Publications by authors named "Borislav Rusev"

38 Publications

DNA methylation patterns identify subgroups of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors with clinical association.

Commun Biol 2021 Feb 3;4(1):155. Epub 2021 Feb 3.

University of Sydney, Sydney, New South Wales, 2006, Australia.

Here we report the DNA methylation profile of 84 sporadic pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) with associated clinical and genomic information. We identified three subgroups of PanNETs, termed T1, T2 and T3, with distinct patterns of methylation. The T1 subgroup was enriched for functional tumors and ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 wild-type genotypes. The T2 subgroup contained tumors with mutations in ATRX, DAXX and MEN1 and recurrent patterns of chromosomal losses in half of the genome with no association between regions with recurrent loss and methylation levels. T2 tumors were larger and had lower methylation in the MGMT gene body, which showed positive correlation with gene expression. The T3 subgroup harboured mutations in MEN1 with recurrent loss of chromosome 11, was enriched for grade G1 tumors and showed histological parameters associated with better prognosis. Our results suggest a role for methylation in both driving tumorigenesis and potentially stratifying prognosis in PanNETs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s42003-020-01469-0DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7859232PMC
February 2021

Combinatorial Effect of Magnetic Field and Radiotherapy in PDAC Organoids: A Pilot Study.

Biomedicines 2020 Dec 14;8(12). Epub 2020 Dec 14.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is highly refractory to systemic treatment, including radiotherapy (RT) either as alone or in combination with chemotherapy. Magnetic resonance (MR)-guided RT is a novel treatment technique which conjugates the high MR imaging contrast resolution to the possibility of re-adapting treatment plan to daily anatomical variations. Magnetic field (MF) might exert a biological effect that could be exploited to enhance radiation effect. The aim of the present study was to lay the preclinical basis of the MF effect by exploring how it modifies the response to radiation in organoid cultures established from PDAC. The short-term effect of radiation, alone or in combination with MF, was evaluated in patient-derived organoids (PDOs) and monolayer cell cultures. Cell viability, apoptotic cell death, and organoid size following exposure to the treatment were evaluated. PDOs demonstrated limited sensitivity at clinically relevant doses of radiation. The combination of radiation and MF demonstrated superior efficacy than monotherapy in almost all the PDOs tested. PDOs treated with combination of radiation and MF were significantly smaller in size and some showed increased cell death as compared to the monotherapy with radiation. Long-time exposure to 1.5T MF can increase the therapeutic efficacy of radiation in PDAC organoids.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/biomedicines8120609DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7765003PMC
December 2020

Epithelial Nr5a2 heterozygosity cooperates with mutant Kras in the development of pancreatic cystic lesions.

J Pathol 2021 Feb 24;253(2):174-185. Epub 2020 Nov 24.

Epithelial Carcinogenesis Group, Spanish National Cancer Research Centre - CNIO, Madrid, Spain.

Cystic neoplasms of the pancreas are an increasingly important public health problem. The majority of these lesions are benign but some progress to invasive pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC). There is a dearth of mouse models of these conditions. The orphan nuclear receptor NR5A2 regulates development, differentiation, and inflammation. Germline Nr5a2 heterozygosity sensitizes mice to the oncogenic effects of mutant Kras in the pancreas. Here, we show that - unlike constitutive Nr5a2 mice - conditional Nr5a2 heterozygosity in pancreatic epithelial cells, combined with mutant Kras (KPN ), leads to a dramatic replacement of the pancreatic parenchyma with cystic structures and an accelerated development of high-grade PanINs and PDAC. Timed histopathological analyses indicated that in KPN mice PanINs precede the formation of cystic lesions and the latter precede PDAC. A single episode of acute caerulein pancreatitis is sufficient to accelerate the development of cystic lesions in KPN mice. Epithelial cells of cystic lesions of KPN mice express MUC1, MUC5AC, and MUC6, but lack expression of MUC2, CDX2, and acinar markers, indicative of a pancreato-biliary/gastric phenotype. In accordance with this, in human samples we found a non-significantly decreased expression of NR5A2 in mucinous tumours, compared with conventional PDAC. These results highlight that the effects of loss of one Nr5a2 allele are time- and cell context-dependent. KPN mice represent a new model to study the formation of cystic pancreatic lesions and their relationship with PanINs and classical PDAC. Our findings suggest that pancreatitis could also contribute to acceleration of cystic tumour progression in patients. © 2020 The Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland. Published by John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5570DOI Listing
February 2021

CD117 Is a Specific Marker of Intraductal Papillary Mucinous Neoplasms (IPMN) of the Pancreas, Oncocytic Subtype.

Int J Mol Sci 2020 Aug 12;21(16). Epub 2020 Aug 12.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

The intraductal oncocytic papillary neoplasm (IOPN) of the pancreas has been recognized by WHO classification as a unique intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasm (IPMN) category. IOPN is composed of oxyphil cells, usually expressing MUC5AC, MUC6, and Hep Par-1, and harboring / fusion genes as their genetic hallmark. Although IOPNs are associated with an infiltrative adenocarcinoma in up to 30% of cases, the survival rate after surgical resection approaches 100%. This highlights the importance of the correct IOPN diagnosis, above all in cases with an associated invasive component. In this study, the immunohistochemical expression of CD117 was investigated in 111 IPMNs, including 17 oncocytic, 45 gastric, 20 pancreatico-biliary, and 29 intestinal IPMNs. We also tested the expression of MUC5AC, MUC6, and Hep Par-1 in the IOPN cohort. CD117 positivity was significantly more frequent in IOPNs compared to the other IPMN subtypes ( < 0.0001). Furthermore, within IOPN, a lower or absent CD117, MUC5AC, MUC6, and Hep Par-1 expression tended to be associated with the presence of an infiltrative component. Our findings shed light into the biology of these complex lesions, which are confirmed to be a distinctive IPMN subtype; notably, CD117 emerged as a potential, additional tool in the differential diagnosis of IPMNs.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3390/ijms21165794DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7461050PMC
August 2020

Organoid-Transplant Model Systems to Study the Effects of Obesity on the Pancreatic Carcinogenesis .

