aCMQ). Furthermore, to evaluate the feasibility and value of aCMQ.

Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted in 138 fetuses with normal heart structure, then were divided into four groups by gestational age, standard four-chamber view clips were collected, the global and segmental longitudinal peak systolic strain of the left ventricle were measured by aCMQ, interobserver and intraobserver variability was analyzed.

Results: The success rate of aCMQ analysis was 90.6% (125/138). aCMQ can obtain more comprehensive data to evaluate fetal cardiac function by on-line analysis, including the left ventricular end-systolic volume (LVESV, 0.64 ± 0.16 ml), the left ventricular end-diastolic volume (LVEDV, 0.85 ± 0.35 ml), strain and so on. There was no significant correlation between the gestational age and the global and segmental longitudinal peak strain of the left ventricle (all  > .05). The base and middle segmental strain values of left ventricular free wall were similar to those of the interventricular septum. No significant differences were found in base segments and middle segments for left ventricular free wall (LVLW) and the interventricular septum (IVS) ( > .05). The strain of the apex segment was higher than that of the base and middle segment ( < .05), and there were significant differences between the apex and the base and the middle ( < .05). Interobserver and intraobserver variability showed a small bias among the observers.

Conclusions: The global and regional strain values of fetus have no correlation with gestational ages, and the strain values of apical segment are higher than those of basal and middle segments. The base and middle segmental strain values of left ventricular free wall were similar to those of the interventricular septum. aCMQ is a novel method of two dimensional speckle tracking echocardiography to assess the global and regional systolic function of fetuses. It's a feasible and reproducible approach to evaluate normal cardiac function of fetus quantitatively and may have potential in fetuses with congenital heart diseases.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1670810DOI Listing
August 2021

Terminating the renewal of tumor-associated macrophages: A sialic acid-based targeted delivery strategy for cancer immunotherapy.

Int J Pharm 2019 Nov 5;571:118706. Epub 2019 Oct 5.

College of Pharmacy, Shenyang Pharmaceutical University, 103 Wenhua Road, Shenyang, Liaoning 110016, China. Electronic address:

Mononuclear phagocytes are efficient drug delivery targets for cancers owing to their cancerous tissue-accumulating nature. As receptors of sialic acid, Siglecs (sialic acid-binding immunoglobulin-type lectins) are noticeably found on peripheral blood monocytes (PBMs) and tumor-associated macrophages (TAMs), which renew by the differentiation of recruited PBMs at the tumor site and positively correlate with tumor growth. Given this, a sialic acid-octadecylamine conjugate (SA-ODA) was synthesized and then modified on the surface of liposomal epirubicin (EPI-SAL) as a potent tumor-targeting delivery strategy. A cellular uptake assay indicated that SA-modified liposomes provided improved distribution of the drug in both PBMs and TAMs. Pharmacodynamic tests demonstrated that the antitumor efficacy of the EPI-SAL group was better than that of the other groups, owing to both inhibition of TAMs by EPI-SAL, and high-efficiency targeting of PBMs by EPI-SAL, after which PBMs containing EPI-SAL were recruited to the tumor site and then killed by EPI. Thus, an SA-based targeted delivery strategy effectively interdicted the generation of TAMs. Our research provides the feasibility of the SA-ODA decorated liposome as an active carrier for cancer immunotherapy.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ijpharm.2019.118706DOI Listing
November 2019

Smart-planes fetal heart (S-planes FH) software to quantitative evaluate the fetal great arteries.

J Matern Fetal Neonatal Med 2021 Jun 11;34(12):1932-1940. Epub 2019 Aug 11.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound and Echocardiography, Sir Run Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, Hangzhou, PR China.

Objectives: To explore the feasibility of applying smart-planes fetal heart (S-Planes FH) to 3D volumes to generate and display the outflow tract views (OFTVs) and evaluate its agreement and reliability in determining fetal vessel dimensions.

Methods: A total of 147 normal fetuses in the second or third trimester were enrolled. Once conventional 2D sonographic examination was finished, one or more 3D static volumes were then acquired in the 4-chamber view (4CV). The OFTVs automatically generated and displayed a simple offline operation using S-Planes FH software. Per fetus, a single qualified S-Planes FH image was selected by an expert. The inner diameters of the aorta (AO) and pulmonary artery (PA) were measured in 2D and S-Planes FH images, respectively. The agreement and reliability of the two methods were verified by the Bland-Altman method and the intraclass correlation coefficient (ICC), respectively.