Front Cell Dev Biol 2020 28;8:308. Epub 2020 Apr 28.

Medical Oncology, Department of Medical and Surgical Sciences, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is the third leading cause of cancer-related mortality among adults in developed countries. The discovery of the most common genetic alterations as well as the development of organoid models of pancreatic cancer have provided insight into the fundamental pathways driving tumor progression from a normal cell to non-invasive precursor lesion and finally to widely metastatic disease, offering new opportunities for identifying the key driver of cancer evolution. Obesity is one of the most serious public health challenges of the 21st century. Several epidemiological studies have shown the positive association between obesity and cancer-related morbidity/mortality, as well as poorer prognosis and treatment outcome. Despite strong evidence indicates a link between obesity and cancer incidence, the molecular basis of the initiating events remains largely elusive. This is mainly due to the lack of an accurate and reliable model of pancreatic carcinogenesis that mimics human obesity-associated PDAC, making data interpretation difficult and often confusing. Here we propose a feasible and manageable organoid-based preclinical tool to study the effects of obesity on pancreatic carcinogenesis. Therefore, we tracked the effects of obesity on the natural evolution of PDAC in a genetically defined transplantable model of the syngeneic murine pancreatic preneoplastic lesion (mP) and tumor (mT) derived-organoids that recapitulates the progression of human disease from early preinvasive lesions to metastatic disease. Our results suggest that organoid-derived transplant in obese mice represents a suitable system to study early steps of pancreatic carcinogenesis and supports the hypothesis that inflammation induced by obesity stimulates tumor progression and metastatization during pancreatic carcinogenesis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3389/fcell.2020.00308DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC7198708PMC
April 2020

Reappraisal of nodal staging and study of lymph node station involvement in distal pancreatectomy for body-tail pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma.

Eur J Surg Oncol 2020 09 13;46(9):1734-1741. Epub 2020 Apr 13.

Unit of General and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy.

Background: The pattern of nodal spread in body-tail pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) has been poorly investigated. This study analyzed the characteristics of lymph node (LN) involvement and the prognostic role of nodal metastases stratified by LN stations.

Methods: All upfront distal pancreatectomies (DPs) for PDAC (2000-2017) with complete information on station 8,10,11, and 18 were included. Clinico-pathological correlates and survival were investigated using uni- and multivariable analyses.

Results: Among 100 included patients, 28 were N0, 42 N1 and 30 N2. The median number of examined LN was 32 (IQR 26-44). Tumor size at preoperative imaging increased across N-classes. Preoperative size >27.5 mm was associated with N2 status. The frequency of nodal metastases at stations 8, 9, 10, 11, and 18 was 12.0%, 10.9%, 3.0%, 71.0%, and 19%, respectively. The pattern of LN spread was independent from primary tumor location (with tail tumors metastasizing to station 8/9 and body tumors to station 10), while it was highly associated with N-class. At multivariable analysis, tumor grading, adjuvant treatment, station 9 and 10 metastases were independent prognostic factors in node-positive patients.

Conclusions: In patients undergoing upfront DP for PDAC preoperative tumor size is associated with the degree of nodal spread. While station 11 was the most frequently involved, only station-9 and 10 metastases were independent prognostic factors. The site of nodal metastases was somewhat unpredictable based on tumor location. This data has potential implications for allocating patients to neoadjuvant treatment and supports the performance of routine splenectomy during DP for PDAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.ejso.2020.04.006DOI Listing
September 2020

Genome-wide association study identifies an early onset pancreatic cancer risk locus.

Int J Cancer 2020 10 1;147(8):2065-2074. Epub 2020 May 1.

Institute for Translational Medicine, Medical School, University of Pécs, Pécs, Hungary.

Early onset pancreatic cancer (EOPC) is a rare disease with a very high mortality rate. Almost nothing is known on the genetic susceptibility of EOPC, therefore, we performed a genome-wide association study (GWAS) to identify novel genetic variants specific for patients diagnosed with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) at younger ages. In the first phase, conducted on 821 cases with age of onset ≤60 years, of whom 198 with age of onset ≤50, and 3227 controls from PanScan I-II, we observed four SNPs (rs7155613, rs2328991, rs4891017 and rs12610094) showing an association with EOPC risk (P < 1 × 10 ). We replicated these SNPs in the PANcreatic Disease ReseArch (PANDoRA) consortium and used additional in silico data from PanScan III and PanC4. Among these four variants rs2328991 was significant in an independent set of 855 cases with age of onset ≤60 years, of whom 265 with age of onset ≤50, and 4142 controls from the PANDoRA consortium while in the in silico data, we observed no statistically significant association. However, the resulting meta-analysis supported the association (P = 1.15 × 10 ). In conclusion, we propose a novel variant rs2328991 to be involved in EOPC risk. Even though it was not possible to find a mechanistic link between the variant and the function, the association is supported by a solid statistical significance obtained in the largest study on EOPC genetics present so far in the literature.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/ijc.33004DOI Listing
October 2020

Multigene mutational profiling of biliary tract cancer is related to the pattern of recurrence in surgically resected patients.

Updates Surg 2020 Mar 4;72(1):119-128. Epub 2020 Feb 4.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University of Verona, University Hospital G.B. Rossi, 37134, Verona, Italy.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the relationship between the mutational gene profile and recurrence in biliary tract cancers (BTC). A total of 103 specimens of patients with BTC, who underwent curative surgery in a single tertiary HPB surgery referral center from 1990 to 2012, were assessed for mutational status in 52 cancer-related genes. Considering the different types of BTC, the 5-year recurrence-free survival (RFS) rate was 16.7% (median RFS 7 months) in gallbladder cancer, 42.9% (median RFS 26.4 months) in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma, and 19.7% (median RFS 16.5 months) in perihilar cholangiocarcinoma, p = 0.166. At the multivariate analysis including clinical, pathological, and molecular features, the factors independently related to RFS were radicality of surgery (OR 2.050, CI 1.104-3.807, p = 0.023), LN status (OR 1.835, CI 1.006-3.348, p = 0.048), mutational status of ARID1A (OR 2.566, CI 1.174-5.608, p = 0.018), and TP53 (OR 2.805, CI 4.432-5.496, p = 0.003). ARID1A mutation was associated with a local and systemic recurrence in the 43% and 29% of cases, respectively; and TP53 mutation was associated with a local and systemic recurrence in the 29% and 41% of cases. Moreover, TP53 was most commonly mutated in tumor of patients with early recurrence, p = 0.044. ARID1A and TP53 mutations seem to be related to poor outcome after surgery and may be considered molecular predictors of the biological aggressiveness in BTC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s13304-020-00718-5DOI Listing
March 2020

Comparative Lesions Analysis Through a Targeted Sequencing Approach.

J Vis Exp 2019 11 5(153). Epub 2019 Nov 5.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona; Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University and Hospital Trust of Verona;

Assessing intra-tumoral heterogeneity (ITH) is of paramount importance to anticipate failure of targeted therapies and design accordingly effective anti-tumor strategies. Although concerns are frequently raised due to differences in sample processing and depth of coverage, next-generation sequencing of solid tumors have unraveled a highly variable degree of ITH across tumor types. Capturing the genetic relatedness between primary and metastatic lesions through the identification of clonal and subclonal populations is critical to the design of therapies for advance-stage diseases. Here, we report a method for comparative lesions analysis that allows for the identification of clonal and subclonal populations among different specimens from the same patient. The experimental approach described here integrates three well-established approaches: histological analysis, high-coverage multi-lesion sequencing, and immunophenotypic analyses. In order to minimize the effects on the detection of subclonal events by inappropriate sample processing, we subjected tissues to careful pathological examination and neoplastic cell enrichment. Quality controlled DNA from neoplastic lesions and normal tissues was then subjected to high coverage sequencing, targeting the coding regions of 409 relevant cancer genes. While only looking at a limited genomic space, our approach enables evaluating the extent of heterogeneity among somatic alterations (single-nucleotide mutations and copy-number variations) in distinct lesions from a given patient. Through comparative analysis of sequencing data, we were able to distinguish clonal vs. subclonal alterations. The majority of ITH is often ascribed to passenger mutations; therefore, we also used immunohistochemistry to predict functional consequences of mutations. While this protocol has been applied to a specific tumor type, we anticipate that the methodology described here is broadly applicable to other solid tumor types.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3791/59844DOI Listing
November 2019

Immunoevolution of mouse pancreatic organoid isografts from preinvasive to metastatic disease.

Sci Rep 2019 08 22;9(1):12286. Epub 2019 Aug 22.

Department of Diagnostic and Public Health, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDA) has a highly immunosuppressive microenvironment, which is contributed by the complex interaction between cancer cells and a heterogeneous population of stromal cells. Therefore, facile and trackable models are needed for integrative and dynamic interrogation of cancer-stroma interaction. Here, we tracked the immunoevolution of PDA in a genetically-defined transplantable model of mouse pancreatic tumour organoids that recapitulates the progression of the disease from early preinvasive lesions to metastatic carcinomas. We demonstrated that organoid-derived isografts (ODI) can be used as a biological source of biomarkers (NT5E, TGFB1, FN1, and ITGA5) of aggressive molecular subtypes of human PDA. In ODI, infiltration from leukocytes is an early event during progression of the disease as observed for autochthonous models. Neoplastic progression was associated to accumulation of Maf macrophages, which inversely correlated with CD8 T cells infiltration. Consistently, levels of MAF were enriched in human PDA subtypes characterized by abundance of macrophage-related transcripts and indicated poor patients' survival. Density of MAF macrophages was higher in human PDA tissues compared to preinvasive lesions. Our results suggest that ODIs represent a suitable system for genotypic-immunophenotypic studies and support the hypothesis of MAF macrophages as a prominent immunosuppressive population in PDA.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-019-48663-7DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6706454PMC
August 2019

Patterns of gene mutations in bile duct cancers: is it time to overcome the anatomical classification?

HPB (Oxford) 2019 12 20;21(12):1648-1655. Epub 2019 May 20.

General and Hepatobiliary Surgery, Department of Surgery, University of Verona, School of Medicine, Verona, Italy.

Background: Two recent studies based on multi-omics data analysis identified distinct subtypes of bile-duct cancers (BDC) with important implications in terms of disease classification and patients' treatment.

Methods: Patients with mutations in KRAS, NRAS, TP53, and ARID1A genes were classified in KRAS/TP53 group while patients with mutations in IDH1-2, BAP1, and PBRM1 were classified in IDH1-2/BAP1/PBRM1 group. The aim of this study was to define long-term outcomes among patients stratified by patterns of genes mutated.

Results: Among 105 patients who underwent surgical resection for BDCs, 71 (68%) patients were classified in two groups based on patterns of genes mutated. While in IDH1-2/BAP1/PBRM1 group there were 58%, 22%, and 10% of patients with intrahepatic-cholangiocarcinoma (ICC), perihilar-cholangiocarcinoma (PHCC), and gallbladder cancer (GBC), in KRAS/TP53 group there were 42%, 78%, and 90% of patients with ICC, PHCC, and GBC (p = 0.003), respectively. Patients in IDH1-2/BAP1/PBRM1 group had a 5-year OS of 40% compared with 13% for KRAS/TP53 group (p = 0.032). In a multivariable model adjusted for margins, lymph-node status, microvascular invasion, and tumor grade, patients in KRAS/TP53 group had a 2.1-fold increased risk of death compared with patients in IDH1-2/BAP1/PBRM1 group (p = 0.028).

Conclusions: Genetic data were able to overcome the clinical based staging system in predicting patients' prognosis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.hpb.2019.04.002DOI Listing
December 2019

Gene Expression Profiling of Lung Atypical Carcinoids and Large Cell Neuroendocrine Carcinomas Identifies Three Transcriptomic Subtypes with Specific Genomic Alterations.