Results: A total of 515 3D static volumes were successfully acquired in 147 fetuses. The OFTVs were generated and displayed using S-Planes FH in 138 (93.9%) cases. S-Planes FH had good agreement in measuring the diameters of great arteries (95% CI of limits, -0.9419 to 1.1464 for AO diameter, -0.8871 to 1.7007 for PA diameter). The intraobserver and interobserver ICCs in this study were greater than 0.81, indicating almost perfect reliability of the two methods with regard to observers.

Conclusions: S-Planes FH software is a feasible method for generating OFTVs as well as determining vessel dimensions in the second and third trimesters and had good agreement with 2D examination. Therefore, it possesses clinical value in screening for CHD and can be operated by different sonographers.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/14767058.2019.1651279DOI Listing
June 2021

Carnosol as a Nrf2 Activator Improves Endothelial Barrier Function Through Antioxidative Mechanisms.

Int J Mol Sci 2019 Feb 18;20(4). Epub 2019 Feb 18.

School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China.

Oxidative stress is the main pathogenesis of diabetic microangiopathy, which can cause microvascular endothelial cell damage and destroy vascular barrier. In this study, it is found that carnosol protects human microvascular endothelial cells (HMVEC) through antioxidative mechanisms. First, we measured the antioxidant activity of carnosol. We showed that carnosol pretreatment suppressed tert-butyl hydroperoxide (t-BHP)-induced cell viability, affected the production of lactate dehydrogenase (LDH) as well as reactive oxygen species (ROS), and increased the produce of nitric oxide (NO). Additionally, carnosol promotes the protein expression of vascular endothelial cadherin (VE-cadherin) to keep the integrity of intercellular junctions, which indicated that it protected microvascular barrier in oxidative stress. Meanwhile, we investigated that carnosol can interrupt Nrf2-Keap1 protein-protein interaction and stimulated antioxidant-responsive element (ARE)-driven luciferase activity in vitro. Mechanistically, we showed that carnosol promotes the expression of heme oxygenase 1(HO-1) and nuclear factor-erythroid 2 related factor 2(Nrf2). It can also promote the expression of endothelial nitric oxide synthase (eNOS). Collectively, our data support the notion that carnosol is a protective agent in HMVECs and has the potential for therapeutic use in the treatments of microvascular endothelial cell injury.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms20040880DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6413211PMC
February 2019

Rapid determination of atrazine in apple juice using molecularly imprinted polymers coupled with gold nanoparticles-colorimetric/SERS dual chemosensor.

Food Chem 2019 Mar 9;276:366-375. Epub 2018 Oct 9.

Food Nutrition and Health Program, Faculty of Land and Food Systems, The University of British Columbia, Vancouver V6T 1Z4, BC, Canada. Electronic address:

Rapid and reliable determination of atrazine, a common chemical contaminant, in agri-foods is highly necessary. We reported a novel dual-chemosensor coupling, a separation [molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs)], an instrumental-free detection [gold nanoparticles (AuNPs)-based colorimetric assay] and an instrument-based quantification [surface enhanced Raman spectroscopy (SERS)] method for high-throughput and sensitive determination of atrazine in apple juice. Used as the selective sorbent for the solid phase extraction, MIPs effectively extracted atrazine from apple juice with high recoveries (∼93%). AuNPs of different sizes (large; medium; and small) performed differently in the two analytical methods. Large-AuNPs provided the highest sensitivity in colorimetric analysis (<0.01 mg L), while medium-AuNPs achieved the lowest limit of detection (0.0012 mg L) and quantification (0.0040 mg L) in SERS analysis. With minor modifications, protocols for both analytical methods can rapidly detect and/or quantify atrazine in different food products complying with the Health Canada regulation (0.005 mg L).
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.foodchem.2018.10.036DOI Listing
March 2019

[Effects of long time different negative pressures on osteogenic differentiation of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells].

Zhongguo Xiu Fu Chong Jian Wai Ke Za Zhi 2017 05;31(5):594-599

No.1 Department of General Surgery, The First Affiliated Hospital, College of Medicine, Shihezi University, Shihezi Xinjiang, 832008, P.R.China.

Objective: To investigate the effects of long time different negative pressures on osteogenic diffe-rentiation of rabbit bone mesenchymal stem cells (BMSCs).

Methods: The rabbit BMSCs were isolated and cultured by density gradient centrifugation. Flow cytometry was used to analyze expression of surface markers. The third passage cells cultured under condition of osteogenic induction and under different negative pressure of 0 mm Hg (control group), 75 mm Hg (low negative pressure group), and 150 mm Hg (high negative pressure group) (1 mm Hg=0.133 kPa), and the negative pressure time was 30 min/h. Cell growth was observed under phase contrast microscopy, and the growth curve was drawn; alkaline phosphatase (ALP) activity was detected by ELISA after induced for 3, 7, and 14 days. The mRNA and protein expressions of collagen type I (COL-I) and osteocalcin (OC) in BMSCs were analyzed by real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot.