J Thorac Oncol 2019 09 11;14(9):1651-1661. Epub 2019 May 11.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Fondazione Policlinico Universitario A. Gemelli IRCCS, Rome, Italy; Sacred Hearth Catholic University, Rome, Italy.

Introduction: DNA mutational profiling showed that atypical carcinoids (ACs) share alterations with large cell neuroendocrine carcinomas (LCNECs). Transcriptomic studies suggested that LCNECs are composed of two subtypes, one of which shares molecular anomalies with SCLC. The missing piece of information is the transcriptomic relationship between ACs and LCNECs, as a direct comparison is lacking in the literature.

Methods: Transcriptomic and genomic alterations were investigated by next-generation sequencing in a discovery set of 14 ACs and 14 LCNECs and validated on 21 ACs and 18 LCNECs by using custom gene panels and immunohistochemistry for Men1 and Rb1.

Results: A 58-gene signature distinguished three transcriptional clusters. Cluster 1 comprised 20 LCNECs and one AC harboring concurrent inactivation of tumor protein p53 gene (TP53) and retinoblastoma 1 gene (RB1) in the absence of menin 1 gene (MEN1) mutations; all cases lacked Rb1 nuclear immunostaining. Cluster 3 included 20 ACs and four LCNECs lacking RB1 alterations and having frequent MEN1 (37.5%) and TP53 mutations (16.7%); menin nuclear immunostaining was lost in 75% of cases. Cluster 2 included 14 ACs and eight LCNECs showing intermediate features: TP53, 40.9%; MEN1, 22.7%; and RB1, 18.2%. Patients in cluster C1 had a shorter cancer-specific survival than did patients in C2 or C3.

Conclusions: ACs and LCNECs comprise three different and clinically relevant molecular diseases, one AC-enriched group in which MEN1 inactivation plays a major role, one LCNEC-enriched group whose hallmark is RB1 inactivation, and one mixed group with intermediate molecular features. These data support a progression of malignancy that may be traced by using combined molecular and immunohistochemical analysis.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jtho.2019.05.003DOI Listing
September 2019

Molecular alterations associated with metastases of solid pseudopapillary neoplasms of the pancreas.

J Pathol 2019 01 27;247(1):123-134. Epub 2018 Nov 27.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Solid pseudopapillary neoplasms (SPN) of the pancreas are rare, low-grade malignant neoplasms that metastasise to the liver or peritoneum in 10-15% of cases. They almost invariably present somatic activating mutations of CTNNB1. No comprehensive molecular characterisation of metastatic disease has been conducted to date. We performed whole-exome sequencing and copy-number variation (CNV) analysis of 10 primary SPN and comparative sequencing of five matched primary/metastatic tumour specimens by high-coverage targeted sequencing of 409 genes. In addition to CTNNB1-activating mutations, we found inactivating mutations of epigenetic regulators (KDM6A, TET1, BAP1) associated with metastatic disease. Most of these alterations were shared between primary and metastatic lesions, suggesting that they occurred before dissemination. Differently from mutations, the majority of CNVs were not shared among lesions from the same patients and affected genes involved in metabolic and pro-proliferative pathways. Immunostaining of 27 SPNs showed that loss or reduction of KDM6A and BAP1 expression was significantly enriched in metastatic SPNs. Consistent with an increased transcriptional response to hypoxia in pancreatic adenocarcinomas bearing KDM6A inactivation, we showed that mutation or reduced KDM6A expression in SPNs is associated with increased expression of the HIF1α-regulated protein GLUT1 at both primary and metastatic sites. Our results suggest that BAP1 and KDM6A function is a barrier to the development of metastasis in a subset of SPNs, which might open novel avenues for the treatment of this disease. © 2018 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.5180DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6588017PMC
January 2019

Mutational and copy number asset of primary sporadic neuroendocrine tumors of the small intestine.

Virchows Arch 2018 Dec 16;473(6):709-717. Epub 2018 Sep 16.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Policlinico GB Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, Piastra Odontoiatrica (II floor), Verona, Italy.

Small intestine neuroendocrine tumors (SI-NETs) represent the most common histotype among small intestine neoplasms, and metastatic disease is usually present at diagnosis. A retrospective series of 52 sporadic primary surgically resected SI-NETs, which were metastatic at diagnosis, was analyzed by high-coverage target sequencing (HCTS) for the mutational status of 57 genes and copy number status of 40 genes selected from recently published genome sequencing data. Seven genes were found to be recurrently mutated: CDKN1B (9.6%), APC and CDKN2C (each 7.7%), BRAF, KRAS, PIK3CA, and TP53 (each 3.8%). Copy number analysis showed frequent allelic loss of 4 genes located on chromosome 18 (BCL2, CDH19, DCC, and SMAD4) in 23/52 (44.2%) and losses on chromosomes 11 (38%) and 16 (15%). Other recurrent copy number variations were gains for genes located on chromosomes 4 (31%), 5 (27%), 14 (36%), and 20 (20%). Univariate survival analysis showed that SRC gene copy number gains were associated with a poorer prognosis (p = 0.047). Recurrent copy number variations are important events in SI-NET and SRC may represent a novel prognostic biomarker for this tumor type.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-018-2450-xDOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC6267237PMC
December 2018

ERG alterations and mTOR pathway activation in primary prostate carcinomas developing castration-resistance.

Pathol Res Pract 2018 Oct 29;214(10):1675-1680. Epub 2018 Aug 29.

ARC-NET Research Centre, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Introduction: One of the most common sites of distant metastasization of prostate cancer is bone, but to date reliable biomarkers able to predict the risk and timing of bone metastasization are still lacking.

Patients And Methods: Surgically resected paraffin embedded samples from 12 primary prostate cancers that developed metachronous bone metastasis at different time points were studied (six cases within 2 years, six cases after 5 years from surgery). A targeted next-generation DNA and RNA sequencing able to assess simultaneously mutations, copy number alterations and fusion events of multiple genes was used. Immunohistochemistry was used to assess mTOR pathway activation.

Results: Rearrangements of ETS family genes, molecular alterations in PTEN and TP53 genes were detected in 10, 6 and 5 cancers, respectively. Nine samples showed TMPRSS2-ERG fusions, which were associated with increased ERG expression at immunohistochemistry. mTOR pathway activation was documented in 6 patients, with a clear trend of prevalence in late-metastatic patients (p = 0.08).

Conclusions: A simultaneous next-generation targeted DNA and RNA sequencing is applicable on routine formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissues to assess the multigene molecular asset of individual prostate cancers. This approach, coupled with immunohistochemistry for ERG and mTOR pathway proteins, may help to better characterize prostate cancer molecular features with a potential impact on clinical decisions.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.prp.2018.08.031DOI Listing
October 2018

PD-1, PD-L1, and CD163 in pancreatic undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells: expression patterns and clinical implications.

Hum Pathol 2018 11 18;81:157-165. Epub 2018 Jul 18.

Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Section of Pathology, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy; ARC-Net Research Center, University of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy. Electronic address:

Undifferentiated carcinoma with osteoclast-like giant cells (UCOGC), a variant of pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC), has a striking genetic similarity to PDAC but a significantly improved overall survival. We hypothesize that this difference could be due to the immune response to the tumor, and as such, we investigated the expression of PD-1, PD-L1, and CD163 in a series of UCOGC. To this aim, 27 pancreatic UCOGCs (11 pure and 16 PDAC-associated), 5 extrapancreatic tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells and 10 pancreatic anaplastic carcinomas were immunostained using antibodies against PD-1, PD-L1, and CD163. In pancreatic UCOGCs, PD-L1 was expressed in neoplastic cells of 17 (63%) of 27 cases, more often in cases with an associated PDAC (P = .04). Expression of PD-L1 was associated with poor prognosis, confirmed by multivariate analysis: patients with PD-L1-positive UCOGCs had a risk of all-cause mortality that was 3 times higher than did patients with PD-L1-negative UCOGCs (hazard ratio, 3.397; 95% confidence interval, 1.023-18.375; P = .034). PD-L1 expression on tumor cells was also associated with aberrant P53 expression (P = .035). PD-1 was expressed on rare lymphocytes in 12 UCOGCs (44.4%), mainly located at the tumor periphery. CD163 was expressed on histiocytes, with a diffuse and strong staining pattern in all UCOGCs. Extrapancreatic tumors with osteoclast-like giant cells showed very similar staining patterns for the same proteins. Anaplastic carcinomas have some similarities to UCOGCs, but PD-L1 has no prognostic roles. Our results may have important implications for immunotherapeutic strategies in UCOGCs; these tumors may also represent a model for future therapeutic approaches against PDAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.humpath.2018.07.006DOI Listing
November 2018

Beyond Pancreatic Cyst Epithelium: Evidence of Ovarian-Like Stroma in EUS-Guided Through-the-Needle Micro-Forceps Biopsy Specimens.

Am J Gastroenterol 2018 07 14;113(7):1059-1060. Epub 2018 Jun 14.

Gastroenterology and Digestive Endoscopy Unit, The Pancreas Institute, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University Hospital, Verona, Italy. Department of Diagnostics and Public Health, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University Hospital, Verona, Italy. Unit of General and Pancreatic Surgery, The Pancreas Institute, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University Hospital, Verona, Italy. ARC-Net Research Centre, Policlinico G.B. Rossi, University Hospital, Verona, Italy.

View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41395-018-0124-6DOI Listing
July 2018

Genetic alterations analysis in prognostic stratified groups identified TP53 and ARID1A as poor clinical performance markers in intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma.

Sci Rep 2018 05 8;8(1):7119. Epub 2018 May 8.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

The incidence and mortality rates of intrahepatic cholangiocarcinoma have been rising worldwide. Few patients present an early-stage disease that is amenable to curative surgery and after resection, high recurrence rates persist. To identify new independent marker related to aggressive behaviour, two prognostic groups of patient were selected and divided according to prognostic performance. All patients alive at 36 months were included in good prognostic performers, while all patients died due to disease within 36 months in poor prognostic performers. Using high-coverage target sequencing we analysed principal genetic alterations in two groups and compared results to clinical data. In the 33 cases included in poor prognosis group, TP53 was most mutated gene (p = 0.011) and exclusively present in these cases. Similarly, ARID1A was exclusive of this group (p = 0.024). TP53 and ARID1A are mutually exclusive in this study. Statistical analysis showed mutations in TP53 and ARID1A genes and amplification of MET gene as independent predictors of poor prognosis (TP53, p = 0.0031, ARID1A, p = 0.0007, MET, p = 0.0003 in Cox analysis). LOH in PTEN was also identified as marker of disease recurrence (p = 0.04) in univariate analysis. This work improves our understanding of aggressiveness related to this tumour type and has identified novel prognostic markers of clinical outcome.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/s41598-018-25669-1DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5940669PMC
May 2018

Number of Examined Lymph Nodes and Nodal Status Assessment in Distal Pancreatectomy for Body/Tail Ductal Adenocarcinoma.

Ann Surg 2019 12;270(6):1138-1146

Unit of General and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Oncology, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy.

Objective: First, to assess the impact of the number of examined lymph nodes (ELNs) on staging and survival after distal pancreatectomy (DP) for pancreatic adenocarcinoma (PDAC). Second, to identify the minimum number of ELNs (MNELNs) ensuring an accurate detection of nodal involvement. Third, to reappraise the role of lymph node (LN) parameters, including N-status and lymph node ratio (LNR).

Background: In contrast with pancreatoduodenectomy, information on LN staging and the MNELN required in DP is lacking.

Methods: Patients undergoing DP for PDAC at 2 academic hospitals from 2000 through 2013 were retrospectively analyzed. The eighth edition of the American Joint Committee on Cancer staging system was used. The MNELN was estimated using the binomial probability law. Survival analyses were performed separately for node-negative and node-positive patients using univariable and multivariable models.