Results: The cultured cells were identified as BMSCs by flow cytometry. The third passage BMSCs exhibited typical long shuttle and irregular shape. Cell proliferation was inhibited with the increase of negative pressure. After induced for 4 days, the cell number of high negative pressure group was significantly less than that in control group and low negative pressure group ( <0.05), but there was no significant difference between the low negative pressure group and the control group ( >0.05); at 5-7 days, the cell number showed significant difference between 3 groups ( <0.05). The greater the negative pressure was, the greater the inhibition of cell proliferation was. There was no significant difference in ALP activity between groups at 3 days after induction ( >0.05); the ALP activity showed significant difference ( <0.05) between the high negative pressure group and the control group at 7 days after induction; and significant difference was found in the ALP activity between 3 groups at 14 days after induction ( <0.05). The greater the negative pressure was, the higher the ALP activity was. Real-time fluorescence quantitative PCR and Western blot detection showed that the mRNA and protein expressions of COL-I and OC protein were significantly higher in low negative pressure group and high negative pressure group than control group ( <0.05), and in the high negative pressure group than the low negative pressure group ( <0.05).

Conclusion: With the increase of the negative pressure, the osteogenic differentiation ability of BMSCs increases gradually, but the cell proliferation is inhibited.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.7507/1002-1892.201701095DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC8498252PMC
May 2017

In Silico Analysis of the Association Relationship between Neuroprotection and Flavors of Traditional Chinese Medicine Based on the mGluRs.

Int J Mol Sci 2018 Jan 10;19(1). Epub 2018 Jan 10.

Key Laboratory of TCM-Information Engineer of State Administration of TCM, School of Chinese Pharmacy, Beijing University of Chinese Medicine, Beijing 100102, China.

The metabotropic glutamate receptors (mGluRs) are known as both synaptic receptors and taste receptors. This feature is highly similar to the Property and Flavor theory of Traditional Chinese medicine (TCM), which has the pharmacological effect and flavor. In this study, six ligand based pharmacophore (LBP) models, seven homology modeling models, and fourteen molecular docking models of mGluRs were built based on orthosteric and allosteric sites to screening potential compounds from Traditional Chinese Medicine Database (TCMD). Based on the Pharmacopoeia of the People's Republic of China, TCMs of compounds and their flavors were traced and listed. According to the tracing result, we found that the TCMs of the compounds which bound to orthosteric sites of mGluRs are highly correlated to a sweet flavor, while the allosteric site corresponds to a bitter flavor. Meanwhile, the pharmacological effects of TCMs with highly frequent flavors were further analyzed. We found that those TCMs play a neuroprotective role through the efficiencies of detumescence, promoting blood circulation, analgesic effect, and so on. This study provides a guide for developing new neuroprotective drugs from TCMs which target mGluRs. Moreover, it is the first study to present a novel approach to discuss the association relationship between flavor and the neuroprotective mechanism of TCM based on mGluRs.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms19010163DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5796112PMC
January 2018

Comparison of coronary sinus diameter Z-scores in normal fetuses and fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC).

Int J Cardiovasc Imaging 2018 Feb 14;34(2):223-228. Epub 2017 Aug 14.

Department of Diagnostic Ultrasound and Echocardiography, Sir Run Shaw Hospital, Zhejiang University College of Medicine, No.3 East Qingchun Road, Hangzhou, 310016, China.

To establish Z-score reference ranges for coronary sinus (CS) diameter in normal fetuses and explore the diagnostic value of CS Z-score in fetuses with persistent left superior vena cava (PLSVC). Study of 235 normal fetuses and 30 fetuses with PLSVC was involved. Noncardiac biometrical parameters included biparietal diameter (BPD), femoral length (FL), heart area (HA), gestation age (GA). The coronary sinus systolic and diastolic diameter (CSDs and CSDd ) were measured at the end of systole and diastole. CSDs and CSDd Z-score models were constructed by using linear regression analysis with Non-cardiac biometrical parameters as independent variables. Z-scores between normal fetuses and fetuses with PLSVC were compared. A simple, linear regression model was the best description and correlations between fetal CSDs and CSDd and four independent variables were excellent. Reference ranges for predicting means and SDs of the fetal CS were established. Equations for Z-score calculation were provided, CSDs and CSDd Z-scores were statistically different between normal fetuses and those with PLSVC. Development of CSDs and CSDd Z-score reference ranges in normal fetuses was realized. The CSDs and CSDd Z-scores can provide quantitative evidence in prenatal diagnosis of PLSVC.
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http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s10554-017-1229-5DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5809570PMC
February 2018
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