Results: The study population consisted of 240 patients. The median number of ELN was 21, significantly lower in node-negative patients as compared with node-positive patients (18.5 vs 24.0; P = 0.001). The proportion of node-positive patients increased with increasing numbers of ELNs, whereas LNR showed an inverse trend. The estimated MNELN was 20. The number of ELN (≥ or <20) was an independent prognostic factor only in node-negative patients [odds ratio (OR) 3.23 for ELN <20), suggesting a stage migration effect. In node-positive patients, N2-class, but not LNR, was a significant predictor of survival at multivariable analysis (OR 1.68).

Conclusion: The number of ELN affects nodal staging in body/tail PDAC. At least 20 LNs are required for correct staging. N-status is superior to LNR in predicting survival of node-positive patients.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000002781DOI Listing
December 2019

Radiofrequency ablation for locally advanced pancreatic cancer: SMAD4 analysis segregates a responsive subgroup of patients.

Langenbecks Arch Surg 2018 Mar 5;403(2):213-220. Epub 2017 Oct 5.

General and Pancreatic Surgery Department, Pancreas Institute, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Policlinico GB Rossi, Piazzale L.A. Scuro, 10, 37134, Verona, Italy.

Purpose: SMAD4 mutational status correlates with pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) failure pattern. We investigated in a subset of locally advanced patients submitted to radiofrequency ablation (RFA) whether the assessment of SMAD4 status is a useful way to select the patients.

Methods: Clinical, radiological, and follow-up details of patients submitted to RFA for locally advanced pancreatic cancer (LAPC), in whom cytohistological material was available at our institution, were retrospectively retrieved. SMAD4 expression was evaluated by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and considered "negative" or "positive." The survival analysis was conducted using Kaplan-Meier and Cox proportional hazards models.

Results: The study population consisted of 30 patients. Thirteen patients (43.3%) received RFA upfront, whereas 17 (56.7%) after induction treatments. SMAD4 was mutant in 18 out of 30 patients (60%). The overall estimated post-RFA disease-specific survival (DSS) was 15 months (95% CI 11.64-18.35). The estimated post-RFA DSS of patients with wild-type and mutant SMAD4 was 22 and 12 months, respectively (log-rank p < 0.05). At the multivariate analysis, SMAD4 was the only independent predictor of survival (p = 0.05). The pattern of failure was not associated with SMAD4 status (p = 0.4).

Conclusions: Within patients undergoing RFA for LAPC, SMAD4 analysis could segregate a subgroup of subjects with improved survival, who likely benefited from tumor ablation.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00423-017-1627-0DOI Listing
March 2018

Comparison of imaging-based and pathological dimensions in pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors.

World J Gastroenterol 2017 May;23(17):3092-3098

Salvatore Paiella, Harmony Impellizzeri, Giovanni Marchegiani, Marco Miotto, Anna Malpaga, Claudio Bassi, Roberto Salvia, Luca Landoni, General and Pancreatic Surgery Department, Pancreas Institute, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, 37134 Verona, Italy.

Aim: To establish the ability of magnetic resonance (MR) and computer tomography (CT) to predict pathologic dimensions of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNET) in a caseload of a tertiary referral center.

Methods: Patients submitted to surgery for PanNET at the Surgical Unit of the Pancreas Institute with at least 1 preoperative imaging examination (MR or CT scan) from January 2005 to December 2015 were included and data retrospectively collected. Exclusion criteria were: multifocal lesions, genetic syndromes, microadenomas or mixed tumors, metastatic disease and neoadjuvant therapy. Bland-Altman (BA) and Mountain-Plot (MP) statistics were used to compare size measured by each modality with the pathology size. Passing-Bablok (PB) regression analysis was used to check the agreement between MR and CT.

Results: Our study population consisted of 292 patients. Seventy-nine (27.1%) were functioning PanNET. The mean biases were 0.17 ± 7.99 mm, 1 ± 8.51 mm and 0.23 ± 9 mm, 1.2 ± 9.8 mm for MR and CT, considering the overall population and the subgroup of non-functioning- PanNET, respectively. Limits of agreement (LOA) included the vast majority of observations, indicating a good agreement between imaging and pathology. The MP further confirmed this finding and showed that the two methods are unbiased with respect to each other. Considering ≤ 2 cm non-functioning-PanNET, no statistical significance was found in the size estimation rate of MR and CT ( = 0.433). PBR analysis did not reveal significant differences between MR, CT and pathology.

Conclusion: MR and CT scan are accurate and interchangeable imaging techniques in predicting pathologic dimensions of PanNET.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.3748/wjg.v23.i17.3092DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5423046PMC
May 2017

Fhit down-regulation is an early event in pancreatic carcinogenesis.

Virchows Arch 2017 Jun 13;470(6):647-653. Epub 2017 Mar 13.

Comprehensive Cancer Center, Department of Cancer Biology and Genetics, The Ohio State University, Columbus, OH, USA.

Aberrant Fhit expression characterizes a large proportion of primary pancreatic ductal adenocarcinomas (PDACs), but fragmentary information is available on Fhit expression during the phenotypic changes of pancreatic ductal epithelium during multistep transformation. We assessed Fhit expression by immunohistochemistry in two different multistep pancreatic carcinogenic processes: pancreatic intraepithelial neoplasia (PanIN) and intraductal papillary mucinous neoplasia (IPMN). We considered 105 surgically treated PDACs/IPMNs and selected 30 samples of non-neoplastic pancreatic parenchyma, 50 PanIN lesions, 30 IPMNs, 15 IPMNs with associated invasive carcinoma, and 60 adenocarcinomas. Normal pancreatic ducts and surrounding acinar cells consistently showed moderate to strong Fhit immunoreactivity. Significant down-regulation of Fhit expression was observed in association with increasing severity of dysplastia/neoplastia in both carcinogenic processes. This was further confirmed by studying multiple lesions obtained from the same surgical specimen. Of 60 PDACs, only 14 showed Fhit expression comparable to normal pancreatic ductal epithelium, while the remainder (77%) showed clearly negative or reduced Fhit expression. This study demonstrates that Fhit down-regulation is an early event in both multistep carcinogenic processes leading to PDAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s00428-017-2105-3DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5568551PMC
June 2017

Whole-genome landscape of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours.

Nature 2017 03 15;543(7643):65-71. Epub 2017 Feb 15.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Herston Road, Brisbane 4006, Australia.

The diagnosis of pancreatic neuroendocrine tumours (PanNETs) is increasing owing to more sensitive detection methods, and this increase is creating challenges for clinical management. We performed whole-genome sequencing of 102 primary PanNETs and defined the genomic events that characterize their pathogenesis. Here we describe the mutational signatures they harbour, including a deficiency in G:C > T:A base excision repair due to inactivation of MUTYH, which encodes a DNA glycosylase. Clinically sporadic PanNETs contain a larger-than-expected proportion of germline mutations, including previously unreported mutations in the DNA repair genes MUTYH, CHEK2 and BRCA2. Together with mutations in MEN1 and VHL, these mutations occur in 17% of patients. Somatic mutations, including point mutations and gene fusions, were commonly found in genes involved in four main pathways: chromatin remodelling, DNA damage repair, activation of mTOR signalling (including previously undescribed EWSR1 gene fusions), and telomere maintenance. In addition, our gene expression analyses identified a subgroup of tumours associated with hypoxia and HIF signalling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1038/nature21063DOI Listing
March 2017

The pattern of hMENA isoforms is regulated by TGF-β1 in pancreatic cancer and may predict patient outcome.

Oncoimmunology 2016;5(12):e1221556. Epub 2016 Aug 12.

Tumour Immunology and Immunotherapy Unit, Regina Elena National Cancer Institute , Rome, Italy.

Pancreatic ductal adenocarcinoma (PDAC) is an aggressive disease in need of prognostic markers to address therapeutic choices. We have previously shown that alternative splicing of the actin regulator, hMENA, generates hMENA, and hMENAΔv6 isoforms with opposite roles in cell invasion. We examined the expression pattern of hMENA isoforms by immunohistochemistry, using anti-pan hMENA and specific anti-hMENA antibodies, in 285 PDACs, 15 PanINs, 10 pancreatitis, and normal pancreas. Pan hMENA immunostaining, absent in normal pancreas and low-grade PanINs, was weak in PanIN-3 and had higher levels in virtually all PDACs with 64% of cases showing strong staining. Conversely, the anti-invasive hMENA isoform only showed strong staining in 26% of PDAC. The absence of hMENA in a subset (34%) of pan-hMENA-positive tumors significantly correlated with poor outcome. The functional effects of hMENA isoforms were analyzed by loss and gain of function experiments in TGF-β1-treated PDAC cell lines. hMENA knock-down in PDAC cell lines affected cell-cell adhesion but not invasion. TGF-β1 cooperated with β-catenin signaling to upregulate hMENA and hMENAΔv6 expression but not hMENA In the absence of hMENA, the hMENA/hMENAΔv6 up-regulation is crucial for SMAD2-mediated TGF-β1 signaling and TGF-β1-induced EMT. Since the hMENA isoform expression pattern correlates with patient outcome, the data suggest that hMENA splicing and related pathways are novel key players in pancreatic tumor microenvironment and may represent promising targets for the development of new prognostic and therapeutic tools in PDAC.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1080/2162402X.2016.1221556DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5213039PMC
August 2016

Over 700 Whipples for Pancreaticobiliary Malignancies: Postoperative Morbidity Is an Additional Negative Prognostic Factor for Distal Bile Duct Cancer.

J Gastrointest Surg 2017 03 23;21(3):527-533. Epub 2016 Nov 23.

Department of General and Pancreatic Surgery - The Pancreas Institute, University of Verona Hospital Trust, Verona, Italy.

Background: Distal cholangiocarcinomas and pancreatic cancers both arise from pancreaticobiliary epithelium. Despite their common origin, there is a possible discrepancy in outcome. We analysed the surgical, pathological and survival outcome of resected distal cholangiocarcinoma compared with pancreatic cancer.

Methods: All cases of resected distal cholangiocarcinoma and pancreatic cancer from 1998 to 2014 were extracted from our database. Outcomes were compared.

Results: There were 54 (7.6%) cases of cholangiocarcinoma and 656 (92.4%) pancreatic cancer. Cholangiocarcinoma showed lower T and N stage, lymphatic and perineural invasion (p < 0.05), worse surgical outcome (p < 0.05) and less access to adjuvant therapy if compared with pancreatic cancer (72.7 vs. 83.1%, p = 0.05). Both showed a similar disease-specific survival (35 vs. 29 months, p = 0.3). Independent predictors of prognosis for pancreatic cancer were resection margin, grading, perineural invasion, T and N status, whereas for cholangiocarcinoma were grading and occurrence of POPF.

Conclusion: Considering a large cohort of resected periampullary cancers, cholangiocarcinoma is extremely rare. An earlier diagnosis is associated with better pathological predictors of outcome but increased postoperative morbidity compared to pancreatic cancer, particularly POPF. Consequent decrease in the access to adjuvant therapy for complicated cholangiocarcinoma might explain why survival is as poor as for pancreatic cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1007/s11605-016-3328-3DOI Listing
March 2017

Lung neuroendocrine tumours: deep sequencing of the four World Health Organization histotypes reveals chromatin-remodelling genes as major players and a prognostic role for TERT, RB1, MEN1 and KMT2D.

J Pathol 2017 03 29;241(4):488-500. Epub 2016 Dec 29.

ARC-Net Research Centre, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Next-generation sequencing (NGS) was applied to 148 lung neuroendocrine tumours (LNETs) comprising the four World Health Organization classification categories: 53 typical carcinoid (TCs), 35 atypical carcinoid (ACs), 27 large-cell neuroendocrine carcinomas, and 33 small-cell lung carcinomas. A discovery screen was conducted on 46 samples by the use of whole-exome sequencing and high-coverage targeted sequencing of 418 genes. Eighty-eight recurrently mutated genes from both the discovery screen and current literature were verified in the 46 cases of the discovery screen, and validated on additional 102 LNETs by targeted NGS; their prevalence was then evaluated on the whole series. Thirteen of these 88 genes were also evaluated for copy number alterations (CNAs). Carcinoids and carcinomas shared most of the altered genes but with different prevalence rates. When mutations and copy number changes were combined, MEN1 alterations were almost exclusive to carcinoids, whereas alterations of TP53 and RB1 cell cycle regulation genes and PI3K/AKT/mTOR pathway genes were significantly enriched in carcinomas. Conversely, mutations in chromatin-remodelling genes, including those encoding histone modifiers and members of SWI-SNF complexes, were found at similar rates in carcinoids (45.5%) and carcinomas (55.0%), suggesting a major role in LNET pathogenesis. One AC and one TC showed a hypermutated profile associated with a POLQ damaging mutation. There were fewer CNAs in carcinoids than in carcinomas; however ACs showed a hybrid pattern, whereby gains of TERT, SDHA, RICTOR, PIK3CA, MYCL and SRC were found at rates similar to those in carcinomas, whereas the MEN1 loss rate mirrored that of TCs. Multivariate survival analysis revealed RB1 mutation (p = 0.0005) and TERT copy gain (p = 0.016) as independent predictors of poorer prognosis. MEN1 mutation was associated with poor prognosis in AC (p = 0.0045), whereas KMT2D mutation correlated with longer survival in SCLC (p = 0.0022). In conclusion, molecular profiling may complement histology for better diagnostic definition and prognostic stratification of LNETs. © 2016 The Authors. The Journal of Pathology published by John Wiley & Sons Ltd on behalf of Pathological Society of Great Britain and Ireland.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1002/path.4853DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC5324596PMC
March 2017

Hypermutation In Pancreatic Cancer.

Gastroenterology 2017 01 15;152(1):68-74.e2. Epub 2016 Nov 15.

QIMR Berghofer Medical Research Institute, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia; Queensland Centre for Medical Genomics, Institute for Molecular Bioscience, University of Queensland, Brisbane, Queensland, Australia.

Pancreatic cancer is molecularly diverse, with few effective therapies. Increased mutation burden and defective DNA repair are associated with response to immune checkpoint inhibitors in several other cancer types. We interrogated 385 pancreatic cancer genomes to define hypermutation and its causes. Mutational signatures inferring defects in DNA repair were enriched in those with the highest mutation burdens. Mismatch repair deficiency was identified in 1% of tumors harboring different mechanisms of somatic inactivation of MLH1 and MSH2. Defining mutation load in individual pancreatic cancers and the optimal assay for patient selection may inform clinical trial design for immunotherapy in pancreatic cancer.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1053/j.gastro.2016.09.060DOI Listing
January 2017

Ampulla of Vater Carcinoma: Sequencing Analysis Identifies TP53 Status as a Novel Independent Prognostic Factor and Potentially Actionable ERBB, PI3K, and WNT Pathways Gene Mutations.

Ann Surg 2018 Jan;267(1):149-156

ARC-NET Research Centre, University of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Objective: To identify molecular prognostic factors and potentially actionable mutations in ampulla of Vater cancer (AVC).

Background: The largely variable outcomes of AVCs make clinical decisions difficult regarding the need of postsurgical therapy, which is based on morphological and immunohistochemical classification that do not adequately consider the varying degrees of heterogeneity present in many AVCs. No approved targeted therapies for AVC exist, but some show promising results requiring better molecular characterization to identify potential responders.

Methods: We assessed 80 AVCs for the prognostic value of mutations of kirsten rat sarcoma (KRAS), neuroblastoma RAS (NRAS), B rapidly accelerated fibrosarcoma (BRAF), TP53, and 4 membrane erythroblastosis oncogene B (ERBB) receptor tyrosine kinases (EGFR-ERBB1, HER2-ERBB2, HER3-ERBB3, HER4-ERBB4) amenable to pharmacological inhibition. Moreover, we evaluated mutations in 16 key components of rat sarcoma (RAS), phosphatidylinositol-4,5-bisphosphate 3-kinase (PI3K), protein 53 (P53), transforming growth factor beta (TGF-β), and wingless/integrated (WNT) pathways, recently associated to AVC by whole-exome sequencing.

Results: TP53 and KRAS were mutated in 41% and 35% of cases, respectively, and emerged as independent prognostic factors together with tumor stage and regardless of the histotype (TP53: P = 0.0006; KRAS: P = 0.0018; stage IIB: P = 0.0117; stage III-IV: P = 0.0020). ERBB, WNT and PI3K pathway genes were mutated in 37.5% of cases.

Conclusions: KRAS and TP53 mutations are negative predictors of survival in AVCs, regardless of histotype. Potentially actionable mutations in ERBB, WNT, and PI3K signaling pathway genes are present in 37.5% of all cases. These might be amenable to target therapy using available drugs like Everolimus in PI3K-mutated cases or compounds under active screening against ERBB and WNT signaling.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.1097/SLA.0000000000001999DOI Listing
January 2018

A rare case of three different tumors in the same pancreatic specimen: a case report and brief review of the literature.

J Gastrointest Oncol 2016 Jun;7(3):E52-7

1 Department of Gastroenterology B, 2 Unit of General and Pancreatic Surgery, Department of Surgery and Pathology, 3 ARC-NET Applied Research on Cancer Center, Department of Pathology and Diagnostics, 4 Department of Radiology, The Pancreas Institute, University and Hospital Trust of Verona, Verona, Italy.

Solid pseudopapillary tumors (SPT) of the pancreas are rare neoplasms mainly affecting young women. Pancreatic serous cystadenomas (SCAs) and pancreatic neuroendocrine tumors (PanNETs) account for about 2% of all pancreatic neoplasms. The combination of these three lesions, to our knowledge, has never been described in literature. Here we report a case of combined SPT, SCA and PanNET affecting a 33-year-old woman.
View Article and Find Full Text PDF

Download full-text PDF

Source
http://dx.doi.org/10.21037/jgo.2016.01.04DOI Listing
http://www.ncbi.nlm.nih.gov/pmc/articles/PMC4880773PMC
June 2016